R. Ferrer, . Le-traumatisme-crânien, and . Léger, , 2016.

R. W. Rimel, B. Giordani, J. T. Barth, T. J. Boll, and J. A. Jane, Disability caused by minor head injury, Neurosurgery, vol.9, issue.3, pp.221-228, 1981.

S. Dikmen, A. Mclean, . Jr, N. R. Temkin, and A. R. Wyler, Neuropsychologic outcome at one-month postinjury, Arch Phys Med Rehabil, vol.67, issue.8, pp.507-513, 1986.

H. S. Levin, S. Mattis, R. M. Ruff, H. M. Eisenberg, L. F. Marshall et al., Neurobehavioral outcome following minor head injury: a three-center study, J Neurosurg, vol.66, issue.2, pp.234-243, 1987.

J. R. De-kruijk, A. Twijnstra, and P. Leffers, Diagnostic criteria and differential diagnosis of mild traumatic brain injury, Brain Injury, vol.15, issue.2, 2001.

L. J. Carroll, J. D. Cassidy, L. Holm, J. Kraus, V. G. Coronado et al., Task Force on

, Mild Traumatic Brain Injury. Methodological issues and research recommendations for mild traumatic brain injury: the WHO Collaborating Centre Task Force on Mild Traumatic Brain Injury, J Rehabil Med, issue.43, pp.113-138, 2004.

P. Couillard, « Orientations ministérielles pour le traumatisme cranio-cérébral léger (TCCL), 2010.

C. E. Gaw and M. R. Zonfrillo, Emergency department visits for head trauma in the United States, BMC Emerg Med, vol.16, p.5, 2016.

W. Peeters and R. Van-den-brande, Epidemiology of traumatic brain injury in Europe, Acta Neurochir, 2015.

M. Hours, M. Bernard, P. Charnay, L. Chossegros, E. Javouhey et al.,

B. Laumon, Functional outcome after road-crash injury: description of the ESPARR victims cohort and 6-month follow-up results, Accid Anal Prev, vol.42, issue.2, pp.412-421, 2010.

C. Jourdan, E. Bayen, V. Bosserelle, S. Azerad, F. Genet et al.,

, Referral to rehabilitation severe trauma brain injury: Results from the PariS-TBI Study, Neurorehabilitation & Neural Repair, vol.27, pp.35-44, 2013.

J. F. Mathe, I. Richard, and J. Rome, Serious brain injury and public health, epidemiologic and financial considerations, comprehensive management and care, Ann Fr Anesth Reanim, vol.24, pp.688-94, 2005.

, Formation initiale-Traumatismes craniens, 2006.

P. Dabadie, F. Sztark, M. E. Petitjean, M. Thicoipe, and J. Favarel-garigues, Physiopathologie et réanimation des traumatismes crâniens

. Disponible,

B. K. Siesjo, Basic mechanisms of traumatic brain damage, Ann Emerg Med, vol.22, pp.959-969, 1993.

, 16 Traumatisme crâniofacial

G. Teasdale and B. Jennett, Assessment of coma and impaired consciousness. A practical scale, Lancet, vol.2, pp.81-84, 1974.
DOI : 10.1016/s0140-6736(74)91639-0

G. Teasdale, Adding up the Glasgow Coma Score, Acta Neurochir. Suppl, vol.28, pp.13-19, 1979.
DOI : 10.1007/978-3-7091-4088-8_2

T. W. Langfitt, Measuring the outcome from head injuries, J. Neurosurg, vol.48, pp.673-678, 1978.
DOI : 10.3171/jns.1978.48.5.0673

, Prise en charge des traumatisés craniens graves à la phase précoce. SFAR/SRLF Janvier 1998, Recommandations pour la Pratique Clinique (ANAES)

G. Teasdale and B. Jennett, Assessment of coma and impaired consciousness. A practical scale, Lancet, vol.1974, issue.7872, pp.81-85
DOI : 10.1016/s0140-6736(74)91639-0

J. Bruns and W. A. Hauser, The epidemiology of traumatic brain injury: a review, Epilepsia, vol.10, issue.44, pp.2-10, 2003.

J. D. Born, A. Albert, P. Hans, and J. Bonnal, Relative prognostic value of best motor response and brain stem reflexes in patients with severe head injury, Neurosurgery, vol.16, issue.5, pp.595-601, 1985.

