.. .. Insulinothérapie-classique,

. .. Qualité-de-vie,

B. Histoire-de-l'insulinothérapie-fonctionnelle and .. .. ,

C. Insulinothérapie-fonctionnelle-principes and .. .. ,

. .. Comptage-des-glucides,

.. .. Algorithmes,

.. .. Activité-physique,

E. L'insulinothérapie-fonctionnelle-particularités-nancéiennes and .. .. ,

F. , Programme détaillé d'une séance de FIT à Nancy

V. , Bibliographie 1. Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes-2015. Diabetes Care, 2015.

H. Autorité-de-santé, Prise en charge du diabète de type 1 chez l'adulte-guide Affection de Longue Durée, 2007.

D. Dabelea, E. J. Mayer-davis, S. Saydah, G. Imperatore, B. Linder et al., Prevalence of type 1 and type 2 diabetes among children and adolescents from, JAMA, vol.311, issue.17, pp.1778-86, 2001.

P. A. Diaz-valencia, P. Bougnères, and A. Valleron, Global epidemiology of type 1 diabetes in young adults and adults: a systematic review, BMC Public Health, vol.15, p.255, 2015.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01213293

Y. Dossou, C. Roudier, and A. Penfornis, Diabète de type 1 en France métropolitaine : caractéristiques, risque vasculaire, fréquence des complications et qualité des soins, Bull Epidemiol Hebd, pp.477-84, 2001.

C. C. Patterson, G. G. Dahlquist, E. Gyürüs, A. Green, G. Soltész et al., Incidence trends for childhood type 1 diabetes in Europe during 1989-2003 and predicted new cases 2005-20: a multicentre prospective registration study, Lancet Lond Engl, vol.373, issue.9680, pp.2027-2060, 2009.

S. Wild, G. Roglic, A. Green, R. Sicree, and H. King, Global prevalence of diabetes: estimates for the year 2000 and projections for 2030. Diabetes Care, vol.27, pp.1047-53, 2004.

J. Ostman, G. Lönnberg, H. J. Arnqvist, G. Blohmé, J. Bolinder et al., Gender differences and temporal variation in the incidence of type 1 diabetes: results of 8012 cases in the nationwide Diabetes Incidence Study in Sweden 1983-2002, J Intern Med, vol.263, issue.4, pp.386-94, 2008.

V. Harjutsalo, L. Sjöberg, and J. Tuomilehto, Time trends in the incidence of type 1 diabetes in Finnish children: a cohort study, Lancet Lond Engl, vol.371, issue.9626, pp.1777-82, 2008.

C. Druet, C. Roudier, and I. Romon, Échantillon national témoin représentatif des personnes diabétiques, 2007.

, Standards of medical care in diabetes-2015: summary of revisions. Diabetes Care, p.4, 2015.

, Foundations of care: education, nutrition, physical activity, smoking cessation, psychosocial care, and immunization. Diabetes Care, 2015.

M. Bliss, The History of Insulin. Diabetes Care, vol.16, pp.4-7, 1993.

A. L. Mccall and L. S. Farhy, Treating type 1 diabetes: from strategies for insulin delivery to dual hormonal control, Minerva Endocrinol, vol.38, issue.2, pp.145-63, 2013.

H. B. Mortensen, S. G. Hartling, and K. E. Petersen, The Danish Study Group of Diabetes in Childhood. A Nation-wide Cross-sectional Study of Glycosylated Haemoglobin in Danish Children with Type 1 diabetes, Diabet Med, vol.5, issue.9, pp.871-877, 1988.

A. M. Gualandi-signorini and G. G. , Insulin formulations-a review, Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci, vol.5, issue.3, pp.73-83, 2001.

, The effect of intensive treatment of diabetes on the development and progression of long-term complications in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial Research Group, N Engl J Med, vol.329, issue.14, pp.977-86, 1993.

B. S. Olsen, J. Johannesen, A. K. Sjølie, K. Borch-johnsen, P. Hougaard et al., Metabolic control and prevalence of microvascular complications in young Danish patients with Type 1 diabetes mellitus, Diabet Med, vol.16, issue.1, pp.79-85, 1999.

