P. Blanchard, J. Kerbrat, C. Paulus, and F. Saint-pierre, Prise en charge d'une canine incluse : recommandations de bonne pratique, Rev Stomatol Chir Maxillofac Chir Orale, vol.4631, issue.6, pp.325-388, 2015.

S. Bose, M. Roy, and A. Bandyopadhyay, Recent advances in bone tissue engineering scaffolds, Trends Biotechnol, vol.30, issue.10, pp.546-54, 2012.

B. D. Boyan, T. W. Hummert, D. D. Dean, and Z. Schwartz, Role of material surfaces in regulating bone and cartilage cell response, Biomaterials, vol.17, issue.2, pp.137-183, 1996.

J. B. Boyd, R. S. Mulholland, J. Davidson, P. J. Gullane, and L. E. Rotstein, The free flap and plate in oromandibular reconstruction : long-term review and indications, Plast Reconstr Surg, vol.95, issue.6, pp.1018-1046, 1995.

P. J. Boyne and R. A. James, Grafting of the maxillary sinus floor with autogenous marrow and bone, J Oral Surg, vol.38, issue.8, pp.613-619, 1980.

B. E. Buck, L. Resnick, S. M. Shah, and T. I. Malinin, Human immunodeficiency virus cultured from bone. Implications for transplantation

, Clin Orthop Relat Res, issue.251, pp.249-53, 1990.

M. Capelli, Autogenous bone graft from the mandibular ramus : a technique for bone augmentation

, Int J Periodontics Restorative Dent, vol.23, issue.3, pp.277-85, 2003.

J. P. Carrel, A. Wiskott, M. Moussa, P. Rieder, S. Scherrer et al., A 3D printed TCP/HA structure as a new osteoconductive scaffold for vertical bone augmentation

, Clin Oral Implants Res, vol.27, issue.1, pp.55-62, 2016.

J. P. Carrel, A. Wiskott, S. Scherrer, and S. Durual, Large Bone Vertical Augmentation Using a Three-Dimensional Printed TCP/HA Bone Graft : A Pilot Study in Dog Mandible, Clin Implant Dent Relat Res, vol.18, issue.6, pp.1183-1192, 2016.

R. Cavezian and G. Pasquet, Imagerie dento-maxillaire. Approche radio-clinique. 3 è édition, vol.370, 2006.

R. Cavezian, G. Pasquet, G. Bel, and G. Baller, Imagerie dento-maxillaire, approche radio-clinique. 4 è édition, vol.370, 2006.

P. Chavanne, S. Stevanovic, A. Wüthrich, O. Braissant, and U. Pieles, 3D printed chitosan / hydroxyapatite scaffolds for potential use in regenerative medicine, Biomed Tech (Berl), vol.58, issue.1, 2013.

A. El-kohen, A. Benjelloun, L. Benchekroun, and A. Lazrak, Mandibular reconstruction : evolution of operative techniques, Rev Stomatol Chir Maxillofac, vol.105, issue.6, pp.347-53, 2004.

S. Eosoly, D. Brabazon, S. Lohfeld, and L. Looney, Selective laser sintering of hydroxyapatite/poly-epsilon-caprolactone scaffolds, Acta Biomater, vol.6, issue.7, pp.2511-2518, 2010.

A. Escamilla, Analyse des concepts implantaires sur le secteur antérieur, vol.121, 2012.

J. Faber, P. M. Berto, and M. Quaresma, Rapid prototyping as a tool for diagnosis and treatment planning for maxillary canine impaction

, Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop, vol.129, issue.4, pp.583-592, 2006.

A. Fakhry, The mandibular retromolar area as a donor site in maxillofacial bone grafting : surgical notes

, Int J Periodontics Restorative Dent, vol.31, issue.3, pp.275-83, 2011.

L. Feller, R. A. Khammissa, M. Bouckaert, and J. Lemmer, Alveolar ridge preservation immediately after tooth extraction, SADJ, vol.68, issue.9, pp.408-418, 2013.

