K. Kuettner, Biochemistry of articular cartilage in health and disease, Clinical Biochemistry, vol.25, issue.3, pp.155-63, 1992.
DOI : 10.1016/0009-9120(92)90224-G

K. Von-der-mark, T. Kirsch, T. Aigner, E. Reichenberger, A. Nerlich et al., The fate of chondrocytes in osteoarthritic cartilage: regeneration, dedifferentiation, or hypertrophy?, Articular cartilage and osteoarthritis, pp.221-255, 1992.

D. Dean, J. Martel-pelletier, J. Pelletier, D. Howell, J. Woessner et al., Evidence for metalloproteinase and metalloproteinase inhibitor imbalance in human osteoarthritic cartilage., Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol.84, issue.2, pp.678-85, 1989.
DOI : 10.1172/JCI114215

A. Poole, Cartilage in health and disease Arthritis and allied conditions: a textbook of rheumatology, pp.255-308, 1997.

C. Campbell, The healing of cartilage defects, Clin Orthop, vol.64, pp.45-63, 1969.

H. Kim, M. Moran, and R. Salter, The potential for regeneration of articular cartilage in defects created by chondral shaving and subchondral abrasion. An experimental investigation in rabbits., The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery, vol.73, issue.9, pp.1301-1316, 1991.
DOI : 10.2106/00004623-199173090-00004

M. Brittberg, A. Lindahl, A. Nilsson, C. Ohlsson, O. Isaksson et al., Treatment of Deep Cartilage Defects in the Knee with Autologous Chondrocyte Transplantation, New England Journal of Medicine, vol.331, issue.14, pp.889-95, 1994.
DOI : 10.1056/NEJM199410063311401

P. Cuevas, J. Burgos, and A. Baird, Basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF) promotes cartilage repair in vivo, Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol.156, issue.2, pp.611-619, 1988.
DOI : 10.1016/S0006-291X(88)80887-8

E. Hunziker and R. Schenk, A differential treatment protocol for inducing cartilage and bone repair in full-thickness articular cartilage defects [abstract], Trans Orthop Res Soc, vol.20, p.170, 1995.

H. Van-beuningen, P. Van-der-kraan, O. Arntz, . Van-den, and W. Berg, Transforming growth factor-beta 1 stimulates articular chondrocyte proteoglycan synthesis and induces osteophyte formation in the murine knee joint, Lab Invest, vol.71, pp.279-90, 1994.

K. Phadke, Fibroblast growth factor enhances the interleukin-1-mediated chondrocytic protease release, Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol.142, issue.2, pp.448-53, 1987.
DOI : 10.1016/0006-291X(87)90295-6

R. Grumbles, D. Howell, L. Wenger, R. Altman, G. Howard et al., Hepatocyte growth factor and its actions in growth plate chondrocytes, Bone, vol.19, issue.3, pp.255-61, 1996.
DOI : 10.1016/8756-3282(96)00180-9

T. Takebayashi, M. Iwamoto, A. Jikko, T. Matsumura, M. Enomoto-iwamoto et al., Hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor modulates cell motility, proliferation, and proteoglycan synthesis of chondrocytes, The Journal of Cell Biology, vol.129, issue.5, pp.1411-1420, 1995.
DOI : 10.1083/jcb.129.5.1411

S. Wakitani, K. Imoto, T. Kimura, T. Ochi, K. Matsumoto et al., Hepatocyte growth factor facilitates cartilage repair: Full thickness articular cartilage defect studied in rabbit knees, Acta Orthopaedica Scandinavica, vol.76, issue.5, pp.474-80, 1997.
DOI : 10.1083/jcb.129.5.1411

T. Nakamura, K. Nawa, A. Ichihara, N. Kaise, and T. Nishino, Purification and subunit structure of hepatocyte growth factor from rat platelets, FEBS Letters, vol.13, issue.54, pp.311-317, 1987.
DOI : 10.1002/jcp.1041250111

R. Zarnegar and G. Michalopoulos, Purification and biological characterization of human hepatopoietin A, a polypeptide growth factor for hepatocytes, Cancer Res, vol.49, pp.3314-3334, 1989.

