. Presentation and . .. Sujet,

. , Contexte en réanimation polyvalente du CHR et présentation du sujet de thèse

A. .. En-anglais,

S. .. Et-perspectives,

. , La nature du service de soins et son organisation, Le respect des mesures d'hygiène

L. .. Des-abreviations,

B. .. ,

. .. Autorisation-d'imprimer,

, Antimicrobial resistance: global report on surveillance, 2014.

E. Lautenbach, J. B. Patel, W. B. Bilker, P. H. Edelstein, and N. O. Fishman, Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae: risk factors for infection and impact of resistance on outcomes, Clin Infect Dis, vol.32, pp.1162-1171, 2001.

J. D. Siegel, E. Rhinehart, M. Jackson, and L. Chiarello, Health Care Infection Control Practices

, Maîtrise de la diffusion des bactéries multi-résistantes aux antibiotiques. Recommandations pour les établissements de santé. Documentation du Ministère de l'Emploi et de la Solidarité, Comité Technique des Infections Nosocomiales, 1999.

J. D. Siegel, E. Rhinehart, M. Jackson, and L. Chiarello, Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee. Management of multidrug-resistant organisms in health care settings, Am J Infect Control. déc, vol.35, issue.10, pp.165-193, 2006.

, Résistance aux antimicrobiens. Aide-mémoire N°194, 2015.

, European centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Technical report-The bacterial challenge : time to react, 2009.

, Antibiotic Resistance Threats in the United States, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2013.

M. Colomb-cotinat, J. Lacoste, B. Coignard, S. Vaux, C. Brun-buisson et al., Morbidité et mortalité des infections à bactéries multi-résistantes aux antibiotiques en France en 2012

R. Smith and J. Coast, The true cost of antimicrobial resistance, BMJ, vol.346, p.1493, 2013.

. Institut-de-veille and . Sanitaire, Surveillance des bactéries multirésistances dans les établissements de santé en France-Réseau BMR-RAISIN-Résultats, 2013.

. Institut-de-veille and . Sanitaire, Surveillance de la consommation des antibiotiques-Réseau ATB-RAISIN-Résultats, 2014.

, WHO Collaborating Centre for Drug Statistics Methodology. Guidelines for ATC classification and DDD assignment, 2015.

. Institut-de-veille and . Sanitaire, Surveillance des infections nosocomiales en réanimation adulte-Réseau REA-RAISIN-Résultats, 2014.

. Insitut-de-veille and . Sanitaire, Enquête nationale de prévalence des infections nosocomiales et des traitements anti-infectieux en établissements de santé, 2012.

, Surveillance report : Antimicrobial resistance in Europe, 2014.

D. Pittet, S. Hugonnet, S. Harbarth, P. Mourouga, V. Sauvan et al., Effectiveness of a hospital-wide programme to improve compliance with hand hygiene, Infection Control Programme. Lancet Lond Engl, vol.356, issue.9238, pp.1307-1319, 2000.

, Consommation d'antibiotiques et résistance aux antibiotiques en France : nécessité d'une mobilisation déterminée et durable. Bilan des données de surveillance, 2015.

R. Cantón, A. Novais, A. Valverde, E. Machado, L. Peixe et al., Prevalence and spread of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in Europe

, Clin Microbiol Infect Off Publ Eur Soc Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. janv, vol.14, pp.144-53, 2008.

. Haut-conseil-de-la-santé-publique, Prévenir l'émergence des entérobactéries BLSE et lutter contre leur dissémination

J. C. Lucet, D. Decré, A. Fichelle, M. L. Joly-guillou, M. Pernet et al., Control of a prolonged outbreak of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing enterobacteriaceae in a university hospital, Clin Infect Dis Off Publ Infect Dis Soc Am. déc, vol.29, issue.6, pp.1411-1419, 1999.

R. Française, circulaire DGS/DH 98/249 du 20 avril 1998 relative à la prévention de la transmission d'agents infectieux véhiculés par le sang ou les liquides biologiques lors des soins, 1998.

