T. Osler, L. Glance, and D. Hosmer, Simplified Estimates of the Probability of Death After Burn Injuries: Extending and Updating the Baux Score, The Journal of Trauma: Injury, Infection, and Critical Care, vol.68, issue.3, pp.690-697, 2010.
DOI : 10.1097/TA.0b013e3181c453b3

L. Wibbenmeyer, M. Amelon, and L. Morgan, Predicting survival in an elderly burn patient population, Burns, vol.27, issue.6, pp.583-590, 2001.
DOI : 10.1016/S0305-4179(01)00009-2

D. Lumenta, A. Hautier, and C. Desouches, Mortality and morbidity among elderly people with burns???Evaluation of data on admission, Burns, vol.34, issue.7, pp.965-974, 2008.
DOI : 10.1016/j.burns.2007.12.004

J. Tobiasen, J. Hiebert, and R. Edlich, The abbreviated burn severity index, Annals of Emergency Medicine, vol.11, issue.5, pp.260-262, 1982.
DOI : 10.1016/S0196-0644(82)80096-6

N. Forster, M. Zingg, S. Haile, W. Kunzi, P. Giovanoli et al., years later--does the ABSI need revision? Burns, pp.958-963, 2011.

D. Greenhalgh, J. Saffle, and H. Jht, American Burn Association Consensus Conference to Define Sepsis and Infection in Burns, Journal of Burn Care & Research, vol.38, issue.6, pp.776-790, 2007.
DOI : 10.1093/clinids/5.1.35

C. Ryan, D. Schoenfeld, W. Thorpe, R. Sheridan, E. Cassem et al., Objective estimates of the probability of death from burn injuries, N Engl J Med. Feb, vol.5338, issue.6, pp.362-366, 1998.

G. Mcgwin, J. George, R. Cross, J. Rue, and L. , Improving the ability to predict mortality among burn patients. Burns, pp.320-327, 2008.

G. Arturson, Pathophysiology of the burn wound and pharmacological treatment. The Rudi Hermans Lecture, 1995, Burns, vol.22, issue.4, pp.255-274, 1995.
DOI : 10.1016/0305-4179(95)00153-0

M. Jeschke, R. Mlcak, and C. Finnerty, Burn size determines the inflammatory and hypermetabolic response Pathophysiology, management and treatment of smoke inhalation injury Effect of inhalation injury, burn size, and age on mortality: a study of 1447 consecutive burn patients, R90. 13. Rehberg S, pp.283-297655, 1994.

P. Thompson, D. Herndon, D. Traber, and S. Abston, Effect on Mortality of Inhalation Injury, The Journal of Trauma: Injury, Infection, and Critical Care, vol.26, issue.2, pp.163-165, 1986.
DOI : 10.1097/00005373-198602000-00012

E. Tredget, H. Shankowsky, T. Taerum, G. Moysa, A. J. Hawkins et al., The role of inhalation injury in burn trauma. A Canadian experience The impact of combined trauma and burns on patient mortality, Ann Surg. Dec J Trauma. Feb, vol.21258, issue.172, pp.720-727284, 1990.

J. Park, S. Shin, J. Kim, K. Song, and M. Peck, Association between socioeconomic status and burn injury severity, Burns, vol.35, issue.4, pp.482-490, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/j.burns.2008.10.007

A. Moritz and F. Henriques, Studies of Thermal Injury: II. The Relative Importance of Time and Surface Temperature in the Causation of Cutaneous Burns, Am J Pathol. Sep, vol.23, issue.5, pp.695-720, 1947.

C. Echinard, J. Latarjet, and . Les, Masson; 2010. 21. Bos JD, Kapsenberg ML. The skin immune system: progress in cutaneous biology, Immunol Today. Feb, vol.14, issue.2, pp.75-78, 1993.

C. Berger, J. Vasquez, J. Shofner, K. Mariwalla, R. Edelson et al., Langerhans cells: mediators of immunity and tolerance The skin as an immune organ, Int J Biochem Cell Biol. West J Med. Feb, vol.38160, issue.232, pp.1632-1636146, 1994.

J. Banchereau, R. Steinman, R. Van-furth, P. Nibbering, and J. Van-dissel, Dendritic cells and the control of immunity Diesselhoff-den Dulk MM. The characterization, origin, and kinetics of skin macrophages during inflammation, Nature. Mar J Invest Dermatol. Nov, vol.1939285, issue.255, pp.245-252398, 1985.

Z. Ravage, H. Gomez, B. Czermak, S. Watkins, and G. Till, Mediators of microvascular injury in dermal burn wounds, Inflammation, vol.22, issue.6, pp.619-629, 1998.
DOI : 10.1023/A:1022366514847

M. Allgower, G. Schoenenberger, and B. Sparkes, Pernicious effectors in burns, Burns, vol.34, issue.1, pp.1-55, 2008.
DOI : 10.1016/j.burns.2008.05.012

M. Heideman, The role of complement in trauma, Acta Chir Scand Suppl, vol.522, pp.233-244, 1985.

G. Schlag and H. Redl, Mediators of Injury and Inflammation, World Journal of Surgery, vol.20, issue.4, pp.406-410, 1996.
DOI : 10.1007/s002689900064

H. Tanaka, T. Wada, S. Simazaki, M. Hanumadass, H. Reyes et al., Effects of Cimetidine on Fluid Requirement During Resuscitation of Third-Degree Burns, Journal of Burn Care & Rehabilitation, vol.12, issue.5, pp.425-429, 1991.
DOI : 10.1097/00004630-199109000-00006

J. Boykin, J. Crute, S. Haynes, B. , and J. , Cimetidine Therapy for Burn Shock, The Journal of Trauma: Injury, Infection, and Critical Care, vol.25, issue.9, pp.864-870, 1985.
DOI : 10.1097/00005373-198509000-00009

R. Mullins, M. Malias, and R. Hudgens, Isoproterenol Inhibits the Increase in Microvascular Membrane Permeability Produced by Bradykinin, The Journal of Trauma: Injury, Infection, and Critical Care, vol.29, issue.8, pp.1053-1063, 1989.
DOI : 10.1097/00005373-198908000-00002

G. Arturson, Microvascular permeability to macromolecules in thermal injury, Acta Physiol Scand Suppl, vol.463, pp.111-122, 1979.