H. B. Mortensen, K. Marinelli, K. Nørgaard, K. Main, K. W. Kastrup et al., A nationwide cross-sectional study of urinary albumin excretion rate, arterial blood pressure and blood glucose control in Danish children with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Danish Study Group of Diabetes in Childhood, Diabet Med J Br Diabet Assoc, vol.7, issue.10, pp.887-97, 1990.

P. J. Dyck, K. M. Kratz, J. L. Karnes, W. J. Litchy, R. Klein et al., The prevalence by staged severity of various types of diabetic neuropathy, retinopathy, and nephropathy in a population-based cohort: the Rochester Diabetic Neuropathy Study, Neurology, vol.43, issue.4, pp.817-841, 1993.

D. M. Nathan and D. Group, The diabetes control and complications trial/epidemiology of diabetes interventions and complications study at 30 years: overview, Diabetes Care, vol.37, issue.1, pp.9-16, 2014.

P. Rajasekar, O. Neill, C. L. Eeles, L. Stitt, A. W. Medina et al., Epigenetic Changes in Endothelial Progenitors as a Possible Cellular Basis for Glycemic Memory in Diabetic Vascular Complications, J Diabetes Res, p.436879, 2015.

J. M. Lachin, T. J. Orchard, D. M. Nathan, and D. Group, Update on cardiovascular outcomes at 30 years of the diabetes control and complications trial/epidemiology of diabetes interventions and complications study, Diabetes Care, vol.37, issue.1, pp.39-43, 2014.

, Epidemiology of severe hypoglycemia in the diabetes control and complications trial. The DCCT Research Group, Am J Med, vol.90, issue.4, pp.450-459, 1991.

, The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial Research Group, Hypoglycemia in the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial, vol.46, pp.271-86, 1997.

M. Monami, N. Marchionni, and E. Mannucci, Long-acting insulin analogues vs. NPH human insulin in type 1 diabetes. A meta-analysis, Diabetes Obes Metab, vol.11, issue.4, pp.372-380, 2009.

U. Pedersen-bjergaard, P. L. Kristensen, H. Beck-nielsen, K. Nørgaard, H. Perrild et al., Effect of insulin analogues on risk of severe hypoglycaemia in patients with type 1 diabetes prone to recurrent severe hypoglycaemia (HypoAna trial): a prospective, randomised, open-label, blinded-endpoint crossover trial, Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol, vol.2, issue.7, pp.553-61, 2014.

, Lifetime benefits and costs of intensive therapy as practiced in the diabetes control and complications trial. The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial Research Group, JAMA, vol.276, issue.17, pp.1409-1424, 1996.

A. H. Kadish, A servomechanism for blood sugar control, Biomed Sci Instrum, vol.1, pp.171-177, 1963.

S. W. Reece, H. Williams, and C. L. , Insulin Pump Class: Back to the Basics of Pump Therapy, Diabetes Spectr Publ Am Diabetes Assoc, vol.27, issue.2, pp.135-175, 2014.

J. C. Pickup, Banting Memorial Lecture 2014 Technology and diabetes care: appropriate and personalized, Diabet Med, vol.32, issue.1, pp.3-13, 2015.

H. Yagasaki, K. Kobayashi, T. Saitou, K. Nagamine, Y. Mitsui et al., Nocturnal blood glucose and IGFBP-1 changes in type 1 diabetes: Differences in the dawn phenomenon between insulin regimens, Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes Off J Ger Soc Endocrinol Ger Diabetes Assoc, vol.118, issue.3, pp.195-204, 2010.

J. E. Yardley, K. E. Iscoe, R. J. Sigal, G. P. Kenny, B. A. Perkins et al., Insulin pump therapy is associated with less post-exercise hyperglycemia than multiple daily injections: an observational study of physically active type 1 diabetes patients, Diabetes Technol Ther, vol.15, issue.1, pp.84-92, 2013.

E. Tsalikian, C. Kollman, W. B. Tamborlane, R. W. Beck, and R. Fiallo-scharer, Prevention of hypoglycemia during exercise in children with type 1 diabetes by suspending basal insulin. Diabetes Care, vol.29, pp.2200-2204, 2006.