F. Feng, H. Wang, X. Guan, W. Tian, W. Jing et al., Mirror imaging and preshaped titanium plates in the treatment of unilateral malar and zygomatic arch fractures

, Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod, vol.112, pp.188-94, 2011.

M. J. Field and K. N. Lohr, Clinical Practice Guidelines: Directions for a New Program

D. C. Washington, Institute of Medicine (US) Committee to Advise the Public Health Service on Clinical Practice Guidelines, 1990.

F. Khoury, F. Antoun, H. Missika, and P. , Bone Augmentation in Oral Implantology. Berlin : Quintescence publishing, 2007.

J. W. Frame, Hydroxyapatite as a biomaterial for alveolar ridge augmentation, Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg, vol.16, issue.6, pp.642-55, 1987.

B. Friedland, B. Donoff, and T. B. Dodson, The use of 3-dimensional reconstructions to evaluate the anatomic relationship of the mandibular canal and impacted mandibular third molars, J Oral Maxillofac Surg, vol.66, issue.8, pp.1678-85, 2008.

A. Fritz, C. Percy, A. Jack, K. Shanmugaratnam, and L. Sobin, Classification Internationale des Maladies pour l'Oncologie. 3 è édition. ut : Organisation mondiale de la Santé, vol.294, 2008.

J. L. Frodel, G. F. Funk, D. T. Capper, K. L. Fridrich, and J. R. Blumer, Osseointegrated implants : a comparative study of bone thickness in four vascularized bone flaps, Plast Reconstr Surg, vol.92, issue.3, pp.456-464, 1993.

S. J. Froum, D. P. Tarnow, S. S. Wallace, M. D. Rohrer, and S. C. Cho, Sinus floor elevation using anorganic bovine bone matrix (OsteoGraf/N) with and without autogenous bone: a clinical, histologic, radiographic, and histomorphometric analysis-Part 2 of an ongoing prospective study, Int J Periodontics Restorative Dent, vol.18, issue.6, pp.528-571, 1998.

F. Liu, Synthesis of biomedical composite scaffolds by laser sintering : Mechanical properties and in vitro bioactivity evaluation, Applied Surface Science, vol.297, pp.1-8, 2014.

B. C. Gross, J. L. Erkal, S. Y. Lockwood, C. Chen, and D. M. Spence, Evaluation of 3D printing and its potential impact on biotechnology and the chemical sciences, Anal Chem, vol.86, issue.7, pp.3240-53, 2014.

P. S. Grover and L. Lorton, The incidence of unerupted permanent teeth and related clinical cases. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol, vol.59, pp.420-425, 1985.

N. T. Haddock, C. Monaco, K. A. Weimer, D. L. Hirsch, J. P. Levine et al., Increasing bony contact and overlap with computer-designed offset cuts in free fibula mandible reconstruction, J Craniofac Surg, vol.23, issue.6, pp.1592-1597, 2012.

M. Hallman, L. Sennerby, and S. Lundgren, A clinical and histologic evaluation of implant integration in the posterior maxilla after sinus floor augmentationwith autogenous bone, bovine hydroxyapatite

, Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants, vol.17, issue.5, pp.635-678, 2002.

C. H. Hämmerle, P. Stone, R. E. Jung, T. Kapos, and N. Brodala, Consensus statements and recommended clinical procedures regarding computer-assisted implant dentistry

, Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants, vol.24, pp.126-157, 2009.

V. J. Hassid, S. Maqusi, E. Culligan, M. N. Cohen, and A. K. Antony, Free microsurgical and pedicled flaps for oncological mandibular reconstruction : technical aspects andevaluation of patient comorbidities, ISNR Surg, vol.2012, pp.1-6, 2012.

Y. He, Z. Y. Zhang, H. G. Zhu, Y. Q. Wu, and H. H. Fu, Double-barrel fibula vascularized free flap with dental rehabilitation for mandibular reconstruction

, J Oral Maxillofac Surg, vol.69, issue.10, pp.2663-2672, 2011.

