, Global Health Risks : Mortality and burden of disease attributable to selected major risks World Health Organization report, 2009.

K. Castetbon, M. Vernay, A. Malon, B. Salanave, V. Deschamps et al., Dietary intake, physical activity and nutritional status in adults: the French nutrition and health survey (ENNS, 2006-2007), Br J Nutr. Sept, vol.102, issue.5, pp.733-776, 2009.

E. Obepi-roche, , 2012.

C. Julia and S. Hercberg, Épidémiologie de l'obésité en France, Rev Rhu fév, vol.83, issue.10, pp.2-5, 2016.

K. F. Adams, A. Schatzkin, T. B. Harris, V. Kipnis, T. Mouw et al.,

, Overweight,obesity, and mortality in a large prospective cohort of persons 50-71 years old

, ResearchGate. 1 sept, vol.355, issue.8, pp.763-78, 2006.

A. Berrington-de-gonzalez, P. Hartge, J. R. Cerhan, A. J. Flint, L. Hannan et al.,

, Body-mass index and mortality among 1.46 million white adults, N Engl J Med. 2 déc, vol.363, issue.23, pp.2211-2220, 2010.

K. M. Flegal, B. K. Kit, H. Orpana, and B. I. Graubard, Association of all-cause mortality with overweight and obesity using standard body mass index categories: a systematic review and meta-analysis, JAMA. 2 janv, vol.309, issue.1, pp.71-82, 2013.

T. Pischon, H. Boeing, K. Hoffmann, M. Bergmann, M. B. Schulze et al., General and abdominal adiposity and risk of death in Europe, N Engl J Med, vol.359, issue.20, 2008.

D. P. Guh, W. Zhang, N. Bansback, Z. Amarsi, C. L. Birmingham et al., The incidence of co-morbidities related to obesity and overweight: a systematic review and meta-analysis, BMC Public Health. 25 mars, vol.9, p.88, 2009.

C. Emery, J. Dinet, A. Lafuma, C. Sermet, B. Khoshnood et al., Évaluation du coût associé à l'obésité en France, La Presse Médicale. juin, vol.36, issue.6, pp.832-872, 2007.

Y. Van-mourik, F. H. Rutten, K. Moons, L. Bertens, A. W. Hoes et al.,

, Prevalence and underlying causes of dyspnoea in older people: a systematic review, Age Ageing. mai, vol.43, issue.3, pp.319-345, 2014.

W. Braham, N. Boudawara, S. Darouaz, I. Khouaja, S. Debboussi et al., Les complications respiratoires de l'obésité, étude prospective, Revue des Maladies Respiratoires, vol.26, issue.HS1, p.26, 2009.

L. Carpenter, V. Beral, D. Strachan, K. L. Ebi-kryston, and H. Inskip, Respiratory symptoms as predictors of 27 year mortality in a representative sample of British adults, BMJ. 5 août, vol.299, issue.6695, pp.357-61, 1989.

S. Turquier and J. Glérant, Mécanismes et diagnostic des dyspnées, EMC-Pneumologie, vol.9, issue.4, pp.1-10, 2012.

M. R. Pratter, F. J. Curley, J. Dubois, and R. S. Irwin, Cause and evaluation of chronic dyspnea in a pulmonary disease clinic, Arch Intern Med, vol.149, issue.10, pp.2277-82, 1989.

, Recommandations pour la pratique clinique concernant les explorations fonctionnelles respiratoires 2008-2010. Société de pneumologie de langue francaise

H. Recommandations, Échocardiographie doppler transthoracique : princiaples indications et conditions de réalisation, 2012.

H. Recommandations, Non indications » à la radiographie de thorax, 2009.

J. Schlienger, Radical complications of obesity, Presse Med. sept, vol.39, issue.9, pp.913-933, 2010.

A. Shoukri, B. Dubé, J. Bermejo, and P. Laveneziana, Les contraintes mécaniques respiratoires au repos et à l'effort du sujet obèse, Obes. 1 sept, vol.10, issue.3, pp.198-203, 2015.

!. ,

M. Dupuis, S. Pontier, N. Savina, E. Debove, P. Heurtaux et al., Les troubles fonctionnels respiratoires des sujets obèses avant chirurgie bariatrique, Revue des Maladies Respiratoires. janv, vol.33, pp.174-179, 2016.

D. D. Sin, R. L. Jones, and S. Man, Obesity Is a Risk Factor for Dyspnea but Not for Airflow Obstruction, Arch Intern Med. juill, vol.162, issue.13, pp.1477-81, 2002.

. Dyspnea, Mechanisms, assessment, and management: a consensus statement, Am J Respir Crit Care Med. janv, vol.159, issue.1, pp.321-361, 1999.

H. Recommendations, Surpoids et obésité de l'adulte : prise en charge médicale de premier recours. Deuxième Programme national nutrition santé, 2006.

C. Launois, J. Nardi, E. Bertin, C. Barbe, J. M. Perotin et al., L'échelle mMRC (modified Medical Research Council) dans l'évaluation de la dyspnée dans la vie quotidienne chez les sujets obèses

J. T. Sharp, J. P. Henry, S. K. Sweany, W. R. Meadows, and R. J. Pietras, The Total Work of Breathing in Normal and Obese Men, J Clin Invest. avr, vol.43, issue.4, pp.728-767, 1964.