T. Lund, H. Onarheim, and R. Reed, Pathogenesis of edema formation in burn injuries, World Journal of Surgery, vol.28, issue.Suppl.
DOI : 10.1001/archsurg.1988.01400360079013

D. Faunce, J. Llanas, P. Patel, M. Gregory, L. Duffner et al., Neutrophil chemokine production in the skin following scald injury, Burns, vol.25, issue.5, pp.403-410, 1999.
DOI : 10.1016/S0305-4179(99)00014-5

H. Carsin, L. Bargues, J. Stephanazzi, A. Paris, P. Aubert et al., R??action inflammatoire et infection chez le br??l?? grave, Pathologie Biologie, vol.50, issue.2, pp.93-101, 2002.
DOI : 10.1016/S0369-8114(01)00272-3

R. Dellinger, M. Levy, and A. Rhodes, Surviving Sepsis Campaign: International Guidelines for Management of Severe Sepsis and Septic Shock, 2012, Intensive Care Medicine, vol.22, issue.Suppl, pp.580-637, 2013.
DOI : 10.1177/0148607198022004212

A. Lenz, G. Franklin, and W. Cheadle, Systemic inflammation after trauma. Injury, pp.1336-1345, 2007.
DOI : 10.1016/j.injury.2007.10.003

M. Bianchi and . Damps, DAMPs, PAMPs and alarmins: all we need to know about danger, Journal of Leukocyte Biology, vol.4, issue.1, pp.1-5, 2007.
DOI : 10.1038/nri1372

URL : http://www.jleukbio.org/content/81/1/1.full.pdf

I. Dumitriu, P. Baruah, A. Manfredi, M. Bianchi, and P. Rovere-querini, HMGB1: guiding immunity from within. Trends Immunol, pp.381-387, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/j.it.2005.04.009

D. Yang, Q. Chen, H. Yang, K. Tracey, M. Bustin et al., High mobility group box-1 protein induces the migration and activation of human dendritic cells and acts as an alarmin, Journal of Leukocyte Biology, vol.290, issue.1, pp.59-66, 2007.
DOI : 10.1152/ajpcell.00401.2005

I. Dumitriu, M. Bianchi, M. Bacci, A. Manfredi, and P. Rovere-querini, The secretion of HMGB1 is required for the migration of maturing dendritic cells, Journal of Leukocyte Biology, vol.50, issue.1, pp.84-91, 2007.
DOI : 10.1002/art.20604

B. Degryse, T. Bonaldi, and P. Scaffidi, The High Mobility Group (Hmg) Boxes of the Nuclear Protein Hmg1 Induce Chemotaxis and Cytoskeleton Reorganization in Rat Smooth Muscle Cells, The Journal of Cell Biology, vol.12, issue.6, pp.1197-1206, 2001.
DOI : 10.1016/S0039-6060(99)70182-0

S. Mitola, M. Belleri, and C. Urbinati, Cutting Edge: Extracellular High Mobility Group Box-1 Protein Is a Proangiogenic Cytokine, The Journal of Immunology, vol.176, issue.1, pp.12-15, 2006.
DOI : 10.4049/jimmunol.176.1.12

H. Xu, Z. Su, and J. Wu, The Alarmin Cytokine, High Mobility Group Box 1, Is Produced by Viable Cardiomyocytes and Mediates the Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Myocardial Dysfunction via a TLR4/Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase ?? Pathway, The Journal of Immunology, vol.184, issue.3, pp.1492-1498, 2010.
DOI : 10.4049/jimmunol.0902660

A. Germani, F. Limana, and M. Capogrossi, Pivotal Advances: High-mobility group box 1 protein-a cytokine with a role in cardiac repair, Journal of Leukocyte Biology, vol.65, issue.1, pp.41-45, 2007.
DOI : 10.1016/j.cardiores.2004.10.030

I. Dumitriu, P. Baruah, M. Bianchi, A. Manfredi, and P. Rovere-querini, Requirement of HMGB1 and RAGE for the maturation of human plasmacytoid dendritic cells, European Journal of Immunology, vol.40, issue.7, pp.2184-2190, 2005.
DOI : 10.4049/jimmunol.170.7.3890

D. Foell, H. Wittkowski, T. Vogl, and R. J. , S100 proteins expressed in phagocytes: a novel group of damage-associated molecular pattern molecules, Journal of Leukocyte Biology, vol.50, issue.1, pp.28-37, 2007.
DOI : 10.1002/art.20125

Q. Zhang, M. Raoof, and Y. Chen, Circulating mitochondrial DAMPs cause inflammatory responses to injury, Nature, vol.24, issue.7285, pp.104-107, 2010.
DOI : 10.4049/jimmunol.171.4.2066

A. Gosain and R. Gamelli, A Primer in Cytokines, Journal of Burn Care & Rehabilitation, vol.26, issue.1, pp.7-12, 2005.
DOI : 10.1097/01.BCR.0000150214.72984.44

U. Amara, D. Rittirsch, and M. Flierl, Interaction Between the Coagulation and Complement System
DOI : 10.1007/978-0-387-78952-1_6

P. Krishnan, Q. Frew, A. Green, R. Martin, and P. Dziewulski, Cause of death and correlation with autopsy findings in burns patients, Burns, vol.39, issue.4, pp.583-588, 2013.
DOI : 10.1016/j.burns.2012.09.017

R. Bone, . Sir-isaac-newton, . Sepsis, and C. Sirs, Sir Isaac Newton, sepsis, SIRS, and CARS, Critical Care Medicine, vol.24, issue.7, pp.1125-1128, 1996.
DOI : 10.1097/00003246-199607000-00010

