J. M. Dyer, C. M. Cowell, S. Kohli, H. P. Jose, D. R. Singh et al., Invasive Species and the Resiliency of a Riparian Environment in "Invasive Plants and Forest Ecosystems, p.87, 2009.

J. G. Ehrenfeld, Effects of exotic plant invasions on soil nutrient cycling processes, Ecosystems, vol.6, p.503, 2003.

C. S. Elton, The ecology of invasions by animals and plants, 1958.

J. Emborg, Understorey light conditions and regeneration with respect to the structural dynamics of a near-natural temperate deciduous forest in Denmark, Forest Ecology and Management, vol.106, issue.2-3, pp.83-95, 1998.

A. K. Eschtruth and J. J. Battles, Assessing the relative importance of disturbance, herbivory, species diversity, and propagule pressure in exotic plant invasion, Ecological Monographs, vol.79, pp.265-280, 2009.

S. Fei, N. Kong, J. Stringer, and D. Bowker, Invasion Pattern of Exotic Plants in Forest Ecosystems, Invasive plants and forest ecosystems, 2008.

A. C. Finzi, N. Van-breemen, and C. Et-canham, Canopy tree-soil interactions within temperate forests: species effects on soil carbon and nitrogen, pp.440-446, 1998.

K. Fleischmann, Invasion of alien woody plants on the islands of Mahé and Silhouette, Seychelles. Journal of Vegetation Science, vol.8, pp.5-12, 1997.

S. L. Flory and K. Clay, Effects of roads and forest successional age on experimental plant invasions, Biol. Conserv, 2009.

K. J. Gandhi and D. Et-herms, Direct and indirect effects of alien insect herbivores on ecological processes and interactions in forests of eastern North America, Biological Invasions, vol.12, issue.2, pp.389-405, 2009.

E. Garnier and M. Navas, A trait-based approach to comparative functional plant ecology: concepts, methods and applications for agroecology. Agronomy for Sustainable Development, vol.32, pp.365-399, 2012.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00930507

G. Lechowicz and M. J. , Invasibility and abiotic gradients: the positive correlation between native and exotic plant diversity, Ecology, vol.86, pp.1848-55, 2005.

O. Godoy, F. Valladares, and P. Castro-diez, Multispecies comparison reveals that invasive and native plants differ in their traits but not in their plasticity, Functional Ecology, vol.25, pp.1248-1259, 2001.

J. C. Gower, A General Coefficient of Similarity and Some of Its Properties, Biometrics, vol.27, issue.4, pp.857-871, 1971.

G. E. Rejmánek, M. Rost, and T. L. , Toward a causal explanation of plant invasiveness: seedling growth and life-history strategies of 29 pine (Pinus) species, American Naturalist, vol.159, pp.396-419, 2002.

S. Harrison, Local, regional diversity in a patchy landscape: native, alien, and endemic herbs on serpentine, Ecology, vol.80, pp.70-80, 1999.

M. Henry and P. Quinby, Ontariòs Old-growth forests, vol.224, p.1550415808, 2010.

D. A. Herms, A. K. Stone, J. A. Chatfield, J. A. Chatfield, E. A. Draper et al., Emerald ash borer: the beginning of the end of ash in North America?, Ornamental Plants: Annual Reports and Research Reviews, pp.62-71, 2003.

J. L. Hierro, J. L. Maron, and R. M. Callaway, A biogeographical approach to plant invasions: the importance of studying exotics in their introduced and native range, Journal of Ecology, vol.93, pp.5-15, 2005.

R. J. Hobbs and L. Atkins, Effect of disturbance and nutrient addition on native and introduced annuals in plant communities in the Western Australia wheatbelt, Australian Journal of Ecology, vol.13, pp.171-179, 1988.

R. J. Hobbs, S. Arico, J. Aronson, J. S. Baron, P. Bridgewater et al., Novel ecosystems: theoretical and management aspects of the new ecological world order, Global Ecology and Biogeography, vol.15, pp.1-7, 2006.

S. Holm, A simple sequentially rejective multiple test procedure, Scandinavian Journal of Statistics, vol.6, issue.2, pp.65-70, 1979.

P. M. Kotanen, J. Bergelson, and D. L. Hazlett, Habitats of native and exotic plants in Colorado shortgrass steppe: a comparative approach, Canadian Journal of Botany, vol.76, pp.664-672, 1998.

I. Kowarik, Novel ecosystems, biodiversity, and conservation, Environmental pollution, vol.159, pp.1974-1983, 2011.

S. Lameire, M. Hermy, and O. Honnay, Two decades of change in the ground vegetation of a mixed deciduous forest in an agricultural landscape, Journal of Vegetation Science, vol.11, pp.695-704, 2000.