J. Rubin, A. Chan, D. Bottaro, W. Burgess, W. Taylor et al., A broad-spectrum human lung fibroblast-derived mitogen is a variant of hepatocyte growth factor., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol.88, issue.2, pp.415-424, 1991.
DOI : 10.1073/pnas.88.2.415

D. Bottaro, J. Rubin, D. Faletto, A. Chan, T. Kmiecik et al., Identification of the hepatocyte growth factor receptor as the c-met proto-oncogene product, Science, vol.251, issue.4995, pp.802-806, 1991.
DOI : 10.1126/science.1846706

K. Matsumoto, K. Hashimoto, K. Yoshikawa, and T. Nakamura, Marked stimulation of growth and motility of human keratinocytes by hepatocyte growth factor*1, Experimental Cell Research, vol.196, issue.1, pp.114-134, 1991.
DOI : 10.1016/0014-4827(91)90462-4

A. Nusrat, C. Parkos, A. Bacarra, P. Godowski, C. Delp-archer et al., Hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor effects on epithelia. Regulation of intercellular junctions in transformed and nontransformed cell lines, basolateral polarization of c-met receptor in transformed and natural intestinal epithelia, and induction of rapid wound repair in a transformed model epithelium., Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol.93, issue.5, pp.2056-65, 1994.
DOI : 10.1172/JCI117200

G. Shiota, T. Wang, T. Nakamura, and E. Schmidt, Hepatocyte growth factor in transgenic mice: Effects on hepatocyte growth, liver regeneration and gene expression, Hepatology, vol.61, issue.4, pp.962-72, 1994.
DOI : 10.1128/MCB.6.9.3173

T. Inoue, K. Nabeshima, Y. Shimao, and M. Koono, Hepatocyte Growth Factor/Scatter Factor (HGF/SF) Is a Regulator of Fibronectin Splicing in MDCK Cells: Comparison between the Effects of HGF/SF and TGF-??1 on Fibronectin Splicing at the EDA Region, Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol.260, issue.1, pp.225-256, 1999.
DOI : 10.1006/bbrc.1999.0881

L. Naldini, E. Vigna, R. Narsimhan, G. Gaudino, R. Zarnegar et al., Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) stimulates the tyrosine kinase activity of the receptor encoded by the proto-oncogene c-MET, Oncogene, vol.6, pp.501-505, 1991.

H. Wolf, R. Zarnegar, and G. Michalopoulos, Localization of hepatocyte growth factor in human and rat tissues: An immunohistochemical study, Hepatology, vol.152, issue.3, pp.488-94, 1991.
DOI : 10.1002/hep.1840140314

D. Pfander, T. Cramer, G. Weseloh, O. Pullig, D. Schuppan et al., Hepatocyte growth factor in human osteoarthritic cartilage, Osteoarthritis and Cartilage, vol.7, issue.6, pp.548-59, 1999.
DOI : 10.1053/joca.1999.0259

URL : https://doi.org/10.1053/joca.1999.0259

F. Moldovan, J. Pelletier, J. Hambor, J. Cloutier, and J. Martel-pelletier, Collagenase-3 (matrix metalloprotease 13) is preferentially localized in the deep layer of human arthritic cartilage in situ. In vitro mimicking effect by transforming growth factor ??, Arthritis & Rheumatism, vol.8, issue.9, pp.1653-61, 1997.
DOI : 10.1016/S0934-8832(11)80068-5

J. Fernandes, J. Martel-pelletier, V. Lascau-coman, F. Moldovan, D. Jovanovic et al., Collagenase-1 and collagenase-3 synthesis in early experimental osteoarthritic canine cartilage: an immunohistochemical study, J Rheumatol, vol.8, pp.1585-94, 1998.

M. Aydelotte and K. Kuettner, Differences between sub-populations of cultured bovine articular chondrocytes. I. Morphology and cartilage matrix production, Connective Tissue Research, vol.0, issue.3, pp.205-227, 1988.
DOI : 10.1002/jor.1100030302

R. Altman, E. Asch, D. Bloch, G. Bole, D. Borenstein et al., Development of criteria for the classification and reporting of osteoarthritis: Classification of osteoarthritis of the knee, Arthritis & Rheumatism, vol.1, issue.8, pp.1039-1088, 1986.
DOI : 10.1002/art.1780290816

G. Tardif, J. Pelletier, M. Dupuis, C. Geng, J. Cloutier et al., Collagenase 3 production by human osteoarthritic chondrocytes in response to growth factors and cytokines is a function of the physiologic state of the cells, Arthritis & Rheumatism, vol.266, issue.6, pp.1147-58, 1999.
DOI : 10.1172/JCI119786

H. Towbin, T. Staehelin, and J. Gordon, Electrophoretic transfer of proteins from polyacrylamide gels to nitrocellulose sheets: procedure and some applications., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol.76, issue.9, pp.4350-4354, 1979.
DOI : 10.1073/pnas.76.9.4350