J. Cavaillon, C. Adrie, C. Fitting, and M. Adib-conquy, Reprogramming of circulatory cells in sepsis and SIRS, Journal of Endotoxin Research, vol.129, issue.5, pp.311-320, 2005.
DOI : 10.1001/archsurg.1994.01420340045008

M. Osuchowski, K. Welch, J. Siddiqui, and D. Remick, Circulating Cytokine/Inhibitor Profiles Reshape the Understanding of the SIRS/CARS Continuum in Sepsis and Predict Mortality, The Journal of Immunology, vol.177, issue.3, pp.1967-1974, 2006.
DOI : 10.4049/jimmunol.177.3.1967

W. Xiao, M. Mindrinos, and J. Seok, A genomic storm in critically injured humans, The Journal of Experimental Medicine, vol.61, issue.13, pp.2581-2590, 2011.
DOI : 10.1038/nature08780

L. Gentile, A. Cuenca, and P. Efron, Persistent inflammation and immunosuppression, Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery, vol.72, issue.6, pp.1491-1501, 2012.
DOI : 10.1097/TA.0b013e318256e000

URL : http://europepmc.org/articles/pmc3705923?pdf=render

C. Nathan and A. Ding, Nonresolving inflammation. Cell, pp.871-882, 2010.
DOI : 10.1016/j.cell.2010.02.029

URL : https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2010.02.029

A. Munster, POST-TRAUMATIC IMMUNOSUPPRESSION IS DUE TO ACTIVATION OF SUPPRESSOR T CELLS, The Lancet, vol.307, issue.7973, pp.1329-1330, 1976.
DOI : 10.1016/S0140-6736(76)92658-1

J. Teodorczyk-injeyan, B. Sparkes, G. Mills, W. Peters, and R. Falk, Impairment of T cell activation in burn patients: a possible mechanism of thermal injury-induced immunosuppression, Clin Exp Immunol. Sep, vol.65, issue.3, pp.570-581, 1986.

J. Wood, M. Rodrick, O. Mahony, and J. , Inadequate interleukin 2 production. A fundamental immunological deficiency in patients with major burns Ann Surg Molecular mechanisms of decreased interleukin-2 production after thermal injury, Surgery. Aug, vol.200114, issue.622, pp.311-320407, 1984.

G. Xiao, R. Chopra, W. Adler, A. Munster, and R. Winchurch, Altered Expression of Lymphocyte 11???2 Receptors in Burned Patients, The Journal of Trauma: Injury, Infection, and Critical Care, vol.28, issue.12, pp.1669-1672, 1988.
DOI : 10.1097/00005373-198812000-00010

A. Horgan, M. Mendez, D. O-'riordain, R. Holzheimer, J. Mannick et al., Altered gene transcription after burn injury results in depressed T-lymphocyte activation. Ann Surg, pp.342-351, 1994.

M. Schwacha, A. Ayala, and I. Chaudry, Insights into the role of ???? T lymphocytes in the immunopathogenic response to thermal injury, Journal of Leukocyte Biology, vol.67, issue.5, pp.644-650, 2000.
DOI : 10.1002/jlb.67.5.644

P. Xia, J. Zheng, H. Zhou, W. Pan, X. Qin et al., Relationship between lymphocyte apoptosis and endotoxin translocation after thermal injury in rats, World Journal of Gastroenterology, vol.8, issue.3, pp.546-550, 2002.
DOI : 10.1097/00005373-199801000-00019

A. De, K. Kodys, and J. Pellegrini, Induction of Global Anergy Rather Than Inhibitory Th2 Lymphokines Mediates Posttrauma T Cell Immunodepression, Clinical Immunology, vol.96, issue.1, pp.52-66, 2000.
DOI : 10.1006/clim.2000.4879

G. Bandyopadhyay, A. De, and K. Laudanski, Negative signaling contributes to T-cell anergy in trauma patients, Critical Care Medicine, vol.35, issue.3, pp.794-801, 2007.
DOI : 10.1097/01.CCM.0000256847.61085.A5

J. Unsinger, H. Kazama, J. Mcdonough, T. Griffith, R. Hotchkiss et al., Sepsis-Induced Apoptosis Leads to Active Suppression of Delayed-Type Hypersensitivity by CD8+ Regulatory T Cells through a TRAIL-Dependent Mechanism, The Journal of Immunology, vol.184, issue.12, pp.6766-6772, 2010.
DOI : 10.4049/jimmunol.0904054

G. Bandyopadhyay, P. Bankey, S. Miller-graziano-clsullivan, J. Lederer, A. Horgan et al., Trauma patients' elevated tumor necrosis related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) contributes to increased T cell apoptosis Major injury leads to predominance of the T helper-2 lymphocyte phenotype and diminished interleukin-12 production associated with decreased resistance to infection The "T" in trauma: the helper T-cell response and the role of immunomodulation in trauma and burn patients, Clin Immunol. Oct Ann Surg. Oct J Trauma, vol.14522263, issue.7146, pp.44-54482, 1995.

Z. Spolarics, M. Siddiqi, and J. Siegel, Depressed interleukin-12-producing activity by monocytes correlates with adverse clinical course and a shift toward Th2-type lymphocyte pattern in severely injured male trauma patients, Critical Care Medicine, vol.31, issue.6, pp.1722-1729, 2003.
DOI : 10.1097/01.CCM.0000063579.43470.AA

K. Furukawa, M. Kobayashi, H. Sasaki, D. Herndon, R. Pollard et al., Cryptococcal encephalitis in thermally injured mice is accelerated by type 2 T-cell responses. Crit Care Med, pp.1419-1424, 2002.

