X. Bibliographie,

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K. Guru, B. W. Kuvshinoff, S. Pavlov-shapiro, M. B. Bienko, M. N. Aftab et al., Impact of robotics and laparoscopy on surgical skills : a comparative study, J Am Coll Surg, vol.204, issue.1, pp.96-101, 2007.

J. S. Park, G. S. Choi, and K. H. Lim, Robotic-assisted versus laparoscopic surgery for low rectal cancer: case-matched analysis of short-term outcomes, Ann Surg Oncol, 2010.

H. N. White, J. Frederick, T. Zimmerman, W. R. Carroll, and J. Magnuson, Learning Curve for Transoral Robotic Surgery: A 4-Year Analysis, JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg, vol.139, issue.6, pp.564-567, 2013.

M. A. Cooper, A. Ibrahim, H. Lyu, and M. A. Makary, Underreporting of robotic surgery complications, J Healthc Qual, vol.37, issue.2, pp.133-141, 2015.

C. Sheridan, C. Bach, and A. Koupparis, How to train your surgeon! Experience of a patient side assistant, Arab J Urol, vol.12, issue.1, pp.62-63, 2014.

R. Kumar and A. K. Hemal, The 'scrubbed surgeon' in robotic surgery, World J Urol, vol.24, pp.144-151, 2006.

L. Brunaud, L. Bresler, A. Ayav, R. Zarnegar, A. L. Raphoz et al., Robotic-assisted adrenalectomy: what advantages compared to lateral transperitoneal laparoscopic adrenalectomy?, Am J Surg, vol.195, issue.4, pp.433-441, 2008.

L. Brunaud, A. Ayav, R. Zarnegar, A. Rouers, M. Klein et al., Prospective evaluation of 100 robotic-assisted unilateral adrenalectomies, Surgery, 2008.
DOI : 10.1016/j.surg.2008.08.032

W. D. Steers, S. Lebeau, J. Cardella, and B. Fulmer, Establishing a robotics program, Urol Clin North Am, vol.31, pp.773-80, 2004.
DOI : 10.1016/j.ucl.2004.06.004

A. M. Potretzke, B. A. Knight, J. A. Brockman, J. Vetter, R. S. Figenshau et al., The role of the assistant during robot-assisted partial nephrectomy: does experience matter?, J Robot Surg, vol.10, issue.2, pp.129-163, 2016.

K. K. Badani, A. K. Hemal, J. O. Peabody, and M. Menon, Robotic radical prostatectomy: the Vattikuti Urology Institute training experience, World J Urol, vol.24, pp.148-51, 2006.
DOI : 10.1007/s00345-006-0072-4

T. J. Guzzo and M. L. Gonzalgo, Robotic surgical training of the urologic oncologist, Urol Oncol

, The Robotic Training Network

D. D. Thiel, A. Lannen, R. E. Dove, J. Gajarawala, N. M. Igel et al., Simulation-based training for bedside assistants can benefit experienced robotic prostatectomy teams, J Endourol, vol.27, issue.2, pp.230-237, 2013.
DOI : 10.1089/end.2012.0382

M. Broholm and J. Rosenberg, Surgical Residents are Excluded From Robot-assisted Surgery, Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech, vol.25, issue.5, pp.449-50, 2015.
DOI : 10.1097/sle.0000000000000190

R. A. Fischer, P. Dasgupta, A. Mottrie, A. Volpe, M. S. Khan et al., An over-view of robot assisted surgery curricula and the status of their validation, Int J Surg, vol.13, pp.115-123, 2015.

K. Ahmed, R. Khan, A. Mottrie, C. Lovegrove, R. Abaza et al., Development of a standardised training curriculum for robotic surgery: a consensus statement from an international multidisciplinary group of experts, BJU Int, vol.116, issue.1, pp.93-101, 2015.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01730261

L. Bernstein-leibhard, da Vinci robot lawsuit information center

, Commonwealth of Massachussetts Board of Registration in Medicine

G. Fiard, G. Capon, J. Rizk, C. Maurin, C. Dariane et al., Evaluation de l'utilisation de la simulation dans la formation des jeunes urologues français : une enquête de l'association française des urologues en formation (AFUF), Prog Urol, vol.24, issue.6, pp.390-396, 2014.
DOI : 10.1016/j.purol.2013.10.013

R. K. Ruparel, A. S. Taylor, J. Patel, V. R. Patel, M. G. Heckman et al., Assessment of virtual reality robotic simulation performance by urology resident trainees, J Surg Educ, vol.71, issue.3, pp.302-310, 2014.

P. A. Kenney, M. F. Wszolek, J. J. Gould, J. A. Libertino, and A. Moinzadeh, Face, content, and construct validity of dV-trainer, a novel virtual reality simulator for robotic surgery, Urology

, , vol.73, pp.1288-92, 2009.

A. J. Hung, P. Zehnder, M. B. Patil, J. Cai, C. K. Ng et al., Face, content and construct validity of a novel robotic surgery simulator, J Urol, vol.186, issue.3, pp.1019-1043, 2011.

S. Xu, M. Perez, K. Yang, C. Perrenot, J. Felblinger et al., Determination of the latency effects on surgical performance and the acceptable latency levels in telesurgery using the dV-Trainer_simulator, Surg Endosc, vol.28, pp.2569-2576, 2014.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01726735

S. Xu, M. Perez, C. Perrenot, N. Hubert, and J. Hubert, Face, content, construct, and concurrent validity of a novel robotic surgery patient-side simulator: the Xperience? Team Trainer, Surg Endosc, vol.30, issue.8, pp.3334-3378, 2016.

E. Schommer, V. R. Patel, V. Mouraviev, C. Thomas, and D. D. Thiel, Diffusion of Robotic Technology Into Urologic Practice has Led to Improved Resident Physician Robotic Skills, J Surg Educ, issue.16, pp.30075-30082, 2016.

S. Shetty, B. Zevin, T. P. Grantcharov, K. E. Roberts, and A. J. Duffy, Perceptions, training experiences, and preferences of surgical residents toward laparoscopic simulation training: a resident survey, J Surg Educ, vol.71, issue.5, pp.727-760, 2014.

B. S. Farivar, M. Flannagan, and I. M. Leitman, General surgery residents' perception of robotassisted procedures during surgical training, J Surg Educ, vol.72, issue.2, pp.235-277, 2015.