J. Walsh, R. Roberts, and T. Bailey, Guidelines for Optimal Bolus Calculator Settings in Adults, J Diabetes Sci Technol, vol.5, issue.1, pp.129-164, 2011.

G. Grunberger, J. M. Abelseth, T. S. Bailey, B. W. Bode, Y. Handelsman et al., Consensus statement by the american association of clinical endocrinologists/american college of endocrinology insulin pump management task force, Endocr Pract Off J Am Coll Endocrinol Am Assoc Clin Endocrinol, vol.20, issue.5, pp.463-89, 2014.

R. M. Bergenstal, D. C. Klonoff, S. K. Garg, B. W. Bode, M. Meredith et al., Thresholdbased insulin-pump interruption for reduction of hypoglycemia, N Engl J Med, vol.369, issue.3, pp.224-256, 2013.

B. Guerci, P. Böhme, C. Halter, and C. Bourgeois, Capteurs de glucose et mesure continue du glucose: Glucose sensor and continuous glucose measurement. Médecine Mal Métaboliques, vol.4, pp.157-68, 2010.

M. Langendam, Y. M. Luijf, L. Hooft, J. H. Devries, A. H. Mudde et al., Continuous glucose monitoring systems for type 1 diabetes mellitus, Cochrane Database Syst Rev, vol.1, p.8101, 2012.

P. Rossetti, F. J. Ampudia-blasco, and J. F. Ascaso, Old and new basal insulin formulations: understanding pharmacodynamics is still relevant in clinical practice, Diabetes Obes Metab, vol.16, issue.8, pp.695-706, 2014.

I. B. Jacobsen, J. E. Henriksen, O. Hother-nielsen, W. Vach, and H. Beck-nielsen, Evidence-based insulin treatment in type 1 diabetes mellitus, Diabetes Res Clin Pract, vol.86, issue.1, pp.1-10, 2009.

D. C. Howey, R. R. Bowsher, R. L. Brunelle, and J. R. Woodworth, Pro(B29)]-human insulin. A rapidly absorbed analogue of human insulin, Lys(B28), vol.43, pp.396-402, 1994.

L. Heinemann, C. Weyer, M. Rauhaus, S. Heinrichs, and T. Heise, Variability of the metabolic effect of soluble insulin and the rapid-acting insulin analog insulin aspart. Diabetes Care, vol.21, pp.1910-1914, 1998.

M. Lepore, S. Pampanelli, C. Fanelli, F. Porcellati, L. Bartocci et al., Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of subcutaneous injection of long-acting human insulin analog glargine, NPH insulin, and ultralente human insulin and continuous subcutaneous infusion of insulin lispro, Diabetes, vol.49, issue.12, pp.2142-2150, 2000.

T. Heise, L. Nosek, B. B. Rønn, L. Endahl, L. Heinemann et al., Lower within-subject variability of insulin detemir in comparison to NPH insulin and insulin glargine in people with type 1 diabetes, Diabetes, vol.53, issue.6, pp.1614-1634, 2004.

T. Heise, L. Hermanski, L. Nosek, A. Feldman, S. Rasmussen et al., Insulin degludec: four times lower pharmacodynamic variability than insulin glargine under steady-state conditions in type 1 diabetes, Diabetes Obes Metab, vol.14, issue.9, pp.859-64, 2012.

A. C. Tricco, H. M. Ashoor, A. J. Beyene, J. Veroniki, A. A. Isaranuwatchai et al., Safety, effectiveness, and cost effectiveness of long acting versus intermediate acting insulin for patients with type 1 diabetes: systematic review and network meta-analysis, BMJ, p.349, 2014.

E. Renard, A. Farret, J. Place, A. Wojtusciszyn, and J. Bringer, Towards an artificial pancreas at home. Diabetes Metab, vol.37, pp.94-102, 2011.

J. Kropff and J. H. Devries, Continuous Glucose Monitoring, Future Products, and Update on Worldwide Artificial Pancreas Projects, Diabetes Technol Ther, vol.18, issue.S2, pp.2-53, 2016.