T. Murphy, N. Choileain, N. Zang, Y. Mannick, J. Lederer et al., CD4+CD25+ Regulatory T Cells Control Innate Immune Reactivity after Injury, The Journal of Immunology, vol.174, issue.5, pp.2957-2963, 2005.
DOI : 10.4049/jimmunol.174.5.2957

N. Choileain, N. Macconmara, M. Zang, Y. Murphy, T. Mannick et al., Enhanced Regulatory T Cell Activity Is an Element of the Host Response to Injury, The Journal of Immunology, vol.176, issue.1, pp.225-236, 2006.
DOI : 10.4049/jimmunol.176.1.225

Y. Zhang, Y. Yao, L. Huang, N. Dong, Y. Yu et al., The Potential Effect and Mechanism of High-Mobility Group Box 1 Protein on Regulatory T Cell-Mediated Immunosuppression, Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research, vol.31, issue.2, pp.249-257, 2011.
DOI : 10.1089/jir.2010.0019

M. Schwacha, Macrophages and post-burn immune dysfunction, Burns, vol.29, issue.1, pp.1-14, 2003.
DOI : 10.1016/S0305-4179(02)00187-0

K. Muthu, L. He, K. Melstrom, A. Szilagyi, R. Gamelli et al., Perturbed Bone Marrow Monocyte Development Following Burn Injury and Sepsis Promote Hyporesponsive Monocytes, Journal of Burn Care & Research, vol.&NA;, issue.1, pp.12-21, 2008.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jneuroim.2007.02.007

A. De, K. Laudanski, and C. Miller-graziano, Failure of Monocytes of Trauma Patients to Convert to Immature Dendritic Cells is Related to Preferential Macrophage-Colony-Stimulating Factor-Driven Macrophage Differentiation, The Journal of Immunology, vol.170, issue.12, pp.6355-6362, 2003.
DOI : 10.4049/jimmunol.170.12.6355

J. Faix, Biomarkers of sepsis, Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences, vol.7, issue.1, pp.23-36, 2013.
DOI : 10.1016/j.annemergmed.2008.01.003

C. Landelle, A. Lepape, and N. Voirin, Low monocyte human leukocyte antigen-DR is independently associated with nosocomial infections after septic shock, Intensive Care Medicine, vol.51, issue.11, pp.1859-1866, 2010.
DOI : 10.2119/2007-00102.Monneret

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00539253

D. Grimaldi, S. Louis, and F. Pene, Profound and persistent decrease of circulating dendritic cells is associated with ICU-acquired infection in patients with septic shock. Intensive Care Med, pp.1438-1446, 2011.

D. Payen, V. Faivre, A. Lukaszewicz, and M. Losser, Assessment of immunological status in the critically ill, Minerva Anestesiol. Oct, vol.66, issue.10, pp.757-763, 2000.

F. Venet, A. Lepape, G. Monneret, F. Venet, A. Lukaszewicz et al., Clinical review: flow cytometry perspectives in the ICU -from diagnosis of infection to monitoring of injury-induced immune dysfunctions Monitoring the immune response in sepsis: a rational approach to administration of immunoadjuvant therapies, Crit Care. Curr Opin Immunol, vol.1525, issue.874, pp.231477-483, 2011.

G. Monneret, A. Lepape, and N. Voirin, Persisting low monocyte human leukocyte antigen-DR expression predicts mortality in septic shock, Intensive Care Medicine, vol.51, issue.8, pp.1175-1183, 2006.
DOI : 10.1007/s00134-003-1666-6

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00428008

F. Venet, S. Tissot, and A. Debard, Decreased monocyte human leukocyte antigen-DR expression after severe burn injury: Correlation with severity and secondary septic shock, Critical Care Medicine, vol.35, issue.8, pp.1910-1917, 2007.
DOI : 10.1097/01.CCM.0000275271.77350.B6

R. Roumen, H. Redl, and G. Schlag, Inflammatory mediators in relation to the development of multiple organ failure in patients after severe blunt trauma, Critical Care Medicine, vol.23, issue.3, pp.474-480, 1995.
DOI : 10.1097/00003246-199503000-00010

M. Ganter, K. Brohi, and M. Cohen, Role of the alternative pathway in the early complement activation following major trauma. Shock, pp.29-34, 2007.

M. Pangburn, V. Ferreira, C. Cortes, H. Redl, and M. Huber-lang, Discrimination between host and pathogens by the complement system. Vaccine Role of complement in multiorgan failure Posttraumatic complications and inflammatory mediators, Clin Dev Immunol. Nuytinck JK Arch Surg. Aug, vol.262012121, issue.88, pp.15-21962927, 1986.

H. Kang, J. Kim, E. Lee, Y. Lee, M. Hur et al., Change of Complement System Predicts the Outcome of Patients With Severe Thermal Injury, Journal of Burn Care & Rehabilitation, vol.24, issue.3, pp.148-153, 2003.
DOI : 10.1097/01.BCR.0000066791.85810.BC

G. Stahl, Y. Xu, and L. Hao, Role for the Alternative Complement Pathway in Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury, The American Journal of Pathology, vol.162, issue.2, pp.449-455, 2003.
DOI : 10.1016/S0002-9440(10)63839-4

F. Laroux, K. Pavlick, and I. Hines, Role of nitric oxide in inflammation, Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, vol.269, issue.1, pp.113-118, 2001.
DOI : 10.1038/25159

S. Darwiche, R. Pfeifer, and C. Menzel, Inducible nitric oxide synthase contributes to immune dysfunction following trauma. Shock, pp.499-507, 2012.