, Société Française d'Hygiène Hospitalière. Recommandations pour l'hygiène des mains, Hygiènes, 2009.

. Société-française-d'hygiène-hospitalière, Recommandations nationales-Prévention de la transmission croisée, précautions complémentaires contact. Hygiènes, 2009.

. Haut-conseil-de-la-santé-publique, Prévention de la transmission croisée des bactéries hautement résistantes aux antibiotiques émergentes (BHRe)

J. M. Boyce and D. Pittet, Infectious Diseases Society of America. Hand Hygiene Task Force. Guideline for Hand Hygiene in Health-Care Settings: recommendations of the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee and the HICPAC/SHEA/APIC/IDSA Hand Hygiene Task Force, Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. déc, vol.23, pp.3-40, 2002.

B. Clarivet, D. Grau, E. Jumas-bilak, J. , H. Pantel et al., Persisting transmission of carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae due to an environmental reservoir in a university hospital, Euro Surveill Bull Eur Sur Mal Transm Eur Commun Dis Bull. 28 avr, vol.21, issue.17, 2012.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01905388

J. R. Zahar, V. Masse, L. Watier, F. Lanternier, N. Degand et al., Is hand-rub consumption correlated with hand hygiene and rate of extended-spectrum betalactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE)-acquired infections?, J Hosp Infect. avr, vol.80, issue.4, pp.348-50, 2012.

M. Shardell, A. D. Harris, S. S. El-kamary, J. P. Furuno, R. R. Miller et al., Statistical analysis and application of quasi experiments to antimicrobial resistance intervention studies, Clin Infect Dis Off Publ Infect Dis Soc Am, vol.45, issue.7, pp.901-908, 2007.

E. Girou, S. Chai, F. Oppein, P. Legrand, D. Ducellier et al., Misuse of gloves: the foundation for poor compliance with hand hygiene and potential for microbial transmission?, J Hosp Infect. juin, vol.57, issue.2, pp.162-171, 2004.

N. G. Almyroudis, R. Osawa, G. Samonis, M. Wetzler, E. S. Wang et al., Discontinuation of Systematic Surveillance and Contact Precautions for VancomycinResistant Enterococcus (VRE) and Its Impact on the Incidence of VRE faecium Bacteremia in Patients with Hematologic Malignancies, Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. avr, vol.37, issue.4, pp.398-403, 2016.

S. Tschudin-sutter, R. Frei, F. Schwahn, M. Tomic, M. Conzelmann et al., Prospective Validation of Cessation of Contact Precautions for Extended-Spectrum ?Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli(1), Emerg Infect Dis. juin, vol.22, issue.6, pp.1094-1101, 2016.

J. Zahar, L. Poirel, C. Dupont, N. Fortineau, X. Nassif et al., About the usefulness of contact precautions for carriers of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli, BMC Infect Dis, vol.15, p.512, 2015.

M. B. Edmond, N. Masroor, M. P. Stevens, J. Ober, and G. Bearman, The Impact of Discontinuing Contact Precautions for VRE and MRSA on Device-Associated Infections, Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. août, vol.36, issue.8, pp.978-80, 2015.

S. Dhar, D. Marchaim, R. Tansek, T. Chopra, A. Yousuf et al., Contact precautions: more is not necessarily better, Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. mars, vol.35, issue.3, pp.213-234, 2014.

C. Abad, A. Fearday, and N. Safdar, Adverse effects of isolation in hospitalised patients: a systematic review, J Hosp Infect, vol.76, issue.2, pp.97-102, 2010.

J. R. Zahar, M. Garrouste-orgeas, A. Vesin, C. Schwebel, A. Bonadona et al., Impact of contact isolation for multidrug-resistant organisms on the occurrence of medical errors and adverse events, Intensive Care Med. déc, vol.39, issue.12, pp.2153-60, 2013.