P. Pelosi, M. Croci, I. Ravagnan, P. Vicardi, and L. Gattinoni, Total respiratory system, lung, and chest wall mechanics in sedated-paralyzed postoperative morbidly obese patients, Chest. janv, vol.109, issue.1, pp.144-51, 1996.

R. Lazarus, D. Sparrow, and S. T. Weiss, Effects of obesity and fat distribution on ventilatory function: the normative aging study, Chest. avr, vol.111, issue.4, pp.891-899, 1997.

D. Canoy, R. Luben, A. Welch, S. Bingham, N. Wareham et al., Abdominal obesity and respiratory function in men and women in the EPIC-Norfolk Study

, Am J Epidemiol. juin, vol.159, issue.12, pp.1140-1149, 2004.

R. L. Jones and M. Nzekwu, The effects of body mass index on lung volumes, Chest. sept, vol.130, issue.3, pp.827-860, 2006.

J. P. Kress, A. S. Pohlman, . Alverdy, and J. B. Hall, The impact of morbid obesity on oxygen cost of breathing (VO2resp) at rest, Am J Respir Crit Care Med, vol.160, pp.883-889, 1999.

!. ,

M. S. Biring, M. I. Lewis, J. T. Liu, and Z. Mohsenifar, Pulmonary physiologic changes of morbid obesity, Am J Med Sci, vol.318, issue.5, pp.293-300, 1999.

I. Rubinstein, Airflow Limitation in Morbidly Obese, Nonsmoking Men. Annals of Internal Medicine. juin, vol.112, issue.11, p.828, 1990.

M. Hulens, G. Vansant, R. Lysens, A. L. Claessens, and E. Muls, Exercise capacity in lean versus obese women, Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, vol.11, issue.5, pp.305-314, 2001.

D. A. Beuther and E. R. Sutherland, Overweight, obesity, and incident asthma: a meta-analysis of prospective epidemiologic studies, Am J Respir Crit Care Med. avr, vol.175, issue.7, pp.661-667, 2007.

B. Brumpton, A. Langhammer, P. Romundstad, Y. Chen, and X. Mai, General and abdominal obesity and incident asthma in adults: the HUNT study, Eur Respir J. févr, vol.41, issue.2, pp.323-332, 2013.

S. Kenchaiah, J. C. Evans, D. Levy, P. Wilson, E. J. Benjamin et al., Obesity and the risk of heart failure, N Engl J Med. 1 août, vol.347, issue.5, pp.305-318, 2002.

, Sleep-related breathing disorders in adults: recommendations for syndrome definition and measurement techniques in clinical research. The Report of an American Academy of Sleep Medicine Task Force, Sleep. août, vol.22, issue.5, pp.667-89, 1999.

D. F. Rochester and Y. Enson, Current concepts in the pathogenesis of the obesityhypoventilation syndrome. Mechanical and circulatory factors, Am J Med. sept, vol.57, issue.3, pp.402-422, 1974.

B. Mokhlesi, A. Tulaimat, I. Faibussowitsch, Y. Wang, and A. T. Evans, Obesity hypoventilation syndrome: prevalence and predictors in patients with obstructive sleep apnea, Sleep Breath. Juin, vol.11, issue.2, pp.117-141, 2007.

S. Nowbar, K. M. Burkart, R. Gonzales, A. Fedorowicz, W. S. Gozansky et al.,

, Obesity-associated hypoventilation in hospitalized patients: prevalence, effects, and outcome

, Am J Med. janv, 2004.

R. Kessler, A. Chaouat, P. Schinkewitch, M. Faller, S. Casel et al., The obesityhypoventilation syndrome revisited: a prospective study of 34 consecutive cases, Chest. août, vol.120, issue.2, pp.369-76, 2001.

J. Mant, J. Doust, A. Roalfe, P. Barton, M. R. Cowie et al., Systematic review and individual patient data meta-analysis of diagnosis of heart failure, with modelling of implications of different diagnostic strategies in primary care, Health Technol Assess. juill, vol.13, issue.32, pp.1-207, 2009.

M. Galinier, Obesity and Cardiac Failure, Arch Mal Coeur Vaiss, vol.98, issue.1, pp.39-45, 2005.

, NICE Clinical Guideline No 108. Chronic heart failure. National clinical guideline for diagnosis and management in primary and secondary care. London: National Clinical Guideline Centre, 2010.

V. Sim, D. Hampton, and C. Philips, the use of BNP as a screening test for left ventricular systolic dysfunction-cost effectiveness in relation to open access echocardiography, Fam Pract, vol.20, pp.570-574, 2003.

J. Craig, I. Bradbury, and E. Cummins, HTA Report 6: The use of B-type natriuretic peptides in the investigation of patients with suspected heart failure; Understanding our Advice: The use of B-type natriuretic peptides in the investigation of patients with suspected heart failure, 2005.