W. Clark, M. Bonaventura, W. Myers, and R. Kellman, Smoke Inhalation and Airway Management at a Regional Burn Unit: 1974 to 1983 II. Airway Management, Journal of Burn Care & Rehabilitation, vol.11, issue.2, pp.121-134, 1990.
DOI : 10.1097/00004630-199003000-00006

J. Saffle, B. Davis, and P. Williams, Recent Outcomes in the Treatment of Burn Injury in the United States: A Report From the American Burn Association Patient Registry, Journal of Burn Care & Rehabilitation, vol.16, issue.3, pp.219-232, 1995.
DOI : 10.1097/00004630-199505000-00002

P. Navar, J. Saffle, and G. Warden, Effect of inhalation injury on fluid resuscitation requirements after thermal injury, The American Journal of Surgery, vol.150, issue.6, pp.716-720, 1985.
DOI : 10.1016/0002-9610(85)90415-5

J. Mccall and T. Cahill, Respiratory care of the burn patient, J Burn Care Rehabil, vol.26, issue.3, pp.200-206, 2005.

L. Woodson, Diagnosis and Grading of Inhalation Injury, Journal of Burn Care & Research, vol.36, issue.1, pp.143-145, 2009.
DOI : 10.1097/BCR.0b013e3181923b71

D. Herndon and D. Traber, Pulmonary Circulation and Burns and Trauma, The Journal of Trauma: Injury, Infection, and Critical Care, vol.30, issue.12, 1990.
DOI : 10.1097/00005373-199012001-00011

P. Rabinowitz and M. Siegel, Acute inhalation injury, Clinics in Chest Medicine, vol.23, issue.4, pp.707-715, 2002.
DOI : 10.1016/S0272-5231(02)00025-4

S. Pietak and D. Delahaye, Airway obstruction following smoke inhalation, Can Med Assoc J. Aug, vol.21115, issue.4, pp.329-331, 1976.

R. Cox, A. Burke, and K. Soejima, Airway Obstruction in Sheep with Burn and Smoke Inhalation Injuries, American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology, vol.29, issue.3, pp.295-302, 2003.
DOI : 10.1164/ajrccm.161.3.9906039

J. Basadre, K. Sugi, D. Traber, L. Traber, G. Niehaus et al., The effect of leukocyte depletion on smoke inhalation injury in sheep, Surgery. Aug, vol.104, issue.2, pp.208-215, 1988.

M. Wright and J. Murphy, Smoke Inhalation Enhances Early Alveolar Leukocyte Responsiveness to Endotoxin, The Journal of Trauma: Injury, Infection, and Critical Care, vol.59, issue.1, pp.64-70, 2005.
DOI : 10.1097/01.TA.0000171588.25618.87

B. Grinde, Herpesviruses: latency and reactivation ??? viral strategies and host response, Journal of Oral Microbiology, vol.3, issue.1, 2013.
DOI : 10.1371/journal.pone.0003256

P. Vandevenne, C. Sadzot-delvaux, and J. Piette, Innate immune response and viral interference strategies developed by Human Herpesviruses, Biochemical Pharmacology, vol.80, issue.12, pp.1955-1972, 2010.
DOI : 10.1016/j.bcp.2010.07.001

M. Lewis, Herpes simplex virus: an occupational hazard in dentistry, International Dental Journal, vol.104, issue.Suppl 1, pp.103-111, 2004.
DOI : 10.1016/S0889-5406(05)81723-8

A. Farooq and D. Shukla, Herpes Simplex Epithelial and Stromal Keratitis: An Epidemiologic Update, Survey of Ophthalmology, vol.57, issue.5
DOI : 10.1016/j.survophthal.2012.01.005

F. Rozenberg, C. Deback, and H. Agut, Herpes Simplex Encephalitis: From Virus to Therapy, Infectious Disorders - Drug Targets, vol.11, issue.3, pp.235-250, 2011.
DOI : 10.2174/187152611795768088

D. Gilden, R. Cohrs, and R. Mahalingam, Clinical and Molecular Pathogenesis of Varicella Virus Infection, Viral Immunology, vol.16, issue.3, pp.243-258, 2003.
DOI : 10.1089/088282403322396073

N. Mueller, D. Gilden, R. Cohrs, R. Mahalingam, M. Nagel et al., Varicella zoster virus infection: clinical features, molecular pathogenesis of disease, and latency Clinical aspects and management of cytomegalovirus infection, Neurol Clin. Aug J Infect. Feb, vol.2644, issue.32, pp.675-69778, 2002.

M. Mendelson, S. Monard, P. Sissons, J. Sinclair, C. Soderberg-naucler et al., Detection of endogenous human cytomegalovirus in CD34+ bone marrow progenitors Reactivation of latent human cytomegalovirus in CD14(+) monocytes is differentiation dependent, J Gen Virol J Virol. Aug, vol.7775, issue.11916, pp.3099-31027543, 1996.

J. Jones and A. Arvin, Inhibition of the NF-??B Pathway by Varicella-Zoster Virus In Vitro and in Human Epidermal Cells In Vivo, Journal of Virology, vol.80, issue.11, pp.5113-5124, 2006.
DOI : 10.1128/JVI.01956-05

E. Mjiyad, N. Bontems, S. Gloire, and G. , Varicella-Zoster Virus Modulates NF-??B Recruitment on Selected Cellular Promoters, Journal of Virology, vol.81, issue.23, pp.13092-13104, 2007.
DOI : 10.1128/JVI.01378-07

A. Sylwester, B. Mitchell, and J. Edgar, T cells dominate the memory compartments of exposed subjects, The Journal of Experimental Medicine, vol.70, issue.5, pp.673-685, 2005.
DOI : 10.1182/blood-2003-06-1937

D. White, S. Beard, R. Barton, and E. , Immune modulation during latent herpesvirus infection, Immunological Reviews, vol.473, issue.Suppl, pp.189-208, 2012.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1365-294X.2011.05269.x

URL : http://europepmc.org/articles/pmc3243940?pdf=render

J. Shelby and J. Shanley, Transfer of murine cytomegalovirus by syngeneic skin grafts, Transplantation. Aug, vol.44, issue.2, pp.318-320, 1987.