C. Landelle, L. Pagani, and S. Harbarth, Is patient isolation the single most important measure to prevent the spread of multidrug-resistant pathogens?, Virulence. 15 févr, vol.4, issue.2, pp.163-71, 2013.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02012449

A. D. Harris, L. Pineles, B. Belton, J. K. Johnson, M. Shardell et al., Universal glove and gown use and acquisition of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in the ICU: a randomized trial, JAMA, vol.310, issue.15, pp.1571-80, 2013.

B. S. Cooper, S. P. Stone, C. C. Kibbler, B. D. Cookson, J. A. Roberts et al., Isolation measures in the hospital management of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA): systematic review of the literature, BMJ. 4 sept, vol.329, issue.7465, p.533, 2004.

. Société-française-d'hygiène-hospitalière, Surveiller et prévenir les infections liées aux soins. Hygiènes, 2010.

P. Torres-gonzalez, M. E. Cervera-hernandez, M. D. Niembro-ortega, F. Leal-vega, L. P. Cruzhervert et al., Factors Associated to Prevalence and Incidence of Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae Fecal Carriage: A Cohort Study in a Mexican Tertiary Care Hospital, PLoS ONE, vol.10, issue.2, 2015.

. Disponible,

C. Se, Rapport du réseau Sud-Est de surveillance et de prévention des bactéries multirésistantes aux antibiotiques, 2014.

K. B. Kirkland, Taking off the gloves: toward a less dogmatic approach to the use of contact isolation, Clin Infect Dis Off Publ Infect Dis Soc Am. 15 mars, vol.48, issue.6, pp.766-71, 2009.

. République-française, Instruction DGOS/PF2/2015/67 du 11 mars 2015 relative au bilan des activités de lutte contre les infections nosocomiales dans les établissements de santé, 2015.

R. Joulé, La soumission librement consentie. Editions Presses universiatires de France, 1998.

R. Joulé, Petit traité de manipulation à l'usage des honnêtes gens. Editions Presses universiatires de Grenoble, 2002.

J. A. Cepeda, T. Whitehouse, B. Cooper, J. Hails, K. Jones et al., Isolation of patients in single rooms or cohorts to reduce spread of MRSA in intensive-care units: prospective two-centre study, Lancet Lond Engl. 22 janv, vol.365, issue.9456, pp.295-304, 2005.

P. Gastmeier, F. Schwab, C. Geffers, and H. Rüden, To isolate or not to isolate? Analysis of data from the German Nosocomial Infection Surveillance System regarding the placement of patients with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in private rooms in intensive care units, Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. févr, vol.25, issue.2, pp.109-122, 2004.

D. Bracco, M. Dubois, R. Bouali, and P. Eggimann, Single rooms may help to prevent nosocomial bloodstream infection and cross-transmission of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in intensive care units, Intensive Care Med. mai, vol.33, issue.5, pp.836-876, 2007.

S. Hugonnet, S. Harbarth, H. Sax, R. A. Duncan, and D. Pittet, Nursing resources: a major determinant of nosocomial infection?, Curr Opin Infect Dis. août, vol.17, issue.4, pp.329-362, 2004.
DOI : 10.1097/01.qco.0000136931.83167.d2

J. Needleman, P. Buerhaus, V. S. Pankratz, C. L. Leibson, S. R. Stevens et al., Nurse staffing and inpatient hospital mortality, N Engl J Med. 17 mars, vol.364, issue.11, pp.1037-1082, 2011.
DOI : 10.1056/nejmsa1001025

M. G. Lankford, T. R. Zembower, W. E. Trick, D. M. Hacek, G. A. Noskin et al., Influence of role models and hospital design on hand hygiene of healthcare workers, Emerg Infect Dis. févr, vol.9, issue.2, pp.217-240, 2003.

R. L. Sinkowitz-cochran, K. H. Burkitt, T. Cuerdon, C. Harrison, S. Gao et al., The associations between organizational culture and knowledge, attitudes, and practices in a multicenter Veterans Affairs quality improvement initiative to prevent methicillinresistant Staphylococcus aureus, Am J Infect Control. mars, vol.40, issue.2, pp.138-181, 2012.