S. J. Master, P. M. Mc-clean, and J. S. Arcarèse, Skull X-Ray examination after head trauma: recommandations by a multidisciplinary panel and validation study, N Engl J Med, vol.316, pp.84-91, 1987.

N. Vialles, J. Fléchet, J. Estorc, and J. De-la-coussaye, Prise en charge d'un traumatisme crânien non grave, dans MAPAR, pp.591-597, 2003.

S. C. Stein and C. Spettell, The Head Injury Severity Scale (HISS): a practical classification of closedhead injury, Brain injury, vol.9, issue.5, pp.437-481, 1995.

J. E. Starmark, D. Stalhammar, E. Holmgren, and B. Rosander, A comparison of the Glasgow Coma Scale and the Reaction Level Scale (RLS85), J Neurosurg, vol.69, pp.699-706, 1988.

I. G. Stiell, G. A. Wells, and K. Vandemheen, The Canadian CT Head Rule for patients with minor head injury, Lancet, vol.357, pp.1391-1397, 2001.

M. J. Haydel, C. A. Preston, and T. J. Mills, Indications for Computed Tomography in Patients with Minor Head Injury, N Engl J Med, vol.343, pp.100-105, 2000.

, Traumatisme crânien léger (score de Glasgow de 13 à 15), 2012.

, Juillet, 2017.

. Disponible, , 1993.

, Bon usage des antithrombotiques. Octobre, APHP, 2014.

. Disponible,

A. Fabbri, F. Servadei, G. Marchesini, S. C. Stein, and A. Vandelli, Predicting intracranial lesions by antiplatelet agents in subjects with mild head injury, J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. janv, vol.81, issue.11, pp.1275-1284, 2010.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00557433

E. S. Brewer, B. Reznikov, and R. F. Liberman, Incidence and Predictors of Intracranial Hemorrhage After Minor Head Trauma in Patients Taking Anticoagulant and Antiplatelet Medication, J Trauma, vol.70, issue.1, pp.1-5, 2011.

D. K. Nishijima, S. R. Offerman, and D. W. Ballard, Risk of Traumatic Intracranial Hemorrhage In Patients With Head Injury and Preinjury Warfarin or Clopidogrel Use, Acad Emerg Med. févr, vol.20, issue.2, pp.140-145, 2013.

M. Levine, B. Wyler, and F. Lovecchio, Risk of intracranial injury after minor head trauma in patients with pre-injury use of clopidogrel, Am J Emerg Med. janv, vol.32, issue.1, pp.71-75, 2014.

F. A. Ivascu, G. A. Howells, and F. S. Junn, Predictors of Mortality in Trauma Patients with Intracranial Hemorrhage on Preinjury Aspirin or Clopidogrel: J Trauma, vol.65, pp.785-793, 2008.

C. Ohm, A. Mina, and G. Howells, Effects of antiplatelet agents on outcomes for elderly patients with traumatic intracranial hemorrhage, J Trauma. Mars, vol.58, issue.3, pp.518-540, 2005.

M. I. Baharoglu, C. Cordonnier, A. Salman, and R. , Platelet transfusion versus standard care after acute stroke due to spontaneous cerebral haemorrhage associated with antiplatelet therapy (PATCH): a randomised, open-label, Lancet, vol.387, pp.2605-2613, 2016.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01561017

J. S. Batchelor and A. Grayson, A meta-analysis to determine the effect of preinjury antiplatelet agents on mortality in patients with blunt head trauma, Br J Neurosurg, vol.27, issue.1, pp.12-20, 2013.

K. Jones, C. Sharp, A. J. Mangram, and E. L. Dunn, The effects of preinjury clopidogrel use on older trauma patients with head injuries, Am J Surg, vol.192, issue.6, pp.743-748, 2006.

D. B. Cohen and C. Rinker, Traumatic brain injury in anticoagulated patients, Journal of Trauma, vol.60, pp.553-557, 2006.

M. Smits, D. Dippel, and E. W. Steyerberg, Predicting Intracranial Traumatic Findings on Computed Tomography in Patients with Minor Head Injury: The CHIP Prediction Rule, Ann Intern Med. mars, vol.146, issue.6, pp.397-405, 2007.

A. A. Mina, J. F. Knipfer, and D. Y. Park, Intracranial complications of preinjury anticoagulation in trauma patients with head injury, J Trauma, vol.53, pp.668-72, 2002.