J. Shelby, J. Saffle, and E. Kern, Transmission of Cytomegalovirus Infection in Mice by Skin Graft, The Journal of Trauma: Injury, Infection, and Critical Care, vol.28, issue.2, pp.203-206, 1988.
DOI : 10.1097/00005373-198802000-00013

H. Kobayashi, M. Kobayashi, R. Mccauley, D. Herndon, R. Pollard et al., Cadaveric Skin Allograft-Associated Cytomegalovirus Transmission in a Mouse Model of Thermal Injury, Clinical Immunology, vol.92, issue.2, pp.181-187, 1999.
DOI : 10.1006/clim.1999.4735

H. Kobayashi, M. Kobayashi, D. Herndon, R. Pollard, and F. Suzuki, Susceptibility of thermally injured mice to cytomegalovirus infection, Burns, vol.27, issue.7, pp.675-680, 2001.
DOI : 10.1016/S0305-4179(01)00028-6

H. Kobayashi, M. Kobayashi, T. Utsunomiya, D. Herndon, R. Pollard et al., Therapeutic protective effects of IL-12 combined with soluble IL-4 receptor against established infections of herpes simplex virus type 1 in thermally injured mice, J Immunol, vol.162, issue.12, pp.7148-7154, 1999.

H. Kobayashi, M. Kobayashi, H. Takahashi, D. Herndon, R. Pollard et al., Soluble IL-4 receptor improves the skin-graft-associated cytomegalovirus infection in thermally injured mice, Burns, vol.29, issue.4, pp.315-321, 2003.
DOI : 10.1016/S0305-4179(02)00200-0

E. Erickson, J. Saffle, S. Morris, J. Sullivan, E. Eichwald et al., Cytomegalovirus Infection Promotes Bacterial Translocation in Thermally Injured Mice, Journal of Burn Care & Rehabilitation, vol.11, issue.5, pp.428-435, 1990.
DOI : 10.1097/00004630-199009000-00010

E. Erickson, J. Saffle, S. Morris, E. Eichwald, J. Sullivan et al., Bacterial Translocation Is Prolonged in Burned Mice Infected with Cytomegalovirus, Journal of Burn Care & Rehabilitation, vol.12, issue.5, pp.454-457, 1991.
DOI : 10.1097/00004630-199109000-00011

T. Scott, L. Coriell, H. Blank, and C. Burgoon, Some comments on herpetic infection in children with special emphasis on unusual clinical manifestations, The Journal of Pediatrics, vol.41, issue.6, pp.835-843, 1952.
DOI : 10.1016/S0022-3476(52)80303-8

G. Nash and F. Foley, Herpetic Infection of the Middle and Lower Respiratory Tract, American Journal of Clinical Pathology, vol.54, issue.6, pp.857-863, 1970.
DOI : 10.1093/ajcp/54.6.857

F. Foley, K. Greenawald, G. Nash, B. Pruitt, and J. , Herpesvirus Infection in Burned Patients, New England Journal of Medicine, vol.282, issue.12, pp.652-656, 1970.
DOI : 10.1056/NEJM197003192821205

F. Hayden, H. Himel, and J. Heggers, Herpesvirus infections in burn patients. Chest, 1994.

R. Kagan, S. Naraqi, T. Matsuda, and O. Jonasson, Herpes Simplex Virus and Cytomegalovirus Infections in Burned Patients, The Journal of Trauma: Injury, Infection, and Critical Care, vol.25, issue.1, pp.40-45, 1985.
DOI : 10.1097/00005373-198501000-00007

S. Manders and B. Chetty, Eczema herpeticum occurring in autografted skin, Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, vol.24, issue.3, pp.509-510, 1991.
DOI : 10.1016/S0190-9622(08)80084-9

B. Bourdarias, G. Perro, M. Cutillas, J. Castede, M. Lafon et al., Herpes simplex virus infection in burned patients: Epidemiology of 11 cases, Burns, vol.22, issue.4, pp.287-290, 1996.
DOI : 10.1016/0305-4179(95)00146-8

R. Byers, P. Hasleton, and A. Quigley, Pulmonary herpes simplex in burns patients, European Respiratory Journal, vol.9, issue.11, pp.2313-2317, 1996.
DOI : 10.1183/09031936.96.09112313

S. Mcgill and R. Cartotto, Herpes simplex virus infection in a paediatric burn patient: case report and review, Burns, vol.26, issue.2, pp.194-199, 2000.
DOI : 10.1016/S0305-4179(99)00057-1

R. Sheridan, J. Schulz, J. Weber, C. Ryan, M. Pasternack et al., Cutaneous herpetic infections complicating burns, Burns, vol.26, issue.7, pp.621-624, 2000.
DOI : 10.1016/S0305-4179(00)00025-5

P. Fidler, B. Mackool, and D. Schoenfeld, Incidence, Outcome, and Long-Term Consequences of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Reactivation Presenting as a Facial Rash in Intubated Adult Burn Patients Treated with Acyclovir, The Journal of Trauma: Injury, Infection, and Critical Care, vol.53, issue.1, pp.86-89, 2002.
DOI : 10.1097/00005373-200207000-00017

E. George, K. Schur, E. Baird, S. Mills, T. Brown et al., Recurrent herpes simplex virus within autologous graft and healed burn scar???a case report, Burns, vol.30, issue.8, pp.861-863, 2004.
DOI : 10.1016/j.burns.2004.04.005

C. Chen, C. Chen, C. Chiang, and S. Pan, Herpes Simplex Infection in a Minor Burn Wound: A Case Report, Journal of Burn Care & Rehabilitation, vol.26, issue.5, pp.453-455, 2005.
DOI : 10.1097/01.bcr.0000176889.39355.41

J. Bordes, N. Kenane, and E. Meaudre, A case of atypical and fatal herpes simplex encephalitis in a severe burn patient. Burns Overwhelming disseminated herpes simplex virus type 2 infection in a patient with severe burn injury: case report and literature review, J Burn Care Res, vol.3531, issue.43, pp.590-593492, 2009.

S. Sen, N. Szoka, H. Phan, T. Palmieri, and D. Greenhalgh, Herpes Simplex Activation Prolongs Recovery From Severe Burn Injury and Increases Bacterial Infection Risk, Journal of Burn Care & Research, vol.300, issue.3, pp.393-397, 2012.
DOI : 10.1001/jama.2008.697

G. Nash, M. Asch, F. Foley, B. Pruitt, and J. , Disseminated cytomegalic inclusion disease in a burned adult, JAMA. Oct, vol.19214, issue.3, pp.587-588, 1970.