P. Legendre and E. D. Gallagher, Ecologically meaningful transformations for ordination of species data, Oecologia, vol.129, pp.271-280, 2001.

D. M. Lodge, Biological invasions : Lessons from ecology, Trends Ecol. Evol, vol.13, p.195, 1993.

G. M. Lovett, C. D. Canham, M. A. Arthur, K. C. Weathers, and R. D. Fitzhugh, Forest ecosystem responses to exotic pests and pathogens in eastern North America, BioScience, vol.56, issue.5, pp.395-405, 2006.

J. L. Maron and M. Vila, When do herbivores affect plant invasion ? Evidence for the natural enemies and biotic resistance hypotheses, Oikos, p.361, 2001.

P. H. Martin, C. D. Canham, and P. L. Marks, Why forests appear resistant to exotic plant invasions: intentional introductions, stand dynamics, and the role of shade tolerance, Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, vol.6, 2008.

D. Mccullough, Global Invasive Species Database, 2006.

A. T. Moles, M. A. Gruber, and S. P. Bonser, A new framework for predicting invasive plant species, Journal of Ecology, vol.96, pp.13-17, 2008.

F. Moola and L. Vasseur, The maintenance of understory residual flora with even-aged forest management: A review of temperate forests in northeastern North America, Environmental Review, vol.16, pp.141-155, 2008.

H. A. Mooney and R. J. Hobbs, Invasive Species in a Changing World, 2000.

M. R. Moore and J. Vankat, Responses of the herb layer to the gap dynamics of a mature beech-maple forest, American Midland Naturalist, pp.336-347, 1986.

W. K. Moser, M. H. Hansen, M. D. Nelson, W. H. Mcwilliams, S. Kohli et al., Relationship of Invasive Groundcover Plant Presence to Evidence of Disturbance in the Forests of the Upper Midwest of the United States, in "Invasive Plants and Forest Ecosystems, p.29, 2009.

T. Naaf and M. Wulf, Traits of winner and loser species indicate drivers of herb layer changes over two decades in forests of NW Germany, Journal of Vegetation Science, vol.22, pp.516-527, 2011.

, Natural Resources Canada, « About the Canadian forest service, Traits of Plants in Canada (TOPIC), pp.23-24

, Ontario ministry of Natural Resources, dernière mise à jour, Les forêts de l'Ontario en bref, pp.12-19

A. M. Planty-tabacchi, E. Tabacchi, R. J. Naiman, C. Deferrari, and H. Décamps, Invasibility of species-rich communities in riparian zones, Conservation Biology, vol.10, pp.598-607, 1996.

T. M. Poland and D. Mccullough, Emerald Ash Borer: Invasion of the Urban Forest and the Threat to North Americas Ash Resources, Journal of Forestry, vol.104, pp.118-124, 2006.

C. R. Rao, Diversity and dissimilarity measurements: A unified approach, Theor. Popul. Biol, vol.21, pp.24-43, 1982.

S. H. Reichard and C. W. Hamilton, Predicting invasions of woody plants introduced into North America, Conserv. Biol, vol.11, pp.193-203, 1997.

A. H. De-römer, D. D. Kneeshaw, and Y. Bergeron, Small gap dynamics in the southern boreal forest of eastern Canada: Do canopy gaps influence stand development?, Journal of Vegetation Science, vol.18, pp.815-826, 2007.

J. L. Sabo, R. Sponseller, M. Dixon, K. Gade, T. Harms et al., Riparian zones increase regional species richness by harboring different, not more, species. Ecolog, vol.86, issue.1, pp.56-62, 2004.

C. E. Shannon, Reprinted with corrections from The Bell System Technical Journal, vol.27, pp.623-656, 1948.

C. E. Shannon and W. Weaver, The Mathematical Theory of Communications, p.125, 1963.

D. Simberloff and B. Von-holle, Positive interactions of nonindigenous species: invasional meltdown?, BIOLOGICAL INVASIONS, vol.1, issue.1, pp.1387-3547, 1999.

E. Simpson, Nature, vol.163, p.688, 1949.

B. Stadler, Hemlock Woolly Adelgid in New England Forests: Canopy Impacts Transforming Ecosystem Processes and Landscapes, Ecosystems, vol.8, pp.233-247, 2005.

T. J. Stohlgren, K. A. Bull, Y. Otsuki, C. A. Villa, and M. Lee, Riparian zones as havens for exotic plant species in central grasslands, Plant Ecology, vol.138, pp.113-125, 1998.

W. E. Stone and M. Wolfe, Response of understory vegetation to variable tree mortality following a mountain pine beetle epidemic in lodgepole pine stands in northern Utah, Plant Ecology, vol.122, pp.1-12, 1996.