B. P. Kovatchev, R. E. Cobelli, C. Zisser, H. C. Keith-hynes, P. Anderson et al., Feasibility of outpatient fully integrated closed-loop control: first studies of wearable artificial pancreas. Diabetes Care, vol.36, pp.1851-1859, 2013.

M. Phillip, T. Battelino, E. Atlas, O. Kordonouri, N. Bratina et al., Nocturnal glucose control with an artificial pancreas at a diabetes camp, N Engl J Med, vol.368, issue.9, pp.824-857, 2013.

H. Thabit, A. Lubina-solomon, M. Stadler, L. Leelarathna, E. Walkinshaw et al., Home use of closed-loop insulin delivery for overnight glucose control in adults with type 1 diabetes: a 4-week, multicentre, randomised crossover study, Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol, vol.2, issue.9, pp.701-710, 2014.

L. Leelarathna, S. Dellweg, J. K. Mader, J. M. Allen, C. Benesch et al., Day and night home closed-loop insulin delivery in adults with type 1 diabetes: three-center randomized crossover study. Diabetes Care, vol.37, pp.1931-1938, 2014.

H. Thabit, M. Tauschmann, J. M. Allen, L. Leelarathna, S. Hartnell et al., Home Use of an Artificial Beta Cell in Type 1 Diabetes, N Engl J Med, vol.373, issue.22, pp.2129-2169, 2015.

K. M. Miller, N. C. Foster, R. W. Beck, R. M. Bergenstal, S. N. Dubose et al., Current state of type 1 diabetes treatment in the U.S.: updated data from the T1D Exchange clinic registry. Diabetes Care, vol.38, pp.971-979, 2015.

B. Karges, J. Rosenbauer, T. Kapellen, V. M. Wagner, E. Schober et al., Hemoglobin A1c Levels and risk of severe hypoglycemia in children and young adults with type 1 diabetes from Germany and Austria: a trend analysis in a cohort of 37,539 patients between 1995 and 2012, PLoS Med, vol.11, issue.10, p.1001742, 2014.

J. C. Pickup, S. C. Freeman, and A. J. Sutton, Glycaemic control in type 1 diabetes during real time continuous glucose monitoring compared with self monitoring of blood glucose: metaanalysis of randomised controlled trials using individual patient data, BMJ, vol.343, p.3805, 2011.

P. Benhamou, I. Debaty, S. Lerouvillois, A. Coulon, M. Quemerais et al., Les fonctions annexes des pompes à insuline sont-elles utilisées et utiles ? À propos d'une étude observationnelle de cohorte: Are additional functions of insulin pumps used and useful? Regarding an observational cohort study. Médecine Mal Métaboliques, vol.6, pp.225-234, 2012.

K. H. Ang, W. V. Tamborlane, and S. A. Weinzimer, Combining glucose monitoring and insulin delivery into a single device: current progress and ongoing challenges of the artificial pancreas, Expert Opin Drug Deliv, vol.12, issue.10, pp.1579-82, 2015.

J. P. Bantle, J. Wylie-rosett, A. L. Albright, C. M. Apovian, and N. G. Clark, Nutrition recommendations and interventions for diabetes: a position statement of the American Diabetes Association. Diabetes Care, vol.31, pp.61-78, 2008.

M. J. Franz, M. A. Powers, C. Leontos, L. A. Holzmeister, K. Kulkarni et al., The evidence for medical nutrition therapy for type 1 and type 2 diabetes in adults, J Am Diet Assoc, vol.110, issue.12, pp.1852-89, 2010.

G. Slama, J. Klein, A. Delage, E. Ardila, H. Lemaignen et al., Correlation Between the Nature and Amount of Carbohydrate in Meal Intake and Insulin Delivery by the Artificial Pancreas in 24 Insulin-dependent Diabetics, Diabetes, vol.30, issue.2, pp.101-106, 1981.

P. Halfon, J. Belkhadir, and G. Slama, Correlation between amount of carbohydrate in mixed meals and insulin delivery by artificial pancreas in seven IDDM subjects. Diabetes Care, vol.12, pp.427-436, 1989.