D. A. Hidalgo, Fibula free flap : a new method of mandible reconstruction, Plast Reconstr Surg, vol.84, issue.1, pp.71-80, 1989.

C. Hodez and P. Bravetti, Imagerie dento-maxillo-faciale par faisceau conique. Montpellier : Sauramps Medical, 2010.

S. J. Hollister, Porous scaffold design for tissue engineering, Nat Mater, vol.4, issue.7, pp.518-542, 2005.

J. M. Hong, B. J. Kim, J. H. Shim, K. S. Kang, K. J. Kim et al., Enhancement of bone regeneration through facile surface functionalization of solid freeform fabrication-based three-dimensional scaffolds using mussel adhesive proteins

, Acta Biomater, vol.8, issue.7, pp.2578-86, 2012.

J. S. Hou, M. Chen, and C. B. Pan, Application of CAD/CAM assisted technique with surgical treatment in reconstruction of the mandible, J Craniomaxillofac Surg, vol.40, issue.8, pp.432-439, 2012.

D. Ibrahim, T. L. Broilo, C. Heitz, M. G. De-oliveira, D. Oliveira et al., Dimensional error of selective laser sintering, three-dimensional printing and PolyJet models in the reproduction of mandibular anatomy, J Craniomaxillofac Surg, vol.37, issue.3, pp.167-73, 2009.

J. Irish, N. Sandhu, C. Simpson, R. Wood, R. Gilbert et al., Quality of life in patients with maxillectomy prostheses. Head Neck, vol.31, pp.813-834, 2009.

S. G. Jacobs, Palatally impacted canines : an etiology of impaction and the scope for interception, Austr Dent J, vol.39, issue.4, pp.206-217, 1994.

J. Jansen, F. P. Melchels, D. W. Grijpma, and J. Feijen, Fumaric acid monoethyl ester-functionalized poly (D, L-lactide)/N-vinyl-2pyrrolidone resins for the preparation of tissue engineering scaffolds by stereolithography, Biomacromolecules, vol.10, issue.2, pp.214-234, 2009.

O. T. Jensen, L. B. Shulman, M. S. Block, and V. J. Iacono, Report of the Sinus Consensus Conference, 1996.

, Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants, vol.13, pp.11-45, 1998.

T. Jiao, C. Zhu, X. Dong, and X. Gu, Rehabilitation of maxillectomy defects with obturator prostheses fabricated using computer-aided design andrapid prototyping : a pilot study, Int J Prosthodont, vol.27, issue.5, pp.480-486, 2014.

R. E. Jung, D. Schneider, J. Ganeles, and D. Wismeijer, Computer technology applications in surgical implant dentistry : a systematic review

, Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants, vol.24, pp.92-109, 2009.

P. Kamina, Anatomie, introduction à la clinique 3 è édition. Paris : Maloine, pp.61-64, 1986.

A. Maloul, J. Fialkov, and C. Whyne, The impact of voxel size-based inaccuracies on the mechanical behavior of thin bone structures

, Ann Biomed Eng, vol.39, issue.3, pp.1092-100, 2011.

G. A. Mandelaris and A. L. Rosenfeld, A novel approach to the antral sinus bone graft technique: the use of a prototype cutting guide for preciseoutlining of the lateral wall. A case report, Int J Periodontics Restorative Dent, vol.28, issue.6, pp.569-75, 2008.

G. A. Mandelaris and A. L. Rosenfeld, Alternative applications of guided surgery: precise outlining of the lateral window in antral sinus bone grafting, J Oral Maxillofac Surg, vol.67, issue.11, pp.23-30, 2009.

F. Mangano, A. Macchi, J. A. Shibli, G. Luongo, and G. Iezzi, Maxillary ridge augmentation with custom-made CAD/CAM scaffolds. A 1-year prospective study on 10 patients, J Oral Implantol, vol.40, issue.5, pp.561-570, 2014.

