D. P. Wermeling, Microneedles permit transdermal delivery of a skin-impermeant medication to humans, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol.105, pp.2058-2063, 2008.

P. Van-damme, Safety and efficacy of a novel microneedle device for dose sparing intradermal influenza vaccination in healthy adults, Vaccine, vol.27, issue.3, pp.454-459, 2009.

F. Chabri, Microfabricated silicon microneedles for nonviral cutaneous gene delivery, British Journal of Dermatology, vol.150, issue.5, pp.869-877, 2004.

N. Wilke, Silicon microneedle electrode array with temperature monitoring for electroporation, Sensors and Actuators A: Physical, issue.0, pp.319-325, 2005.

E. V. Mukerjee, Microneedle array for transdermal biological fluid extraction and in situ analysis, Sensors and Actuators A: Physical, vol.114, issue.2-3, pp.267-275, 2004.

P. M. Wang, M. Cornwell, and M. R. Prausnitz, Minimally invasive extraction of dermal interstitial fluid for glucose monitoring using microneedles, Diabetes Technol Ther, vol.7, issue.1, pp.131-172, 2005.

B. R. Soller, Multiparameter Fiber Optic Sensor for the Assessment of Intramyocardial Perfusion, Journal of Cardiac Surgery, vol.19, issue.2, pp.167-174, 2004.

P. J. Stout, J. R. Racchini, and M. E. Hilgers, A novel approach to mitigating the physiological lag between blood and interstitial fluid glucose measurements, Diabetes technology & therapeutics, vol.6, issue.5, pp.635-644, 2004.

J. Wang, Portable electrochemical systems, TrAC Trends in Analytical Chemistry, vol.21, issue.4, pp.226-232, 2002.

P. R. Miller, Multiplexed microneedle-based biosensor array for characterization of metabolic acidosis, Talanta, vol.88, issue.0, pp.739-742, 2012.

J. R. Windmiller, Microneedle array-based carbon paste amperometric sensors and biosensors, Analyst, vol.136, issue.9, pp.1846-1851, 2011.

K. Malzahn, Wearable electrochemical sensors for in situ analysis in marine environments, Analyst, vol.136, issue.14, pp.2912-2917, 2011.

G. Herzog and V. Beni, Stripping voltammetry at micro-interface arrays: A review, Analytica chimica acta, vol.769, pp.10-21, 2013.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01507028

D. Arrigan, Bioanalytical detection based on electrochemistry at interfaces between immiscible liquids, Analytical Letters, vol.41, issue.18, pp.3233-3252, 2008.

R. Zazpe, Ion-transfer voltammetry at silicon membrane-based arrays of micro-liquidliquid interfaces, vol.7, pp.1732-1737, 2007.

M. D. Scanlon, Ion-transfer electrochemistry at arrays of nanointerfaces between immiscible electrolyte solutions confined within silicon nitride nanopore membranes, Anal Chem, vol.82, issue.14, pp.6115-6138, 2010.

V. Beni, M. Ghita, and D. W. Arrigan, Cyclic and pulse voltammetric study of dopamine at the interface between two immiscible electrolyte solutions, Biosensors and Bioelectronics, vol.20, issue.10, pp.2097-2103, 2005.

Y. Yuan and S. Amemiya, Facilitated Protamine Transfer at Polarized Water/1,2Dichloroethane Interfaces Studied by Cyclic Voltammetry and Chronoamperometry at Micropipet Electrodes. Analytical Chemistry, vol.76, pp.6877-6886, 2004.

G. Herzog, Ion-Transfer Voltammetric Behavior of Protein Digests at Liquid|Liquid Interfaces. Analytical Chemistry, vol.82, pp.258-264, 2009.

M. D. Scanlon, G. Herzog, and D. W. Arrigan, Electrochemical Detection of Oligopeptides at Silicon-Fabricated Micro-Liquid|Liquid Interfaces, Analytical Chemistry, vol.80, issue.15, pp.5743-5749, 2008.

G. Herzog, Sensing via Voltammetric Ion-Transfer at an Aqueous-Organogel MicroInterface Array, Sensor Letters, vol.9, issue.2, pp.721-724, 2011.

C. M. Pereira, Amperometric glucose biosensor based on assisted ion transfer through gel-supported microinterfaces, Analytical Chemistry, vol.76, issue.18, pp.5547-5551, 2004.

J. G. Baker, S. J. Hill, and R. J. Summers, Evolution of ?-blockers: from anti-anginal drugs to ligand-directed signalling, Trends in Pharmacological Sciences, vol.32, issue.4, pp.227-234, 2011.

D. J. Coltart and D. G. Shand, Plasma propranolol levels in the quaniitative assessment of beta-adrenergic blockade in man, Br Med J, vol.3, issue.5725, pp.731-735, 1970.

C. J. Collins and D. W. Arrigan, Ion-Transfer Voltammetric Determination of the ?-Blocker Propranolol in a Physiological Matrix at Silicon Membrane-Based Liquid|Liquid Microinterface Arrays, Analytical Chemistry, vol.81, issue.6, pp.2344-2349, 2009.

E. A. De-eulate, L. Serls, and D. W. Arrigan, Detection of haemoglobin using an adsorption approach at a liquid-liquid microinterface array, Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, pp.1-6, 2013.