A. D. Smith, J. O. Cowan, S. Filsell, C. Mclachlan, G. Monti-sheehan et al., Diagnosing asthma: comparisons between exhaled nitric oxide measurements and conventional tests, Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 15 févr, vol.169, issue.4, pp.473-481, 2004.

P. S. Thomas, E. R. Cowen, G. Hulands, and J. S. Milledge, Respiratory function in the morbidly obese before and after weight loss, Thorax, vol.44, issue.5, pp.382-386, 1989.

C. J. Womack, D. L. Harris, L. I. Katzel, J. M. Hagberg, E. R. Bleecker et al., Weight loss, not aerobic exercise, improves pulmonary function in older obese men, J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. août, vol.55, issue.8, pp.453-457, 2000.

!. ,

S. Ghroubi, H. Elleuch, T. Chikh, N. Kaffel, M. Abid et al., Physical training combined with dietary measures in the treatment of adult obesity. A comparison of two protocols, Ann Phys Rehabil Med. juin, vol.52, issue.5, pp.394-413, 2009.

S. N. Blair, H. W. Kohl, C. E. Barlow, R. S. Paffenbarger, L. W. Gibbons et al., Changes in physical fitness and all-cause mortality. A prospective study of healthy and unhealthy men

, JAMA. 12 avr, vol.273, issue.14, pp.1093-1101, 1995.

J. M. Jakicic, K. Clark, C. E. Donnelly, J. E. Foreyt, J. Melanson et al., Appropriate intervention strategies for weight loss and prevention of weight regain for adults

, ResearchGate. 1 déc, vol.33, issue.12, pp.2145-56, 2001.

A. Bocquier, A. Paraponaris, J. C. Gourheux, P. Y. Lussault, A. Basdevant et al., La prise en charge de l'obésité: Attitudes, connaissances et pratiques des médecins généralistes en région PACA; résultats d'une enquête téléphonique. la presse médicale, vol.34, pp.769-75, 2005.

, Global Strategy for Asthma Management and Prevention, 2016.

L. Sjöström, A. Lindroos, M. Peltonen, J. Torgerson, C. Bouchard et al.,

D. Lifestyle and C. , Risk Factors 10 Years after Bariatric Surgery, New England Journal of Medicine. 23 déc, vol.351, issue.26, pp.2683-93, 2004.

P. Weiner, J. Waizman, M. Weiner, M. Rabner, R. Magadle et al., Influence of excessive weight loss after gastroplasty for morbid obesity on respiratory muscle performance, Thorax. janv, vol.53, issue.1, pp.39-42, 1998.

L. Boissière, E. Bertin, I. Gaubil-kaladjian, D. Cives, A. et al.,

, La chirurgie bariatrique améliore la dyspnée des patients obèses, Revue des Maladies Respiratoires. janv, vol.33, p.174, 2016.

O. C. Iwuagwu, A. J. Platt, P. W. Stanley, N. B. Hart, and P. J. Drew, Does reduction mammaplasty improve lung function test in women with macromastia? Results of a randomized controlled trial, Plast Reconstr Surg. juill, vol.118, issue.1, pp.1-6, 2006.

!. ,

Y. Kececi and S. Dagistan, Effects of breast reduction on pulmonary function, Int Surg. août, vol.99, issue.4, pp.300-304, 2014.

V. Bernhardt, J. L. Stickford, D. M. Bhammar, and T. G. Babb, Aerobic exercise training without weight loss reduces dyspnea on exertion in obese women, Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 15 janv, vol.221, pp.64-70, 2016.

E. Clini and F. Prato, Interdisciplinarity rehabilitation in morbidly obese subjects : An observational pilotstudy, Monaldi Arch Chest Dis, vol.2, pp.89-95, 2006.

M. Duclos, P. Duché, C. Y. Guezennec, R. Richard, D. Rivière et al., Position de consensus : activité physique et obésité chez l'enfant et chez l'adulte, Sc et sport, vol.25, issue.4, pp.207-225, 2010.

J. F. Masa, B. R. Celli, J. A. Riesco, M. Hernández, S. De-cos et al., The obesity hypoventilation syndrome can be treated with noninvasive mechanical ventilation, Chest. avr, vol.119, issue.4, pp.1102-1109, 2001.

L. A. Pérez-de-llano, R. Golpe, M. Ortiz-piquer, A. Veres-racamonde, V. Caruncho et al., Short-term and long-term effects of nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation in patients with obesity-hypoventilation syndrome, Chest. août, vol.128, issue.2, pp.587-94, 2005.

J. Borel, R. Tamisier, J. Gonzalez-bermejo, J. Baguet, D. Monneret et al.,

, Noninvasive ventilation in mild obesity hypoventilation syndrome: a randomized controlled trial, Chest. mars, vol.141, issue.3, pp.692-702, 2012.

H. Recommandations, Ventilation mécanique à domicile. Dispositifs médicaux et prestations associées pour traitement de l'insuffisance respiratoire, 2012.

T. B. Horwich, G. C. Fonarow, M. A. Hamilton, W. R. Maclellan, M. A. Woo et al., The relationship between obesity and mortality in patients with heart failure, J Am Coll Cardiol. sept, vol.38, issue.3, pp.789-95, 2001.