G. Collier, A. Mclean, and K. O'dea, Effect of co-ingestion of fat on the metabolic responses to slowly and rapidly absorbed carbohydrates, Diabetologia, vol.26, issue.1, pp.50-54, 1984.

, Training in flexible, intensive insulin management to enable dietary freedom in people with type 1 diabetes: dose adjustment for normal eating (DAFNE) randomised controlled trial, BMJ, vol.325, issue.7367, p.746, 2002.

A. Laurenzi, A. M. Bolla, G. Panigoni, V. Doria, A. Uccellatore et al., Effects of Carbohydrate Counting on Glucose Control and Quality of Life Over 24 Weeks in Adult Patients With Type 1 Diabetes on Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion A randomized, prospective clinical trial (GIOCAR). Diabetes Care, vol.34, pp.823-830, 2011.

S. Schmidt, M. Meldgaard, N. Serifovski, C. Storm, T. M. Christensen et al., Use of an automated bolus calculator in MDI-treated type 1 diabetes: the BolusCal Study, a randomized controlled pilot study. Diabetes Care, vol.35, pp.984-90, 2012.

G. Scavone, A. Manto, D. Pitocco, L. Gagliardi, S. Caputo et al., Effect of carbohydrate counting and medical nutritional therapy on glycaemic control in Type 1 diabetic subjects: a pilot study, Diabet Med J Br Diabet Assoc, vol.27, issue.4, pp.477-486, 2010.

M. Trento, A. Trinetta, C. Kucich, G. Grassi, P. Passera et al., Carbohydrate counting improves coping ability and metabolic control in patients with Type 1 diabetes managed by Group Care, J Endocrinol Invest, vol.34, issue.2, pp.101-106, 2011.

, Standards of medical care in diabetes-2015: summary of revisions. Diabetes Care, p.4, 2015.

A. B. Evert, J. L. Boucher, M. Cypress, S. A. Dunbar, M. J. Franz et al., Nutrition therapy recommendations for the management of adults with diabetes. Diabetes Care, vol.37, pp.120-163, 2014.

E. Tsiouli, E. C. Alexopoulos, C. Stefanaki, C. Darviri, and G. P. Chrousos, Effects of diabetes-related family stress on glycemic control in young patients with type 1 diabetes: Systematic review. Can Fam Physician Médecin Fam Can, vol.59, pp.143-152, 2013.

A. Van-bussel, A. Nieuwesteeg, E. Janssen, H. Van-bakel, B. Van-den-bergh et al., Goal disturbance and coping in children with type I diabetes mellitus: relationships with health-related quality of life and A1C, Can J Diabetes, vol.37, issue.3, pp.169-74, 2013.

E. Kalyva, E. Malakonaki, C. Eiser, and D. Mamoulakis, Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM): self and parental perceptions. Pediatr Diabetes, vol.12, pp.34-40, 2011.

M. Vanstone, A. Rewegan, F. Brundisini, D. Dejean, and M. Giacomini, Patient Perspectives on Quality of Life With Uncontrolled Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review and Qualitative Meta-synthesis, Ont Health Technol Assess Ser, vol.15, issue.17, pp.1-29, 2015.

P. E. Cryer, Glycemic goals in diabetes: trade-off between glycemic control and iatrogenic hypoglycemia, Diabetes, vol.63, issue.7, pp.2188-95, 2014.
DOI : 10.2337/db14-0059

URL : http://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/content/63/7/2188.full.pdf

M. Evans, K. Khunti, M. Mamdani, C. B. Galbo-jørgensen, J. Gundgaard et al., Health-related quality of life associated with daytime and nocturnal hypoglycaemic events: a time trade-off survey in five countries, Health Qual Life Outcomes, vol.11, p.90, 2013.

P. Martyn-nemeth, S. Farabi, S. Mihailescu, D. Nemeth, J. Quinn et al., Fear of hypoglycemia in adults with type 1 diabetes: impact of therapeutic advances and strategies for prevention-a review, J Diabetes Complications, 2015.

E. Mannucci, F. Rotella, V. Ricca, S. Moretti, G. F. Placidi et al., Eating disorders in patients with type 1 diabetes: a meta-analysis, J Endocrinol Invest, vol.28, issue.5, pp.417-426, 2005.