G. D. Sisk, Assessment of ion transfer amperometry at liquid-liquid interfaces for detection in CE, Electrophoresis, vol.30, pp.3366-3371, 2009.

H. Girault, Charge Transfer across Liquid-Liquid Interfaces, Modern Aspects of Electrochemistry, pp.1-62, 1993.

Z. Samec and T. Kakiuchi, Charge Transfer Kinetics at Water-Organic Solvent Phase Boundaries, Advances in Electrochemical Science and Engineering, pp.297-361, 2008.

I. Benjamin, Molecular structure and dynamics at liquid-liquid interfaces. Annual review of physical chemistry, vol.48, pp.407-451, 1997.

Y. Wang, Kinetic study of rapid transfer of tetraethylammonium at the 1, 2dichloroethane/water interface by nanopipet voltammetry of common ions, Analytical Chemistry, vol.82, issue.1, pp.77-83, 2009.

H. Katano, H. Tatsumi, and M. Senda, Ion-transfer voltammetry at 1, 6-dichlorohexane| water and 1, 4-dichlorobutane| water interfaces, Talanta, vol.63, issue.1, pp.185-193, 2004.

H. J. Lee and H. H. Girault, Amperometric Ion Detector for Ion Chromatography, Analytical Chemistry, vol.70, pp.4280-4285, 1920.

C. O'mahony, J. S. , A. Blake, and J. O'brien, A Microneedle-based Miniature Syringe for Transdermal Drug Delivery, Proc. Micromechanics Europe, 2010.

J. O'brien, M. B. , A. Blake, J. Scully, E. Forvi et al., , 2009.

T. J. Davies and R. G. Compton, The cyclic and linear sweep voltammetry of regular and random arrays of microdisc electrodes: Theory, Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry, vol.585, issue.1, pp.63-82, 2005.

S. Liu, Q. Li, and Y. Shao, Electrochemistry at micro-and nanoscopic liquid/liquid interfaces, Chemical Society Reviews, vol.40, issue.5, pp.2236-2253, 2011.

J. Strutwolf and D. W. Arrigan, Optimisation of the conditions for stripping voltammetric analysis at liquid-liquid interfaces supported at micropore arrays: a computational simulation, Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, vol.398, issue.4, pp.1625-1631, 2010.

J. Strutwolf, M. D. Scanlon, and D. W. Arrigan, Electrochemical ion transfer across liquid/liquid interfaces confined within solid-state micropore arrays-simulations and experiments, Analyst, vol.134, issue.1, pp.148-158, 2009.

S. Fantini, Influence of the presence of a gel in the water phase on the electrochemical transfer of ionic forms of beta-blockers across a large water 1,2-dichloroethane interface, Eur J Pharm Sci, vol.18, issue.3-4, pp.251-258, 2003.

C. G. Zoski, Addressable microelectrode arrays: Characterization by imaging with scanning electrochemical microscopy, Analytical Chemistry, vol.76, issue.1, pp.62-72, 2004.

O. Ordeig, Regular arrays of microdisc electrodes: simulation quantifies the fraction of 'dead'electrodes, Analyst, vol.131, issue.3, pp.440-445, 2006.

A. Álvarez, Reusable phosphorescent probes based on molecularly imprinted polymers for the determination of propranolol in urine, Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, vol.168, issue.0, pp.370-375, 2012.

A. Radi, A. A. Wassel, and M. A. El-ries, Adsorptive behaviour and voltammetric analysis of propranolol at carbon paste electrode, Chemia Analityczna, vol.49, issue.1, pp.51-58, 2004.

M. El-tohamy, M. El-maamly, and A. Shalaby, Propranolol hydrochloride-selective membrane electrode and their application to pharmaceutical preparations and biological fluids, vol.29, p.488, 2006.

M. Ghoneim, A. Beltagi, and A. Radi, Indirect determination of propranolol by cathodic adsorptive stripping voltammetry. Quimica Analitica, vol.20, pp.237-241, 2002.

E. R. Sartori, Square-wave voltammetric determination of propranolol and atenolol in pharmaceuticals using a boron-doped diamond electrode, Talanta, vol.81, pp.1418-1424, 2010.

M. M. Ghoneim, A. M. Beltagi, and A. Radi, Indirect determination of propranolol by cathodic adsorptive stripping voltammetry. Quimica Analitica, vol.20, pp.237-241, 2002.

X. Li, D. Zhu, and T. You, Simultaneous analysis of six cardiovascular drugs by capillary electrophoresis coupled with electrochemical and electrochemiluminescence detection, using a chemometrical optimization approach, Electrophoresis, vol.32, issue.16, pp.2139-2147, 2011.

C. J. Collins, Serum-protein effects on the detection of the ?-blocker propranolol by iontransfer voltammetry at a micro-ITIES array, Talanta, vol.80, issue.5, pp.1993-1998, 2010.

, Tyndall National Institute since 2011, where she is working as part of the Life Science Interface group in biomedical applications that require development of micro-electro mechanical systems (MEMS) and microfluidics. Dr. Vazquez graduated in Electronics from the University of Valencia (Spain) in 1999, and completed her PhD

, he joined the Tyndall National Institute where he worked on the development of miniaturised electroanalytical tools based on ion transfer voltammetry at liquidliquid interfaces, 2004.

, France) where he is working on the electrochemistry of liquid-liquid interfaces modified by silica thin films