F. G. Mangano, P. A. Zecca, R. Van-noort, S. Apresyan, and G. Iezzi, Custom-Made Computer-Aided-Design/Computer-Aided-Manufacturing Biphasic Calcium-Phosphate Scaffold forAugmentation of an Atrophic Mandibular Anterior Ridge. Case Rep Dent, pp.941265-941266, 2015.

C. Marchetti, A. Bianchi, S. Mazzoni, R. Cipriani, and A. Campobassi, Oromandibular reconstruction using a fibula osteocutaneous free flap : four different "preplating" techniques, Plast Reconstr Surg, vol.118, issue.3, pp.643-51, 2006.

J. L. Marsh and M. W. Vannier, The "third" dimension in craniofacial surgery, Plast Reconstr Surg, vol.71, issue.6, pp.759-67, 1983.

F. Maschio, M. Pandya, and R. Olszewski, Experimental Validation of Plastic Mandible Models Produced by a "Low-Cost" 3-Dimensional Fused Deposition Modeling Printer

, Med Sci Monit, vol.22, pp.943-57, 2016.

M. Matsuura, K. Ohno, K. Michi, K. Egawa, and R. Takiguchi, Clinicoanatomic examination of the fibula : anatomic basis for dental implant placement

, Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants, vol.14, issue.6, pp.879-84, 1999.

L. H. Matzen and A. Wenzel, Efficacy of CBCT for assessment of impacted mandibular third molars : a review-based on a hierarchical model of evidence, Dentomaxillofac Radiol, vol.44, issue.1, pp.1-16, 2015.

E. Maujean and X. Struillou, Traitement implantaire du maxillaire postérieur : une revue de la littérature, Revue Odonto-Stomatol, vol.33, issue.3, pp.201-227, 2004.

S. Mazzoni, C. Marchetti, R. Sgarzani, R. Cipriani, R. Scotti et al., Prosthetically guided maxillofacial surgery : evaluation of the accuracy of a surgical guide and custom-madebone plate in oncology patients after mandibular reconstruction

, Plast Reconstr Surg, vol.131, issue.6, pp.1376-85, 2013.

M. Mcgurk, A. A. Amis, P. Potamianos, and N. M. Goodger, Rapid prototyping techniques for anatomical modelling in medicine

, Ann R Coll Surg Engl, vol.79, issue.3, pp.169-74, 1997.

J. C. Mcinnis, R. A. Robb, and P. J. Kelly, The relationship of bone blood flow, bone tracer deposition, and endosteal new bone formation, J Lab Clin Med, vol.96, issue.3, pp.511-533, 1980.

P. G. Mcmenamin, M. R. Quayle, C. R. Mchenry, and J. W. Adams, The production of anatomical teaching resources using three-dimensional (3D) printing technology

, Anat Sci Educ, vol.7, issue.6, pp.479-86, 2014.

S. M. Meloni, G. De-riu, M. Pisano, G. Cattina, and A. Tullio, Implant treatment software planning and guided flapless surgery with immediate provisional prosthesis delivery in the fully edentulous maxilla

, Eur J Oral Implantol, vol.3, issue.3, pp.245-51, 2010.

A. O. Momoh, P. Yu, R. J. Skoracki, S. Liu, L. Feng et al., A prospective cohort study of fibula free flap donor-site morbidity in 157 consecutive patients

, Plast Reconstr Surg, vol.128, issue.3, pp.714-734, 2011.

K. Mori, T. Yamamoto, K. Oyama, and Y. Nakao, Modification of three-dimensional prototype temporal bone model for training in skull-base surgery, Neurosurg Rev, vol.32, issue.2, pp.233-241, 2009.

S. P. Moubayed, L. 'heureux-lebeau, B. Christopoulos, and A. , Osteocutaneous free flaps for mandibular reconstruction : Systematic review of their frequency of use and a preliminary quality of life comparison, J Laryngol Otol, vol.128, issue.12, pp.1034-1043, 2014.