, Study protocol for the World Health Organization project to develop a Quality of Life assessment instrument (WHOQOL). Qual Life Res Int J Qual Life Asp Treat Care Rehabil, vol.2, pp.153-162, 1993.

I. Debaty, M. Baudrant, P. Benhamou, and S. Halimi, Évaluation de la qualité de vie en éducation thérapeutique du patient diabétique : intérêts et limites des échelles de mesure standardisées. Médecine Mal Métaboliques, vol.2, pp.291-294, 2008.

A. M. Jacobson, B. H. Braffett, P. A. Cleary, R. A. Gubitosi-klug, M. E. Larkin et al., The long-term effects of type 1 diabetes treatment and complications on healthrelated quality of life: a 23-year follow-up of the Diabetes Control and Complications/Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications cohort. Diabetes Care, vol.36, pp.3131-3139, 2013.

W. Langewitz, B. Wössmer, J. Iseli, and W. Berger, Psychological and metabolic improvement after an outpatient teaching program for functional intensified insulin therapy (FIT)

, Diabetes Res Clin Pract, vol.37, issue.3, pp.157-64, 1997.

K. Howorka, J. Pumprla, D. Wagner-nosiska, H. Grillmayr, C. Schlusche et al., Empowering diabetes out-patients with structured education: short-term and long-term effects of functional insulin treatment on perceived control over diabetes, J Psychosom Res, vol.48, issue.1, pp.37-44, 2000.

J. Speight, S. A. Amiel, C. Bradley, S. Heller, L. Oliver et al., Long-term biomedical and psychosocial outcomes following DAFNE (Dose Adjustment For Normal Eating) structured education to promote intensive insulin therapy in adults with sub-optimally controlled Type 1 diabetes, Diabetes Res Clin Pract, vol.89, issue.1, pp.22-31, 2010.

I. Debaty, S. Halimi, J. L. Quesada, M. Baudrant, B. Allenet et al., A prospective study of quality of life in 77 type 1 diabetic patients 12 months after a hospital therapeutic educational programme, Diabetes Metab, vol.34, issue.5, pp.507-520, 2008.

D. Cooke, R. Bond, J. Lawton, D. Rankin, S. Heller et al., Structured type 1 diabetes education delivered within routine care: impact on glycemic control and diabetesspecific quality of life. Diabetes Care, vol.36, pp.270-272, 2013.

S. Genc, Les changements que l'insulinothérapie fonctionnelle apporte dans la vie des patients et dans leur vecu du diabète, 2013.

E. P. Joslin and H. R. Shepley, The ideal diabetic unit; of the hospital but not in it. Mod Hosp, vol.67, pp.100-104, 1946.

J. P. Assal, I. Mühlhauser, A. Pernet, R. Gfeller, V. Jörgens et al., Patient education as the basis for diabetes care in clinical practice and research, Diabetologia, vol.28, issue.8, pp.602-615, 1985.

I. Mühlhauser, V. Jörgens, M. Berger, W. Graninger, W. Gürtler et al., Bicentric evaluation of a teaching and treatment programme for Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients: improvement of metabolic control and other measures of diabetes care for up to 22 months, Diabetologia, vol.25, issue.6, pp.470-476, 1983.

T. R. Pieber, G. A. Brunner, W. J. Schnedl, S. Schattenberg, P. Kaufmann et al., Evaluation of a structured outpatient group education program for intensive insulin therapy, Diabetes Care, vol.18, issue.5, pp.625-655, 1995.

O. Filliettaz, J. J. Grimm, A. El'hoiydi, G. Bischof, E. Jobin et al.,

, Schweiz Med Wochenschr, vol.117, issue.50, pp.2030-2032, 1987.

J. Grimm, W. Berger, and J. Ruiz, Insulinothérapie fonctionnelle: éducation des patients et algorithmes. Datarevues1262363600282-C215, 2008.

L. Grange and B. Allenet, Principe et réalisation pratique de l'éducation thérapeutique du patient (ETP), Rev Rhum Monogr, vol.80, issue.3, pp.146-51, 2013.