V. G. Menditto, M. Lucci, and S. Polonara, Management of Minor Head Injury in Patients Receiving Oral Anticoagulant Therapy: A Prospective Study of a 24-Hour Observation Protocol, Ann Emerg Med. juin, vol.59, issue.6, pp.451-456, 2012.

J. S. Batchelor and A. Grayson, A meta-analysis to determine the effect of anticoagulation on mortality in patients with blunt head trauma, Br J Neurosurg, vol.26, pp.525-530, 2006.

J. Stein, B. E. Viramontes, and D. C. Kerrigan, Fall-related injuries in anticoagulated stroke patients during in patient rehabilitation, Arch Phys Med Rehabil, vol.76, pp.840-843, 1995.
DOI : 10.1016/s0003-9993(95)80549-4

, Hémorragies du système nerveux central associées à un traitement AVK : analyse des facteurs de risque, 2004.

R. G. Hart, S. B. Tonarelli, and L. A. Pearce, Avoiding central nervous system bleeding during antithrombotic therapy recent-Data and ideas, Stroke, vol.36, pp.1588-1593, 2005.
DOI : 10.1161/01.str.0000170642.39876.f2

URL : https://www.ahajournals.org/doi/pdf/10.1161/01.STR.0000170642.39876.f2

J. P. Broderick, Volume of intracerebral hemorrhage. A powerful and easy-to-use predictor of 30-day mortality, Stroke, issue.24, pp.987-993, 1993.

J. C. Hemphill, D. C. Bonovich, and L. Besmertis, The ICH score: a simple, reliable grading scale for intracerebral hemorrhage, Stroke, vol.32, pp.891-898, 2001.

K. P. Cabral, G. L. Fraser, and J. Duprey, Prothrombin complex concentrates to reverse warfarininduced coagulopathy in patients with intracranial bleeding, Clin Neurol Neurosurg, vol.115, pp.770-774, 2013.

J. D. Miller and R. Nader, Acute subdural hematoma from bridging vein rupture: a potential mechanism for growth, J Neurosurg, vol.120, pp.1378-1384, 2014.

B. P. Lucke-wold, R. C. Turner, and D. Josiah, Do Age and Anticoagulants Affect the Natural History of Acute Subdural Hematomas?, Arch Emerg Med Crit Care, vol.1, issue.2, 2016.

, Prise en charge des surdosages en antivitamines K, des situations à risque hémorragique et des accidents hémorragiques chez les patients traités par antivitamines K en ville et en milieu hospitalier, Avril, 2008.

. Disponible,

L. Derex, P. Sié, and C. Cordonnier, Hémorragie intracérébrale sous anticoagulants oraux directsPréconisations pour une prise en charge en urgence, 2014.

G. Pernod, P. Albaladejo, and A. Godier, Management of major bleeding complications and emergency surgery in patients on long-term treatment with direct oral anticoagulants, thrombin or factor-Xa inhibitors. Proposals of the Working Group on Perioperative Haemostasis (GIHP) Ann Fr Anesth Reanim, vol.32, pp.691-700, 2013.

E. Rouff, J. Boddaert, and P. Ray, Patients âgés aux urgences, dans « Qualité des soins », La Revue du Praticien de Médecine Générale, Nr, vol.917, pp.208-209, 2014.

. Smith and S. Weeks, The impact of pre-injury anticoagulation therapy in the older adult patient experiencing a traumatic brain injury: A systematic review, JBI Libr syst rev 2012, vol.10, issue.58, pp.4610-4621

M. M. Moore, M. D. Pasquale, and M. Badellino, Impact of age and anticoagulation: Need for neurosurgical intervention in trauma patients with mild traumatic brain injury, J Trauma Acute Care Surg, vol.73, pp.126-156, 2012.

A. Kehoe, S. Rennie, and J. E. Smith, Glasgow Coma Scale is unreliable for the prediction of severe head injury in elderly trauma patients, Emergency Medicine Journal, vol.32, issue.8, pp.613-615, 2015.

K. Salottolo, A. S. Levy, D. S. Slone, and C. W. Mains, Bar-Or D. The effect of age on Glasgow Coma Scale score in patients with traumatic brain injury, JAMA Surg, vol.149, pp.727-734, 2014.