J. T. Newton, J. Fiske, O. Foote, C. Frances, I. M. Loh et al., Preliminary study of the impact of loss of part of the face and its prosthetic restoration, J Prosthet Dent, vol.82, issue.5, pp.585-90, 1999.

K. T. Nguyen and J. L. West, Photopolymerizable hydrogels for tissue engineering applications, Biomaterials, vol.23, issue.22, pp.4307-4321, 2002.

E. Nkenke, S. Eitner, M. Radespiel-tröger, and E. Vairaktaris, Patient-centred outcomes comparing transmucosal implant placement with an open approach in the maxilla: aprospective, non-randomized pilot study, Clin Oral Implants Res, vol.18, issue.2, pp.197-203, 2007.

E. Nkenke and F. W. Neukam, Autogenous bone harvesting and grafting in advanced jaw resorption : morbidity, resorption and implant survival

, Eur J Oral Implantol, vol.7, issue.2, pp.203-220, 2014.

E. Nkenke, M. Radespiel-tröger, J. Wiltfang, and S. Schultze-mosgau, Morbidity of harvesting of retromolar bone grafts : a prospective study, Clin Oral Implants Res, vol.13, issue.5, pp.514-535, 2002.

E. Nkenke, S. Schultze-mosgau, M. Radespiel-tröger, and F. Kloss, Morbidity of harvesting of chin grafts : a prospective study, Clin Oral Implants Res, vol.12, issue.5, pp.495-502, 2001.

O. Ozan, I. Turkyilmaz, A. E. Ersoy, E. A. Mcglumphy, and S. F. Rosenstiel, Clinical of 3 different types of computed tomography-derived stereolithographic surgical guides in implant placement, J Oral Maxillofac Surg, vol.67, issue.2, pp.394-401, 2009.

L. Pallesen, S. Schou, M. Aaboe, E. Hjørting-hansen, and A. Nattestad, Influence of particle size of autogenous bone grafts on the early stages of bone regeneration : a histologic andstereologic study in rabbit calvarium, Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants, vol.17, issue.4, pp.498-506, 2002.

S. B. Patzelt, B. C. Spies, and R. Kohal,

, CAD/CAM-fabricated implant-supported restorations: a systematic review, vol.26, pp.77-85, 2015.

R. Pellini, G. Mercante, and G. Spriano, Step-by-step mandibular reconstruction with free fibula flap modelling, Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital, vol.32, issue.6, pp.405-414, 2012.

R. Petzold, H. F. Zeilhofer, and W. A. Kalender, Rapid protyping technology in medicine-basics and applications

, Comput Med Imaging Graph, vol.23, issue.5, pp.277-84, 1999.

M. G. Plobete-michel and J. F. Michel, Les applications chirurgicales des ultra-sons. Paris : Quintessence international, vol.95, 2008.

G. Pinchasov and G. Juodzbalys, Graft-free sinus augmentation procedure : a literature review, J Oral Maxillofac Res, vol.5, issue.1, p.1, 2014.

A. Pozzi, M. Tallarico, M. Marchetti, B. Scarfò, and M. Esposito, Computer-guided versus free-hand placement of immediately loaded dental implants: 1-year post-loading results of a multicentre randomised controlled trial

, Eur J Oral Implantol, vol.7, issue.3, pp.229-271, 2014.

Y. Ramot, M. H. Zada, A. J. Domb, and A. Nyska, Biocompatibility and safety of PLA and its copolymers, Adv Drug Deliv Rev, vol.107, pp.153-162, 2016.

M. Rana, R. Warraich, H. Kokemüller, J. Lemound, and H. Essig, Reconstruction of mandibular defects-clinical retrospective research over a 10year period, Head Neck Oncol, vol.3, p.23, 2011.