A. Grimaldi, L'éducation thérapeutique en questions. Obésité, vol.9, pp.262-70, 2014.

O. Ziegler, M. Kolopp, J. Louis, J. P. Musse, A. Patris et al., Self-monitoring of blood glucose and insulin dose alteration in type 1 diabetes mellitus, Diabetes Res Clin Pract, vol.21, issue.1, pp.51-60, 1993.

J. L. Day, Diabetic patient education: determinants of success, Diabetes Metab Res Rev, vol.16, issue.1, pp.70-74, 2000.

R. K. Bernstein, Virtually continuous euglycemia for 5 yr in a labile juvenile-onset diabetic patient under noninvasive closed-loop control. Diabetes Care, vol.3, pp.140-143, 1980.

K. Howorka, H. Stöhr, H. Thoma, and W. Waldhäusl, Multicomponent system for normoglycemic insulin substitution in type 1 diabetic outpatients, Life Support Syst J Eur Soc Artif Organs, vol.3, issue.1, pp.540-545, 1985.

K. Howorka, H. Thoma, H. Grillmayr, and E. Kitzler, Phases of functional, nearnormoglycaemic insulin substitution: what are computers good for in the rehabilitation process in type I (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus? Comput Methods Programs Biomed, vol.32, pp.319-342, 1990.

S. Franc, D. Dardari, B. Boucherie, J. Riveline, M. Biedzinski et al., Real-life application and validation of flexible intensive insulin-therapy algorithms in type 1 diabetes patients, Diabetes Metab, vol.35, issue.6, pp.463-471, 2009.

K. Hegar, S. Heiber, M. Brändle, E. Christ, and U. Keller, Carbohydrate counting of food, Swiss Med Wkly, vol.141, p.13224, 2011.

C. Sachon and . Insulinothérapie, , vol.11, pp.1-11, 2014.

J. Lawton, D. Rankin, D. D. Cooke, M. Clark, J. Elliot et al., Dose Adjustment for Normal Eating: a qualitative longitudinal exploration of the food and eating practices of type 1 diabetes patients converted to flexible intensive insulin therapy in the UK, Diabetes Res Clin Pract, vol.91, issue.1, pp.87-93, 2011.

K. D. Kulkarni, Carbohydrate Counting: A Practical Meal-Planning Option for People With Diabetes, Clin Diabetes, vol.23, issue.3, pp.120-122, 2005.

P. C. Davidson, H. R. Hebblewhite, R. D. Steed, and B. W. Bode, Analysis of guidelines for basalbolus insulin dosing: basal insulin, correction factor, and carbohydrate-to-insulin ratio, Endocr Pract Off J Am Coll Endocrinol Am Assoc Clin Endocrinol, vol.14, issue.9, pp.1095-101, 2008.

F. J. Penedo and J. R. Dahn, Exercise and well-being: a review of mental and physical health benefits associated with physical activity, Curr Opin Psychiatry, vol.18, issue.2, pp.189-93, 2005.

M. Reiner, C. Niermann, D. Jekauc, and A. Woll, Long-term health benefits of physical activity-a systematic review of longitudinal studies, BMC Public Health, vol.13, p.813, 2013.

B. Bohn, A. Herbst, M. Pfeifer, D. Krakow, S. Zimny et al., Impact of Physical Activity on Glycemic Control and Prevalence of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Adults With Type 1 Diabetes: A Cross-sectional Multicenter Study of 18,028 Patients. Diabetes Care, vol.38, pp.1536-1579, 2015.

J. Grimm, J. Ybarra, C. Berné, S. Muchnick, and A. Golay, A new table for prevention of hypoglycaemia during physical activity in type 1 diabetic patients, Diabetes Metab, vol.30, issue.5, pp.465-70, 2004.

W. Berger, J. Grimm, and . Insulinothérapie, Comment gérer au quotidien les variations physiologiques des besoins en insuline, 1999.

R. Rabasa-lhoret, J. Bourque, F. Ducros, and J. L. Chiasson, Guidelines for premeal insulin dose reduction for postprandial exercise of different intensities and durations in type 1 diabetic subjects treated intensively with a basal-bolus insulin regimen (ultralentelispro), Diabetes Care, vol.24, issue.4, pp.625-655, 2001.