P. Reboul, J. Pelletier, G. Tardif, J. Cloutier, and J. Martel-pelletier, The new collagenase, collagenase-3, is expressed and synthesized by human chondrocytes but not by synoviocytes. A role in osteoarthritis., Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol.97, issue.9, pp.2011-2020, 1996.
DOI : 10.1172/JCI118636

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01705146

J. Martel-pelletier, F. Mineau, D. Jovanovic, D. Battista, J. Pelletier et al., Mitogen-activated protein kinase and nuclear factor ?B together regulate interleukin-17-induced nitric oxide production in human osteoarthritic chondrocytes: Possible role of transactivating factor mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase (MAPKAPK), Arthritis & Rheumatism, vol.8, issue.11, pp.2399-409, 1999.
DOI : 10.1016/S0952-7915(96)80131-2

G. Tardif, J. Pelletier, M. Dupuis, J. Hambor, and J. Martel-pelletier, Cloning, sequencing and characterization of the 5???-flanking region of the human collagenase-3 gene, Biochemical Journal, vol.323, issue.1, pp.13-19, 1997.
DOI : 10.1042/bj3230013

F. Graham and A. Van-der-eb, A new technique for the assay of infectivity of human adenovirus 5 DNA, Virology, vol.52, issue.2, pp.456-67, 1973.
DOI : 10.1016/0042-6822(73)90341-3

J. Sambrook, E. Fritsch, and T. Maniatis, Molecular cloning: a laboratory manual, 1989.

R. Day, V. Cioce, D. Breckenridge, P. Castagnino, and D. Bottaro, Differential signaling by alternative HGF isoforms through c-Met: activation of both MAP kinase and PI 3-kinase pathways is insufficient for mitogenesis, Oncogene, vol.18, issue.22, pp.3399-406, 1999.
DOI : 10.1074/jbc.270.28.16871

C. Miller, M. Zhang, Y. He, J. Zhao, J. Pelletier et al., Transcriptional induction of cyclooxygenase-2 gene by okadaic acid inhibition of phosphatase activity in human chondrocytes: Co-stimulation of AP-1 and CRE nuclear binding proteins, Journal of Cellular Biochemistry, vol.270, issue.4, pp.392-413, 1998.
DOI : 10.1074/jbc.270.28.16483

K. Matsumoto and T. Nakamura, Hepatocyte Growth Factor, Crit Rev Oncog, vol.3, pp.27-54, 1992.
DOI : 10.1016/B0-12-475570-4/00608-9

J. Brown, M. Dichiara, K. Anderson, M. Gimbrone, . Jr et al., MEKK-1, a Component of the Stress (Stress-activated Protein Kinase/c-Jun N-terminal Kinase) Pathway, Can Selectively Activate Smad2-mediated Transcriptional Activation in Endothelial Cells, Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol.57, issue.13, pp.8797-805, 1999.
DOI : 10.1172/JCI118054

M. Zeigler, Y. Chi, T. Schmidt, and J. Varani, Role of ERK and JNK pathways in regulating cell motility and matrix metalloproteinase 9 production in growth factor-stimulated human epidermal keratinocytes, Journal of Cellular Physiology, vol.16, issue.2, pp.271-84, 1999.
DOI : 10.1042/bj2880351

M. Makela, H. Larjava, E. Pirila, P. Maisi, T. Salo et al., Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 (Gelatinase A) Is Related to Migration of Keratinocytes, Experimental Cell Research, vol.251, issue.1, pp.67-78, 1999.
DOI : 10.1006/excr.1999.4564

B. Pilcher, J. Dumin, B. Sudbeck, S. Krane, H. Welgus et al., The Activity of Collagenase-1 Is Required for Keratinocyte Migration on a Type I Collagen Matrix, The Journal of Cell Biology, vol.268, issue.6, pp.1445-57, 1997.
DOI : 10.1006/excr.1996.0280

M. Jimenez, M. Balbin, J. Lopez, J. Alvarez, T. Komori et al., Gene Family Involved in Bone Formation, Molecular and Cellular Biology, vol.19, issue.6, pp.4431-4473, 1999.
DOI : 10.1128/MCB.19.6.4431

C. Ponzetto, A. Bardelli, Z. Zhen, F. Maina, P. Dalla-zonca et al., A multifunctional docking site mediates signaling and transformation by the hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor receptor family, Cell, vol.77, issue.2, pp.261-71, 1994.
DOI : 10.1016/0092-8674(94)90318-2

K. Weidner, D. Cesare, S. Sachs, M. Brinkmann, V. Behrens et al., Interaction between Gab1 and the c-Met receptor tyrosine kinase is responsible for epithelial morphogenesis, Nature, vol.384, issue.6605, pp.173-179, 1996.
DOI : 10.1038/384173a0