B. Rai, K. H. Ho, Y. Lei, K. M. Si-hoe, J. Teo et al., Polycaprolactone-20% tricalcium phosphate scaffolds in combination with platelet-rich plasma for the treatment of critical-sized defects of the mandible: a pilot study, J Oral Maxillofac Surg, vol.65, issue.11, pp.2195-205, 2007.

J. Rayne, The unerupted maxillary canine. Dent Pract Dent Rec, vol.19, pp.194-204, 1969.

H. Reychler, I. Ortabe, and J. , Mandibular reconstruction with the free fibula osteocutaneous flap, Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg, vol.23, issue.4, pp.209-222, 1994.

E. Y. Ro, J. A. Ridge, and N. S. Topham, Using stereolithographic models to plan mandibular reconstruction for advanced oral cavity cancer, Laryngoscope, vol.117, issue.4, pp.759-61, 2007.

K. A. Rodby, S. Turin, and R. J. Jacobs, Advances in oncologic head and neck reconstruction : systematic review and future considerations of virtual surgical planning and computer aided design/computer aided modeling

, J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg, vol.67, issue.9, pp.1171-1185, 2014.

D. Rohner, C. Jaquiéry, C. Kunz, P. Bucher, H. Maas et al., Maxillofacial reconstruction with prefabricated osseous free flaps : a 3-year experience with 24 patients

, Plast Reconstr Surg, vol.112, issue.3, pp.748-57, 2003.

S. M. Roser, S. Ramachandra, H. Blair, W. Grist, and G. W. Carlson, The accuracy of virtual surgical planning in free fibula mandibular reconstruction : comparison ofplanned and final results, J Oral Maxillofac Surg, vol.68, issue.11, pp.2824-2856, 2010.

A. Rosset, L. Spadola, and O. Ratib, OsiriX : an open-source software for navigating in multidimensional DICOM images, J Digit Imaging, vol.17, issue.3, pp.205-221, 2004.
DOI : 10.1007/s10278-004-1014-6

URL : http://europepmc.org/articles/pmc3046608?pdf=render

P. Rugani, B. Kirnbauer, G. V. Arnetzl, and N. Jakse, Cone beam computerized tomography : basics for digital planning in oral surgery and implantology

, Int J Comput Dent, vol.12, issue.2, pp.131-176, 2009.

E. Sachs, M. Cima, P. Williams, D. Brancazio, and C. J. , Three dimensional printing : rapid tooling and prototypes directly from a CAD model, J Eng Ind, vol.114, issue.4, pp.481-188, 1992.
DOI : 10.1016/s0007-8506(07)61035-x

P. Saini, M. Arora, and M. N. Kumar, Poly(lactic acid) blends in biomedical applications, Adv Drug Deliv Rev, vol.107, pp.47-59, 2016.
DOI : 10.1016/j.addr.2016.06.014

A. Sakly, Fabrication additive de pièces à base d'alliages métalliques complexes, vol.126, 2013.

R. H. Schepers, G. M. Raghoebar, A. Vissink, and L. U. Lahoda, Fully 3-dimensional digitally planned reconstruction of a mandible with a free vascularized fibula and immediate placement of an implant-supported prosthetic construction. Head Neck, vol.35, pp.109-123, 2013.

D. Schneider, P. Marquardt, M. Zwahlen, and R. E. Jung, A systematic review on the accuracy and the clinical outcome of computerguided template-based implant dentistry, Clin Oral Implants Res, vol.20, issue.4, pp.73-86, 2009.

D. Schulze, M. Heiland, F. Blake, U. Rother, and R. Schmelzle, Evaluation of quality of reformatted images from two cone-beam computed tomographic systems

, J Craniomaxillofac Surg, vol.33, issue.1, pp.19-23, 2005.

D. Schwartz-arad, R. Herzberg, and E. Dolev, The prevalence of surgical complications of the sinus graft procedure and their impact on implant survival, J Periodontol, vol.75, issue.4, pp.511-517, 2004.