M. C. Riddell and J. Milliken, Preventing exercise-induced hypoglycemia in type 1 diabetes using real-time continuous glucose monitoring and a new carbohydrate intake algorithm: an observational field study, Diabetes Technol Ther, vol.13, issue.8, pp.819-844, 2011.

D. P. Zaharieva and M. C. Riddell, Prevention of Exercise-Associated Dysglycemia: A Case Study-Based Approach, Diabetes Spectr, vol.28, issue.1, pp.55-62, 2015.

C. Büsser, P. Meyer, J. Philippe, and F. R. Jornayvaz, Rev Médicale Suisse, vol.9, pp.1202-1207, 2013.

E. R. Seaquist, J. Anderson, B. Childs, P. Cryer, S. Dagogo-jack et al., Diabetes Care, vol.36, issue.5, pp.1384-95, 2013.

S. Jacqueminet, N. Masseboeuf, M. Rolland, A. Grimaldi, and C. Sachon, Limitations of the socalled "intensified" insulin therapy in type 1 diabetes mellitus, Diabetes Metab, vol.31, issue.4, pp.4-45, 2005.

, World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki: Ethical principles for medical research involving human subjects: 64th WMA General Assembly, World Medical Association, 2013.

, World Health Organization. Obesity: Preventing and Managing the Global Epidemic, Report of a WHO Consultation on Obesity

G. , , pp.3-5, 1997.

P. J. Dyck, J. W. Albers, H. Andersen, J. C. Arezzo, G. Biessels et al., Diabetic polyneuropathies: update on research definition, diagnostic criteria and estimation of severity, Diabetes Metab Res Rev, vol.27, issue.7, pp.620-628, 2011.

, Grading diabetic retinopathy from stereoscopic color fundus photographs-an extension of the modified Airlie House classification. ETDRS report number 10. Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study Research Group, Ophthalmology, vol.98, issue.5, pp.786-806, 1991.

H. R. Gilbertson, J. C. Brand-miller, A. W. Thorburn, S. Evans, P. Chondros et al., The Effect of Flexible Low Glycemic Index Dietary Advice Versus Measured Carbohydrate Exchange Diets on Glycemic Control in Children With Type 1 Diabetes. Diabetes Care, vol.24, pp.1137-1180, 2001.

R. J. Davey, T. W. Jones, and P. A. Fournier, Effect of short-term use of a continuous glucose monitoring system with a real-time glucose display and a low glucose alarm on incidence and duration of hypoglycemia in a home setting in type 1 diabetes mellitus, J Diabetes Sci Technol, vol.4, issue.6, pp.1457-64, 2010.

D. Battista, A. M. Hart, T. A. Greco, L. Gloizer, and J. , Type 1 diabetes among adolescents: reduced diabetes self-care caused by social fear and fear of hypoglycemia, Diabetes Educ, vol.35, issue.3, pp.465-75, 2009.

S. F. Dinneen, O. Hara, M. C. Byrne, M. Smith, D. Courtney et al., Group follow-up compared to individual clinic visits after structured education for type 1 diabetes: a cluster randomised controlled trial, Diabetes Res Clin Pract, vol.100, issue.1, pp.29-38, 2013.

M. Halbron, C. Sachon, D. Simon, T. Obadia, A. Grimaldi et al., Évaluation d'un programme d'éducation thérapeutique dans le diabète de type 1 : un même programme peut permettre d'atteindre des objectifs différents grâce à une approche centrée sur le patient. Médecine Mal Métaboliques, vol.8, pp.73-81, 2014.

M. Trento, P. Passera, E. Borgo, M. Tomalino, M. Bajardi et al., A 3-year prospective randomized controlled clinical trial of group care in type 1 diabetes. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis NMCD, vol.15, pp.293-301, 2005.

E. Yeoh, P. Choudhary, M. Nwokolo, S. Ayis, and S. A. Amiel, Interventions That Restore Awareness of Hypoglycemia in Adults With Type 1 Diabetes: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Diabetes Care, vol.38, pp.1592-609, 2015.