C. Chapman, D. Lipschitz, and M. Angst, Opioid Pharmacotherapy for Chronic Non-Cancer Pain in the United States: A Research Guideline for Developing an Evidence-Base, The Journal of Pain, vol.11, issue.9, pp.807-829, 2010.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jpain.2010.02.019

L. Manchikanti, B. Fellows, and H. Ailinani, Therapeutic use, abuse, and nonmedical use of opioids: A ten-year perspective, Pain Phys, vol.13, pp.401-435, 2010.

V. Pauly, V. Pradel, and E. Frauger, Evolution of Opioids Reimbursement since 2004 from the National Database of the General Health Insurance System, Th??rapie, vol.66, issue.4, pp.369-372, 2011.
DOI : 10.2515/therapie/2011037

B. Walder, Efficacy and safety of patient-controlled opioid analgesia for acute postoperative pain. A quantitative systematic review, Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, vol.316, issue.7, pp.795-804, 2001.
DOI : 10.1016/S0952-8180(99)00101-4

C. Reid, R. Martin, and J. Sterne, Oxycodone for Cancer-Related Pain, Archives of Internal Medicine, vol.166, issue.8, pp.837-843, 2006.
DOI : 10.1001/archinte.166.8.837

URL : http://archinte.jamanetwork.com/data/journals/intemed/5531/ira60001.pdf

S. Mercadante, Pharmacotherapy for Breakthrough Cancer Pain, Drugs, vol.35, issue.3, pp.181-190, 2012.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2007.05.010

D. Gordon, J. Dahl, and P. Phillips, THE USE OF ???AS-NEEDED??? RANGE ORDERS FOR OPIOID ANALGESICS IN THE MANAGEMENT OF ACUTE PAIN, Home Healthcare Nurse: The Journal for the Home Care and Hospice Professional, vol.23, issue.6, pp.53-58, 2004.
DOI : 10.1097/00004045-200506000-00012

J. Perrone and L. Nelson, Medication reconciliation for controlled substances ? An ?i deal? prescription-drug monitoring program, N Engl J Med, vol.25, pp.2341-2343, 2012.
DOI : 10.1056/nejmp1204493

C. Watson, Chronic non-cancer pain and the long-term efficacy and safety of opioids: Some blind men and an elephant?, Scandinavian Journal of Pain, vol.182, issue.9, pp.5-13, 2012.
DOI : 10.1503/cmaj.100187

A. White, P. Arnold, and D. Norvell, Pharmacologic Management of Chronic Low Back Pain, Spine, vol.36, pp.131-143, 2011.
DOI : 10.1097/BRS.0b013e31822f178f

G. Franklin, J. Mai, and J. Turner, Bending the prescription opioid dosing and mortality curves: Impact of the Washington State opioid dosing guideline, American Journal of Industrial Medicine, vol.32, issue.4, pp.325-331, 2012.
DOI : 10.1097/BRS.0b013e318145a731

B. Fischer and E. Argento, Prescription opioid related misuse, harms, diversion and interventions in Canada: A review, Pain Phys, vol.15, pp.191-203, 2012.

B. Nosyk, M. Anglin, and S. Brissette, A Call For Evidence-Based Medical Treatment Of Opioid Dependence In The United States And Canada, Health Affairs, vol.32, issue.8, pp.1-8, 2013.
DOI : 10.1377/hlthaff.2012.0846

R. Chou, G. Fanciullo, and P. Fine, Clinical Guidelines for the Use of Chronic Opioid Therapy in Chronic Noncancer Pain, The Journal of Pain, vol.10, issue.2, pp.113-130, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jpain.2008.10.008

W. Hooten, R. Timming, and M. Belgrade, Assessment and Management of Chronic Pain [Internet] Institute for Clinical Systems Improvement Available from: https, 2014.

S. Holliday, P. Magin, and J. Dunbabin, An Evaluation of the Prescription of Opioids for Chronic Nonmalignant Pain by Australian General Practitioners, Pain Medicine, vol.4, issue.2, pp.62-74, 2013.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1360-0443.2010.03144.x

M. Allen, M. Asbridge, and P. Macdougall, Self-Reported Practices in Opioid Management of Chronic Noncancer Pain: A Survey of Canadian Family Physicians, Pain Research and Management, vol.18, issue.4, pp.177-84, 2013.
DOI : 10.1155/2013/528645

A. Boulanger, A. Clark, and P. Squire, Chronic Pain in Canada: Have We Improved Our Management of Chronic Noncancer Pain?, Pain Research and Management, vol.12, issue.1, pp.39-47, 2007.
DOI : 10.1155/2007/762180

P. Morley-forster, A. Clark, and M. Speechley, Attitudes Toward Opioid Use for Chronic Pain: A Canadian Physician Survey, Pain Research and Management, vol.8, issue.4, pp.189-193, 2003.
DOI : 10.1155/2003/184247

N. Mimassi, F. Marchand, and H. Ganry, Mental representations and behaviors before prescribing strong opiods. A survey carried out in the Finist??re department with 114 general practitioners and specialists, Douleur et Analg??sie, vol.25, issue.2, pp.93-100, 2012.
DOI : 10.1007/s11724-012-0289-5

C. Porucznik, E. Johnson, and R. Rolfs, Opioid prescribing knowledge and practices: Provider survey following promulgation of guidelines???Utah, 2011, Journal of Opioid Management, vol.9, issue.3, pp.217-224, 2013.
DOI : 10.5055/jom.2013.0162

H. Benzon, M. Kendall, and J. Katz, Prescription Patterns of Pain Medicine Physicians, Pain Practice, vol.99, issue.6, pp.71-79, 2012.
DOI : 10.1097/00000542-200312000-00003

W. Becker, J. Starrels, and M. Heo, Racial Differences in Primary Care Opioid Risk Reduction Strategies, The Annals of Family Medicine, vol.9, issue.3, pp.219-225, 2011.
DOI : 10.1370/afm.1242

B. Bhamb, D. Brown, and J. Hariharan, Survey of select practice behaviors by primary care physicians on the use of opioids for chronic pain, Current Medical Research and Opinion, vol.22, issue.9, pp.1859-1865, 2006.
DOI : 10.1185/030079906X132398

M. Potter, S. Schafer, and E. Gonzalez-mendez, Opioids for chronic nonmalignant pain. Attitudes and practices of primary care physicians in the UCSF, J Fam Pract, vol.50, pp.145-151, 2001.

A. G. and T. D. Petit-le-manac-"-h-a, Douleur chronique : la place du psychiatre. Annales Médico-psychologiques, revue psychiatrique, 2014.

A. N. Guide, évaluation de la douleur, recommandations du CLUD pour l " évaluation d " une douleur aiguë ou chronique chez l " adulte et l " enfant hospitalisé, CLUD-SP hôpitaux universitaires Paris Ile-de-France Ouest, Disponible sur, 2012.

B. E. Marini-e, C. F. Barbasetti-n, . Mattei-l, . E. Bonasia-d, and . Blonna-d, Fibromyalgia syndrome: etiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment, Pain Res Treat, pp.1-17, 2012.

B. C. Demartini-l and . Buonocore-m, Chronic pain: not only a matter of time, Minerva Anestesiol. 2012, vol.78, issue.6, pp.704-711

B. T. Mcmahon-s, Neurotrophic factors and neuropathic pain, Curr Opin Pharmacol. Feb, vol.1, issue.1, pp.66-72, 2001.

B. J. Fan-m-y, M. J. Edlund-m, and S. M. Devries-a, Trends in Use of Opioids by Noncancer Pain Type 2000-2005 Among Arkansas Medicaid and HealthCore Enrollees: Results From the TROUP Study, The Journal of Pain, vol.9, issue.11, pp.1026-1035, 2008.

B. Cs and J. Kd, ADULT measures of pain: The McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ) Rheumatoid Arthritis Pain Scale (RAPS), Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire, Verbal Descriptive Scale (VDS), Visual Analog Scale (VAS), and West Haven-Yale Multidisciplinary Pain Inventory (WHYMPI), pp.96-104, 2003.

C. B. Grilo-r, Central pain control, Joint Bone Spine, vol.73, issue.1, pp.10-16, 2006.

C. Am, Assessment of chronic pain. I. Aspects of the reliability and validity of the visual analogue scale, Pain, vol.16, issue.1, pp.87-101, 1983.

C. A. Pierri-f, . Valentini-p, . Russo-i, and R. R. Gargiullo-l, Current practice and recent advances in pediatric pain management, Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. Feb, vol.17, pp.112-126, 2013.

C. R. Fanciullo-g, A. G. Fine-p, and B. J. Davies-p, Clinical guidelines for the use of chronic opioid therapy in chronic noncancer pain, J Pain. Feb, vol.10, issue.2, pp.113-130, 2009.

C. , J. S. , and A. S. Vallee-l, Traitement de fond de la migraine de l " enfant : état des connaissances du traitement pharmacologique. Archives de Pédiatrie, pp.449-455, 2004.

D. T. Zupan-v, R. N. , M. Jf, and D. M. , Development and initial validation of the EDIN scale, a new tool for assessing prolonged pain in preterm infants, Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed, vol.85, issue.1, pp.36-41, 2001.

D. D. , G. D. , R. L. Morgan, and S. H. Manworren, A Position Statement on the Use of " As-Needed " Range Orders For Opioid Analgesics in the Management of Pain, A Consensus Statement of the American Society of Pain Management Nurses and the American Pain Society, Disponible sur, 2013.

E. Z. Eccleston-c, Interdisciplinary management of adolescent chronic pain: developing the role of physiotherapy, Physiotherapy, vol.90, issue.2, pp.77-81, 2004.
DOI : 10.1016/S0031-9406(03)00011-7

F. A. Pais-ribeiro and . P. Jensen-m, Validity of four pain intensity rating scales. PAIN, pp.2399-2404, 2011.

F. Tourniaire-b, C. P. Carbajal-r, R. C. Lassauge-f, . Reiter-f, . Turquin-p et al., EVENDOL, a new behavioral pain scale for children ages 0 to 7 years in the emergency department: Design and validation, PAIN, vol.153, issue.8, pp.1573-1582, 2012.

F. A. Reardon-r and . Weppler-c, Opioids for chronic noncancer pain: a new Canadian practice guideline, CMAJ Jun, vol.15182, issue.9, pp.923-953, 2010.

G. B. Couture-r and . Sirois-p, Dualité fonctionnelle des récepteurs des kinines en physiopathologie, médecine/sciences, pp.1101-1110, 2003.

G. V. , S. D. , and L. H. Kahn-j, Prescription and misuse of fentanyl : results from a survey from the Medical Department of North East Social Security (France), over years, Fund. Clin. Pharmacol, vol.25, pp.75-75, 2007.

G. A. Bjorkman, R. A. Ljungcrantz-c, . Rivano-fischer-m, and . Sjolund-k-f, Pharmaceutical treatment patterns for patients with a diagnosis related to chronic pain initiating a slow-release strong opioid treatment in Sweden, pp.2325-2331, 2012.

G. E. and L. G. Fibromylagia, Aust Fam Physician, pp.690-694, 2013.

H. M. , W. , W. T. , B. Js, R. Js et al., Nitric oxide is negatively correlated to pain during acute inflammation, Molecular Pain, vol.6, pp.55-56, 2010.

. Hôpitaux-de-toulouse, Table pratique de conversion des opioïdes, Disponible sur, pp.12-17, 2011.

J. R. Fanciullo-g and B. J. , Usefulness of pain drawings in identifying real or imagined pain: Accuracy of pain professionals, nonprofessionals, and a decision model, The Journal of Pain, vol.5, issue.9, pp.476-82, 2004.

J. G. Barkin-r, Neuropathic pain: etiology, pathophysiology, mechanisms, and evaluations, Dis Mon. 2014, vol.60, issue.1, pp.6-47

J. M. Collett-b and . M. Castro-lopes-j, The challenges of pain management in primary care: a pan-European survey, J Pain Res, vol.6, pp.393-401, 2013.

K. M. , W. L. Mailis-gagnon-a, and . Srivastava-a, Canadian guideline for safe and effective use of opioids for chronic noncancer pain. Can Fam Physician, 2011.

K. R. Turk-d and R. T. , The West Haven-Yale Multidimensional Pain Inventory (WHYMPI). Pain, pp.345-56, 1985.

L. Valade-d, L. C. Geraud-g, and . Donnet-a, Prise en charge diagnostique et thérapeutique de la migraine chez l " adulte et chez l " enfant, Journal Européen des Urgences et de Réanimation. 2013, vol.25, issue.2, pp.92-107

L. F. Douleur-chronique, Thérapies comportementales et cognitives Annales Médico-psychologiques, revue psychiatrique, pp.132-135, 2014.

L. Bars and D. Willer-j-c, Physiologie de la douleur. EMC -Anesthésie-Réanimation, 2004.

M. F. Coste-b, G. A. Hao-j, A. D. , C. M. , and A. J. , Neurotransmitter modulation of small-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels by regulation of Ca2+ gating, Neuron, vol.59, issue.3, pp.439-488, 2008.

M. L. Fellows-b and A. H. , Therapeutic use, abuse, and nonmedical use of opioids: a ten-year perspective. Pain Physician, pp.401-435, 2010.

P. Mark and P. Jensen, Self-report scales and procedures for assessing pain in adults. Handbook of pain assessment. 3ème édition, p.542, 2011.

M. V. Mésusage-sur-ordonnance, Le problème des opioïdes. Douleurs : Evaluation - Diagnostic -Traitement, pp.277-278, 2013.

M. V. , A. N. Bouhassira-d, and . Lanteri-minet-m, Les douleurs neuropathiques chroniques : diagnostic, évaluation et traitement en médecine ambulatoire. Recommandations pour la pratique clinique de la Société française d " étude et de traitement de la douleur. Douleurs : Evaluation -Diagnostic -Traitement, Feb, vol.11, issue.1, pp.3-21, 2010.

M. Si, V. , S. Jr, and M. S. , The FLACC: a behavioral scale for scoring postoperative pain in young children. Pediatr Nurs, pp.293-297, 1997.

M. S. Stark-h and S. A. , Polymorphisms and genetic linkage of histamine receptors, Life Sci Oct, vol.1093, issue.15, pp.487-494, 2013.

. Ministère-de-la-santé-et-des-solidarités, Plan d " amélioration de la prise en charge de la douleur [en ligne] Disponible sur : http://www.sante.gouv.fr, 2006.

F. Natali, Utilisation pratique des opio??des forts agonistes en France, Revue des Maladies Respiratoires, vol.25, issue.8, pp.1051-1057, 2008.
DOI : 10.1016/S0761-8425(08)74426-7

P. V. Pradel-v, M. J. Frauger-e, and . Thirion-x, Evolution of opioids reimbursement since 2004 from the National Database of the General Health Insurance System, Therapie, vol.66, issue.4, pp.369-372, 2011.

P. J. Jv, G. C. , P. S. Labhsetwar-s, P. J. Taylor, and . Muller-schwefe-g, Dynamic risk factors in the misuse of opioid analgesics, Journal of Psychosomatic Research, vol.72, issue.6, pp.443-451, 2012.

P. Cd and J. , Attitudes and knowledge about pain: an assessment of West Virginia family physicians, Fam Med, vol.37, issue.7, pp.477-480, 2005.

Q. P. Navez-m-l, . Peyron-r, and . Laurent-b, Introduction à la physiopathologie de la douleur. Applications aux douleurs viscérales, Gastroentérologie clinique et biologique, Feb, vol.2927, pp.59-67, 2003.

Q. Bl, S. Lk, and C. Me, Current practice and recent advances in pediatric pain management, Eur ; Rev. Med. Pharmacol. Sci, vol.17, pp.112-126, 2013.

P. J. El, ATS2 Présentation de l " échelle de la douleur aiguë pour personnes agées : ALGOPLUS. Douleurs : Evaluation -Diagnostic -Traitement, pp.45-46, 2007.

R. P. , J. E. , P. G. Donnarel, L. Nguyen-l, M. M. et al., Validation of an acute painbehavior scale for older persons with inability to communicate verbally: Algoplus, Eur J Pain Feb, vol.15, issue.2, pp.198-199, 2011.

R. S. , K. G. Bamford-l, S. D. O-", and C. J. , Co-abuse of opiates and benzodiazepines, Ir J Med Sci, vol.168, issue.1, pp.36-41, 1999.