M. Tauber, H. Koller, P. Moroder, . Hitzel, and H. Resch, Secondary intracranial hemorrage after mild head injury in patients with low-dose acetylsalicylate acid prophylaxis, J Trauma, vol.67, pp.521-525, 2009.

K. A. Peck, C. B. Sise, and S. R. Shackford, Delayed intracranial haemorrhage after blunt head trauma: are patients on preinjury anticoagulants and prescription antiplatelet agents at risk?, J Trauma, vol.71, pp.1600-1604, 2011.

H. J. Thompson, W. C. Mccormick, and S. H. Kagan, Traumatic brain injury in older adults: epidemiology, outcomes, and future implications, J Am Geriatr Soc, vol.54, pp.1590-1595, 2006.

F. A. Ivascu, R. J. Janczyk, and F. S. Junn, Treatment of trauma patients with intracranial hemorrhage on preinjury warfarin, J Trauma, vol.61, issue.2, pp.318-339, 2006.

J. L. Howard, M. D. Cipolle, and S. A. Horvat, Preinjury Warfarin Worsens Outcome in Elderly Patients Who Fall from Standing, J Trauma. Juin, vol.66, issue.6, pp.1518-1542, 2009.

J. Franko and K. J. Kish, Advance age and preinjury warfarin anticoagulation increase the risk of mortality after head trauma, J Trauma, vol.61, issue.1, pp.107-117, 2006.

S. Shabani, H. S. Nguyen, N. Doan, and J. L. Baisden, Case Report and Review of Literature of Delayed Acute Subdural Hematoma, World Neurosurg, vol.96, pp.66-71, 2016.

A. Harel, M. Kvist, S. Nuutinen, and L. Välimaa, Biomarkers of Traumatic Brain Injury: Temporal Changes in Body Fluids, vol.3, pp.294-310, 2016.

F. Michetti, A. Massaro, G. Russo, and G. Rigon, The S-100 antigen in cerebrospinal fluid as a possible index of cell injury in the nervous system, J Neurol Sci, vol.44, pp.259-263, 1980.

E. Mercier, A. Boutin, F. Lauzier, D. A. Fergusson, J. Simard et al., Predictive value of S-100 protein for prognosis in patients with moderate and severe traumatic brain injury: systematic review and meta-analysis, BMJ, vol.346, p.1757, 2013.

C. Stocchero, J. P. Oses, G. S. Cunha, J. B. Martins, L. M. Brum et al., Serum S100B level increases after running but not cycling exercise, Appl Physiol Nutr Metab, vol.39, pp.340-344, 2014.

H. Haimoto, S. Hosoda, and K. Kato, Differential distribution of immunoreactive S100-alpha and S100beta proteins in normal nonnervous human tissues, Lab Invest, vol.57, pp.489-98, 1987.

J. Undén, T. Ingebrigtsen, and R. B. The-scandinavian-neurotrauma-committee, , 2013.

, Scandinavian guidelines for initial management of minimal, mild and moderate head injuries in adults: an evidence and consensus-based update, BMC Med, vol.11, p.50

L. Undén, O. Calcagnile, J. Undén, P. Reinstrup, and J. Bazarian, Validation of the Scandinavian guidelines for initial management of minimal, mild and moderate traumatic brain injury in adults, BMC Med, vol.13, p.292, 2015.

A. Rodríguez-rodríguez, J. J. Egea-guerrero, and A. León-justel, Role of S100B protein in urine and serum as an early predictor of mortality after severe traumatic brain injury in adults, Clin Chim Acta, vol.414, pp.228-233, 2012.

H. W. Thaler, Evaluation of S100B in the diagnosis of suspected intracranial hemorrhage after minor head injury in patients who are receiving platelet aggregation inhibitors and in patients 65 years of age and older, J Neurosurg, vol.123, pp.1202-1210, 2015.

E. P. Thelin, D. W. Nelson, and B. Bellander, A review of the clinical utility of serum S100B protein levels in the assessment of traumatic brain injury, Acta Neurochir, vol.159, pp.209-234, 2017.

M. Raphael, Traumatismes crâniens de la personne âgée : la pratique de l'urgentiste, en : Colloque France : Traumatisme crânien, 2016.

. Disponible,

E. Schmidt, Que sait-on du traumatisme crânien de la personne âgée

. Disponible-sur-:-disponible-sur,