J. Seeman and R. Konigova, Cytomegalovirus infection in severely burned patients, Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, vol.62, issue.1, pp.142-151, 1976.
DOI : 10.1097/00006534-197807000-00086

J. Seeman and R. Konigova, Hazards of cytomegalovirus infection in patients with severe burns]. Rozhl Chir, Jun, vol.57, issue.6, pp.429-432, 1978.

G. Deepe, J. Macmillan, B. Linnemann, and C. Jr, Unexplained fever in burn patients due to cytomegalovirus infection, JAMA. Nov, vol.12248, issue.18, pp.2299-2301, 1982.

G. Kealey, J. Bale, R. Strauss, and R. Massanari, Cytomegalovirus Infection in Burn Patients, Journal of Burn Care & Rehabilitation, vol.8, issue.6, pp.543-545, 1987.
DOI : 10.1097/00004630-198711000-00017

J. Bale, J. Kealey, G. Massanari, R. Strauss, and R. , The Epidemiology of Cytomegalovirus Infection among Patients with Burns, Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology, vol.11, issue.1, pp.17-22, 1990.
DOI : 10.2307/30144251

G. Kealey, J. Aguiar, R. Lewis, M. Rosenquist, R. Strauss et al., Cadaver skin allografts and transmission of human cytomegalovirus to burn patients, J Am Coll Surg. Mar, vol.182, issue.3, pp.201-205, 1996.

K. Hamprecht, M. Pfau, H. Schaller, G. Jahn, J. Middeldorp et al., Human Cytomegalovirus Infection of a Severe-Burn Patient: Evidence for Productive Self-Limited Viral Replication in Blood and Lung, Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol.43, issue.5, pp.2534-2536, 2005.
DOI : 10.1128/JCM.43.5.2534-2536.2005

M. Tenenhaus, H. Rennekampff, M. Pfau, and K. Hamprecht, Cytomegalovirus and Burns: Current Perceptions, Awareness, Diagnosis, and Management Strategies in the United States and Germany, Journal of Burn Care & Research, vol.8, issue.3, pp.281-288, 2006.
DOI : 10.1093/infdis/132.4.421

H. Rennekampff and K. Hamprecht, Cytomegalovirus infection in burns: a review, Journal of Medical Microbiology, vol.55, issue.5, pp.483-487, 2006.
DOI : 10.1099/jmm.0.46079-0

C. Augris, M. Benyamina, F. Rozenberg, S. Gaucher, D. Wassermann et al., Case report: cytomegalovirus primoinfection may be associated with severe outcome in burns. Ann Burns Fire Disasters, pp.216-218, 2007.

J. Bordes, J. Maslin, and B. Prunet, Cytomegalovirus infection in severe burn patients monitoring by real-time polymerase chain reaction: A prospective study, Burns, vol.37, issue.3, pp.434-439, 2011.
DOI : 10.1016/j.burns.2010.11.006

J. Bordes, T. Gaillard, J. Maslin, P. Esnault, P. Goutorbe et al., Cytomegalovirus infection monitored by quantitative real-time PCR in critically ill patients, Critical Care, vol.15, issue.2, p.412, 2011.
DOI : 10.1001/jama.300.4.413

I. Kikuchi and I. F. , Herpes zoster involving a skin graft A case of herpes zoster involving a skin graft, Br J Plast Surg. Jul Arch Dermatol. May, vol.29121, issue.1625, pp.245-246588, 1976.

P. Lin and M. Cinat, Herpes Zoster Involving a Skin Graft, Journal of Burn Care & Research, vol.121, issue.5, pp.813-815, 2010.
DOI : 10.1016/S0007-1226(76)90065-5

J. Schroeder, A. Tessone, M. Angel, Y. Barda, and J. Haik, Disseminated Varicella infection in an adult burn victim???A transfused disease?, Burns, vol.35, issue.2, pp.297-299, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/j.burns.2007.12.005

C. Cook, J. Yenchar, T. Kraner, E. Davies, and R. Ferguson, Occult herpes family viruses may increase mortality in critically ill surgical patients, The American Journal of Surgery, vol.176, issue.4, pp.357-360, 1998.
DOI : 10.1016/S0002-9610(98)00205-0

P. Bruynseels, P. Jorens, and H. Demey, Herpes simplex virus in the respiratory tract of critical care patients: a prospective study, The Lancet, vol.362, issue.9395, pp.1536-1541, 2003.
DOI : 10.1016/S0140-6736(03)14740-X

C. Cook, L. Martin, and J. Yenchar, Occult herpes family viral infections are endemic in critically ill surgical patients Crit Care Med Respiratory herpes simplex virus type 1 infection/colonisation in the critically ill: marker or mediator?, J Clin Virol, vol.3130, issue.1681, pp.1923-192968, 2003.

E. Assink-de-jong, A. Groeneveld, and A. Pettersson, Clinical correlates of herpes simplex virus type 1 loads in the lower respiratory tract of critically ill patients, Journal of Clinical Virology, vol.58, issue.1, pp.79-83, 2013.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jcv.2013.05.007

C. Luyt, A. Combes, and C. Deback, Herpes Simplex Virus Lung Infection in Patients Undergoing Prolonged Mechanical Ventilation, American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol.175, issue.9, pp.935-942, 2007.
DOI : 10.1164/ajrccm/142.2.481

C. Deback, C. Luyt, and S. Lespinats, Microsatellite analysis of HSV-1 isolates: From oropharynx reactivation toward lung infection in patients undergoing mechanical ventilation, Journal of Clinical Virology, vol.47, issue.4, pp.313-320, 2010.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jcv.2010.01.019

D. Vos, N. Van-hoovels, L. Vankeerberghen, and A. , Monitoring of herpes simplex virus in the lower respiratory tract of critically ill patients using real-time PCR: a prospective study, Clinical Microbiology and Infection, vol.15, issue.4, pp.358-363, 2009.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1469-0691.2009.02704.x