A. Scipioni and G. B. Bruschi, Technique d'élargissement de la crête édentée : étude sur 5 ans, Int J Period Restor Dent, vol.14, issue.5, pp.451-459, 1994.

F. M. Silva, A. L. Cortez, R. W. Moreira, and R. Mazzonetto, Complications of intraoral donor site for bone grafting prior to implant placement. Implant Dent, vol.15, pp.420-426, 2006.

J. D. Sipe, Tissue engineering and reparative medicine

, Ann N Y Acad Sci, vol.961, pp.1-9, 2002.

C. Sireix, Les imprimantes 3D

, L'information dentaire, Avr, vol.16, issue.99, pp.32-36, 2017.

A. Stern and J. Green, Sinus lift procedures : an overview of current techniques, Dent Clin North Am, vol.56, issue.1, pp.219-252, 2012.
DOI : 10.1016/j.cden.2011.09.003

G. Succo, M. Berrone, B. Battiston, P. Tos, F. Goia et al., Step-by-step surgical technique for mandibular reconstruction with fibular free flap : application of digitaltechnology in virtual surgical planning, Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol, vol.272, issue.6, pp.1491-501, 2015.

M. Suzuki, Y. Ogawa, A. Kawano, A. Hagiwara, H. Yamaguchi et al., Rapid prototyping of temporal bone for surgical training and medical education, Acta Otolaryngol, vol.124, issue.4, pp.400-402, 2004.
DOI : 10.1080/00016480410016478

G. Szabó, L. Huys, P. Coulthard, C. Maiorana, and U. Garagiola, A prospective multicenter randomized clinical trial of autogenous bone versus beta-tricalcium phosphate graft alone for bilateral sinus elevation: histologic and histomorphometric evaluation

, Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants, vol.20, issue.3, pp.371-81, 2005.

F. Taha, F. Peres, M. De-lumley, and J. Voisin, Modélisation numérique et réalisation par stéréolithographie d'un crâne d'Homo erectus à partir de rapprochement virtuel de fragments fossiles complémentaires

, è European Conference on Rapid Prototyping and Manufacturing, pp.78-86, 2001.

F. Takeshita and T. Suetsugu, Accurate presurgical determination for implant placement by using computerized tomography scan, J Prosthet Dent, vol.76, issue.6, pp.590-591, 1996.
DOI : 10.1016/s0022-3913(96)90434-5

F. Tamimi, J. Torres, K. Al-abedalla, and E. Lopez-cabarcos, Osseointegration of dental implants in 3D-printed synthetic onlay grafts customized according to bone metabolicactivity in recipient site, Biomaterials, vol.35, issue.21, pp.5436-5481, 2014.

A. Tarsitano, S. Mazzoni, R. Cipriani, R. Scotti, C. Marchetti et al., The CAD-CAM technique for mandibular reconstruction : an 18 patients oncological case-series

, J Craniomaxillofac Surg, vol.42, issue.7, pp.1460-1464, 2014.

B. Touati, L'implant et son positionnement

. Titane, Hors Série Septembre, pp.5-8, 2009.

J. F. Tulasne and J. F. Andreani, Les greffes osseuses en implantologie, Quintessence international, vol.117, 2004.

J. F. Tulasne, J. Guiol, and Y. Jeblaoui, Pre-implant posterior mandibular reconstruction, Rev Stomatol Chir Maxillofac, vol.113, issue.4, pp.307-328, 2012.

J. R. Tumbleston and D. Shirvanyants, Additive manufacturing. Continuous liquid interface production of 3D objects, Science, vol.347, issue.6228, pp.1349-52, 2015.

B. Tyler, D. Gullotti, A. Mangraviti, T. Utsuki, and H. Brem, Polylactic acid (PLA) controlled delivery carriers for biomedical applications. Adv Drug Deliv Rev, vol.107, pp.163-175, 2016.
DOI : 10.1016/j.addr.2016.06.018

G. