T. Kuhn, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, 1970.

J. Bryant and C. , The Overthrow of the Phlogiston Theory: The Chemical Revolution of 1775-1789, 1950.

, of the emergence of chemistry as a distinct discipline varied from country to country. I am here only dealing with France. Also, it should be borne in mind that there were other 'chemical' communities apart from pharmacy involved, such as metallurgy, distilling and dyeing

, The current trends fall into two camps (i) to pinpoint the intellectual switch that can be claimed to be the chemical revolution or (ii) to understand what contemporaries took to have constituted the revolution

, My approach, particularly in stressing the multi-facetted nature of the chemical revolution reflects that of John McEvoy. See his "The Chemical Revolution in Context, The Eighteenth Century: Theory and Interpretation, vol.33, pp.198-216, 1992.

B. Le-bovier-de-fontenelle, Éloges des académiciens, Brussels: Culture & Civilisation, 1969), p.340

, Cours de chymie contenant la maniere de faire les operations qui sont en usage dans la médecine, par une méthode facile avec des raissonnemens sur chaque operation, pour l'instruction de ceux qui veulent s'appliquer à cette science, while the 1677 English translation by Walter Harris was entitled A Course of Chymistry Containing the Easiest Manner of performing those Operations that are in use in Physick

N. Lemery, The English is from Walter Harris's 1677 translation, Cours de chymie, p.102, 1675.

B. Charles-loudon, Chemistry Inorganic and Organic with Experiments, 9th Edn rewritten and revised by, p.498, 1903.

, op. cit, issue.7, pp.167-168

G. Venel, Chymie, Denis Diderot & Jean D'Alembert, Encyclopédie, vol.III, p.408, 1753.

, Macquer's Elements of Chemistry (1749-1751) does not feature information on medicinal doses of the chemicals discussed

, op. cit, vol.13, issue.10, p.431

, Many intellectual and personal biographies of Lavoisier have been written. Recent ones, produced to coincide with the bicentennial of his death on the guillotine in 1794 include. Bensaude-Vincent, Bernadette Lavoisier: Mémoires d'une révolution, 1993.

A. A. Donovan and . Lavoisier, Science, Administration and Revolution, 1993.

J. Poirier and . Lavoisier, , pp.1743-1794

J. Poirier, Lavoisier: Chemist, Biologist, Economist. Trans. Rebecca Balinski, 1996.

, Lavoisier became a supernumerary adjunct member, and the following year became an adjunct member when Jars died, vol.1768

, We are told that Lavoisier attended chemistry lectures given by both Rouelle and la Planche who certainly did not leave the medical applications to one side. For his mixed reaction to Rouelle's course see Bernadette Bensaude-Vincent "A view of the chemical revolution through contemporary textbooks: Lavoisier, Fourcroy and Chaptal, British Journal for the History of Science, vol.23, pp.435-460, 1990.

, When he translated Lavoisier's work into English, Robert Kerr gave it this title by which it has become standardly known in the English-speaking world

, See Maurice Crosland Historical Studies in the Language of Chemistry, 1962.

, Macquer in his Dictionary of Chemistry (1766) continued to offer information on the doses of certain chemicals, p.159

B. Bensaude-vincent, A view of the chemical revolution through contemporary textbooks: Lavoisier, Fourcroy and Chaptal, British Journal for the History of Science, vol.23, pp.435-460, 1990.

, Lavoisier does, however, think that knowledge of "les drogues simples" understood as knowledge of the natural bodies as nature presents them, should form a prerequisite for the study of chemistry, p.459

A. Fourcroy, Bibliothèque universelle des dames, Cuchet, 1787). p.x

A. Fourcroy, La Médecine éclairée par les sciences physiques, ou Journal des découvertes relatives aux différentes parties de l'art de guérir, rédigé par M. Fourcroy Volume I (Paris: Buisson, 1791), p.18. 26 ibid, pp.32-34

, 27 The full title of the journal was Journal de la société des pharmaciens de Paris ou recueil d'observations de chimie et de pharmacie, and it was published between 1797 and 1799, before merging with the Annales de chimie. For more about this journal see Susan Court and William A Smeaton, Ambix, vol.26, pp.39-55, 1979.

, For more of the intricate and intriguing publishing history of the Encyclopédie méthodique see Robert Darnton The Business of Enlightenment: A publishing History of the Encyclopédie, chapters VIII and IX, 1979.

, Encyclopédie méthodique, chimie, pharmacie et metallurgie, la chymie par M. de Morveau, la pharmacie par M. Maret, la métallurgie par M. Duhamel

P. Liège, , p.625

, Guyton wrote this second 'avertissement' inserted just before the entry on 'air' explaining his conversion to Lavoisier's theory

. Encyclopédie-méthodique, . Chimie, and . Metallurgie, , pp.1786-1815

, the work of other historians of chemistry, who point to other important aspects of eighteenth-century chemistry such as experimental practice. See Frederic Holmes Eighteenth-Century Chemistry as an Investigative Enterprise, 1989.

, For the role of Berthollet in establishing a healthy tradition of philosophical chemistry, see Maurice Crosland, The Society of Arcueil, 1967.

, Pantheon Books, 1977) has inspired various investigations into discipline formation in the sciences. For example Jan Goldstein Console and Classify : the French Psychiatric Profession in the, An important figure in disciplinary history is of course Michel Foucault whose Discipline and Punish : the Birth of the Prison, 1987.