E. Bouza, M. Giannella, and M. Torres, Herpes simplex virus: A marker of severity in bacterial ventilator-associated pneumonia, Journal of Critical Care, vol.26, issue.4, pp.432-431, 2011.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jcrc.2010.10.008

L. Papazian, A. Fraisse, and L. Garbe, Cytomegalovirus, Anesthesiology, vol.84, issue.2, pp.280-287, 1996.
DOI : 10.1097/00000542-199602000-00005

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01459931

F. Stephan, D. Meharzi, S. Ricci, A. Fajac, F. Clergue et al., Evaluation by polymerase chain reaction of cytomegalovirus reactivation in intensive care patients under mechanical ventilation. Intensive Care Med High incidence of active cytomegalovirus infection among septic patients, Nov Clin Infect Dis, vol.2226, issue.115, pp.1244-12491076, 1996.

A. Heininger, G. Jahn, C. Engel, T. Notheisen, K. Unertl et al., Human cytomegalovirus infections in nonimmunosuppressed critically ill patients Active cytomegalovirus infection in patients with septic shock Cellular immunity and active human cytomegalovirus infection in patients with septic shock, Crit Care Med. Mar Emerg Infect Dis. Oct J Infect Dis, vol.2912196, issue.1799, pp.541-5471517, 2001.

Y. Wiener-well, A. Yinnon, P. Singer, and H. M. , Reactivation of cytomegalovirus in critically sick patients, Isr Med Assoc J. Aug, vol.8, issue.8, pp.583-584, 2006.

A. Limaye, K. Kirby, and G. Rubenfeld, Cytomegalovirus reactivation in critically ill immunocompetent patients, JAMA, vol.300, issue.4, pp.413-422, 2008.

P. Rafailidis, E. Mourtzoukou, I. Varbobitis, M. Falagas, M. Ziemann et al., Severe cytomegalovirus infection in apparently immunocompetent patients: a systematic review Increased mortality in longterm intensive care patients with active cytomegalovirus infection, Virol J. Crit Care Med, vol.536, issue.18312, pp.473145-3150, 2008.

L. Chiche, J. Forel, and A. Roch, Active cytomegalovirus infection is common in mechanically ventilated medical intensive care unit patients. Crit Care Med, pp.1850-1857, 2009.

A. Kalil and D. Florescu, Prevalence and mortality associated with cytomegalovirus infection in nonimmunosuppressed patients in the intensive care unit*, Critical Care Medicine, vol.37, issue.8, pp.2350-2358, 2009.
DOI : 10.1097/CCM.0b013e3181a3aa43

R. Osawa, N. Singh, G. Aguilar, and I. Benet, Cytomegalovirus infection in critically ill patients: a systematic review Virological and immunological features of active cytomegalovirus infection in nonimmunosuppressed patients in a surgical and trauma intensive care unit Cytomegalovirus reactivation and associated outcome of critically ill patients with severe sepsis, R68. 187. Chilet M, pp.1384-1391, 2009.

D. Vlieger, G. Meersseman, W. Lagrou, and K. , Cytomegalovirus serostatus and outcome in nonimmunocompromised critically ill patients*, Critical Care Medicine, vol.40, issue.1, pp.36-42, 2012.
DOI : 10.1097/CCM.0b013e31822b50ae

D. Bravo, M. Clari, and G. Aguilar, Looking for biological factors to predict the risk of active cytomegalovirus infection in non-immunosuppressed critically ill patients Cytomegalovirus colitis in immunocompetent critically ill patients Reactivation of multiple viruses in patients with sepsis, J Med Virol Int J Infect Dis PLoS One, vol.1929, issue.2, p.98819, 2013.

V. Papaevangelou, M. Quinlivan, and J. Lockwood, Subclinical VZV reactivation in immunocompetent children hospitalized in the ICU associated with prolonged fever duration*, Clinical Microbiology and Infection, vol.19, issue.5, pp.245-251, 2013.
DOI : 10.1111/1469-0691.12131

C. Baxter, Problems and Complications of Burn Shock Resuscitation, Surgical Clinics of North America, vol.58, issue.6, pp.1313-1322, 1978.
DOI : 10.1016/S0039-6109(16)41693-2

Q. Ouyang, W. Wagner, W. Zheng, A. Wikby, E. Remarque et al., Dysfunctional CMV-specific CD8+ T cells accumulate in the elderly, Experimental Gerontology, vol.39, issue.4, pp.607-613, 2004.
DOI : 10.1016/j.exger.2003.11.016

N. Khan, A. Hislop, and N. Gudgeon, Herpesvirus-Specific CD8 T Cell Immunity in Old Age: Cytomegalovirus Impairs the Response to a Coresident EBV Infection, The Journal of Immunology, vol.173, issue.12, pp.7481-7489, 2004.
DOI : 10.4049/jimmunol.173.12.7481

J. Hamilton, J. Overall, and L. Glasgow, Synergistic effect on mortality in mice with murine cytomegalovirus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, or Candida albicans infections, Infect Immun. Oct, vol.14, issue.4, pp.982-989, 1976.

J. Hamilton, J. Overall, and J. , Synergistic Infection with Murine Cytomegalovirus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Mice, Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol.137, issue.6, pp.775-782, 1978.
DOI : 10.1093/infdis/137.6.775

M. Boeckh and W. Nichols, Immunosuppressive effects of beta-herpesviruses. Herpes, pp.12-16, 2003.

A. Kalil, J. Levitsky, E. Lyden, J. Stoner, and A. Freifeld, Meta-Analysis: The Efficacy of Strategies To Prevent Organ Disease by Cytomegalovirus in Solid Organ Transplant Recipients, Annals of Internal Medicine, vol.143, issue.12, pp.870-880, 2005.
DOI : 10.7326/0003-4819-143-12-200512200-00005

. Code-de-la-propriété-intellectuelle, articles L 335.2-L 335