T. Fournier, D. Kamikura, K. Teng, and M. Park, Branching Tubulogenesis but Not Scatter of Madin-Darby Canine Kidney Cells Requires a Functional Grb2 Binding Site in the Met Receptor Tyrosine Kinase, Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol.4, issue.36, pp.22211-22218, 1996.
DOI : 10.1016/0092-8674(93)90296-3

L. Nguyen, M. Holgado-madruga, C. Maroun, E. Fixman, D. Kamikura et al., Association of the Multisubstrate Docking Protein Gab1 with the Hepatocyte Growth Factor Receptor Requires a Functional Grb2 Binding Site Involving Tyrosine 1356, Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol.268, issue.33, pp.20811-20820, 1997.
DOI : 10.1016/0003-2697(76)90527-3

H. Schramek, M. Schumacher, and W. Pfaller, Sustained ERK-2 activation in rat glomerular mesangial cells: differential regulation by protein phosphatases, American Journal of Physiology-Renal Physiology, vol.271, issue.2, pp.423-455, 1996.
DOI : 10.1152/ajprenal.1996.271.2.F423

S. Traverse, N. Gomez, H. Paterson, C. Marshall, and P. Cohen, Sustained activation of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase cascade may be required for differentiation of PC12 cells. Comparison of the effects of nerve growth factor and epidermal growth factor, Biochemical Journal, vol.288, issue.2, pp.351-356, 1992.
DOI : 10.1042/bj2880351

N. Johansson, R. Uitto, V. Grenman, R. Fusenig, N. Lopez-otin et al., Expression of collagenase-3 (MMP-13) and collagenase-1 (MMP-1) by transformed keratinocytes is dependent on the activity of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, J Cell Sci, vol.113, pp.227-262, 2000.

M. Rahmani, F. Nadori, D. -. Schneider, A. Lardeux, B. Bernuau et al., Hepatocyte growth factor activates the AP-1 complex: a comparison between normal and transformed rat hepatocytes, Journal of Hepatology, vol.30, issue.5, pp.916-941, 1999.
DOI : 10.1016/S0168-8278(99)80148-2

N. Arakaki, T. Kajihara, R. Arakaki, T. Ohnishi, J. Kazi et al., Involvement of Oxidative Stress in Tumor Cytotoxic Activity of Hepatocyte Growth Factor/Scatter Factor, Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol.269, issue.19, pp.13541-13547, 1999.
DOI : 10.1038/386288a0

R. Dean, S. Gieseg, and M. Davies, Reactive species and their accumulation on radical-damaged proteins, Trends in Biochemical Sciences, vol.18, issue.11, pp.437-478, 1993.
DOI : 10.1016/0968-0004(93)90145-D

T. Buttke and P. Sandstrom, Oxidative stress as a mediator of apoptosis, Immunology Today, vol.15, issue.1, pp.7-10, 1994.
DOI : 10.1016/0167-5699(94)90018-3

A. Clerk and P. Sugden, The p38-MAPK inhibitor, SB203580, inhibits cardiac stress-activated protein kinases/c-Jun N-terminal kinases (SAPKs/JNKs), FEBS Letters, vol.17, issue.1, pp.93-99, 1998.
DOI : 10.1128/MCB.17.5.2360

R. Singh, P. Dhawan, C. Golden, G. Kapoor, and K. Mehta, One-way cross-talk between p38(MAPK) and p42/44(MAPK): inhibition of p38(MAPK) induces low density lipoprotein receptor expression through activation of the p42) cascade, J Biol Chem, vol.44274, pp.19593-600, 1999.

N. Chen, W. Ma, C. Huang, and Z. Dong, Translocation of Protein Kinase C?? and Protein Kinase C?? to Membrane Is Required for Ultraviolet B-induced Activation of Mitogen-activated Protein Kinases and Apoptosis, Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol.273, issue.22, pp.15389-94, 1999.
DOI : 10.1074/jbc.273.17.10792

Y. Jiang, H. Gram, M. Zhao, L. New, J. Gu et al., Characterization of the Structure and Function of the Fourth Member of p38 Group Mitogen-activated Protein Kinases, p38??, Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol.15, issue.48, pp.30122-30130, 1997.
DOI : 10.1038/378739a0

Z. Li, Y. Jiang, R. Ulevitch, and J. Han, The Primary Structure of p38??: A New Member of p38 Group of MAP Kinases, Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol.228, issue.2, pp.334-374, 1996.
DOI : 10.1006/bbrc.1996.1662