S. R. , A. N. , D. C. , and R. M. Robinette-c, Compliance with opioid treatment guidelines for chronic non-cancer pain (CNCP) in primary care at a Veterans Affairs Medical Center (VAMC) Pain Med, pp.1548-1556, 2013.

S. E. Marchand-f and . Mimassi-n, Point de vue des médecins généralistes sur les risques de survenue d " une dépendance lors de la prescription d " opioïdes forts. Annales Médico-psychologiques, revue psychiatrique, 2014.

S. L. , R. J. , and D. D. Labat-j-j, Éducation et thérapies parallèles dans la prise en charge thérapeutique des douleurs pelvipérinéales chroniques. Progrès en Urologie, pp.1089-94, 2010.

T. J. Gibaja-v and M. A. Kahn-j, Are physicians safely prescribing opioids for chronic non cancer pain ? A systematic review of current evidence, Pain Practice

U. M. Odouard-e, C. C. , M. P. Ducher-m, and . Bourguignon-l, Relation entre consommation de benzodiazépines et chutes en gériatrie : étude multicentrique dans trois établissements gériatriques d'un CHU. Annales Pharmaceutiques Françaises, pp.46-52, 2012.

V. Acker, K. Bouhassira-d, . D. De, . Weiss-s, R. H. Matthys-k et al., Prevalence and impact on quality of life of peripheral neuropathy with or without neuropathic pain in type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients attending hospital outpatients clinics, Diabetes & Metabolism, vol.35, issue.3, pp.206-213, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/j.diabet.2008.11.004

V. Dijk, M. De, B. J. , K. H. , T. D. et al., The reliability and validity of the COMFORT scale as a postoperative pain instrument in 0 to 3-year-old infants, Pain. Feb, vol.184, pp.2-3, 2000.

V. P. Isner-horobeti-m-e and . Maigne-j-y, Manipulations vertébrales ? ostéopathie. Évidences/ignorances, Revue du Rhumatisme, vol.76, issue.5, pp.405-409, 2009.

V. Laroche-f, M. A. Bera-louville, and . Javier-r-m, Les opioïdes forts dans les douleurs ostéo-articulaires non cancéreuses : revue de la littérature et recommandations pour la pratique clinique : « Les recommandations de Limoges Douleurs : Evaluation -Diagnostic -Traitement, pp.259-275, 2010.

V. T. , M. S. Tait-ar, and T. A. , The reliability and validity of the Face, Legs, Activity, Cry, Consolability observational tool as a measure of pain in children with cognitive impairment, Anesth Analg, vol.95, issue.5, pp.1224-1229, 2002.

V. J. Buxeraud, Les médicaments de la douleur : les antalgiques de palier II. Actualités Pharmaceutiques, pp.27-30, 2013.

W. F. , C. Dj, F. , G. Dl, M. P. Katz-rs et al., The American College of Rheumatology preliminary diagnostic criteria for fibromyalgia and measurement of symptom severity, Arthritis Care Res, vol.62, issue.5, pp.600-610, 2010.

Z. J. Bigelow-g, . Compton-p, . Foley-k, . Iguchi-m, and . Sannerud-c, College on Problems of Drug Dependence taskforce on prescription opioid non-medical use and abuse: position statement. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, pp.215-232, 2003.

D. De, . En, . Armacie, and . Par, Mme Amandine MUSZCZAK Sujet ; Enquête sur les p-ratlques de prescription d'opiacés des méde<.ïins générolistes, dans le trahcmcnt des douleurs chroniques non cancéreuses: à propos d'une étude de rnisab, Profèsseur di:s Universités, Pmticie.1 l nuaché au CAP de Nancy Directeur: Mme TOURNESIZE. Pharmacien, Praticion uuacbé .au CBCP-A d1>

D. Mme and . Phaimacien, Présidente du CROP de lorraino M, Professeur des Universités, Praticien hospitalier. Chef de service de Psychia1rie et de Psyeholog

M. Dl-patrizio, P. Des-un, . Iversilés-@bulletédecine-Énérale, . Vu, . Nancy et al., Présidenl du conseil $è Î~n til1que du dépilrt~menl de

C. Liu and M. , LUU tl?i t1 11 ck l;;lu~ d1· 11?:;: CV GOOJ-1 ? ti~<>~ Nl\Ni, ?, vol.21, issue.1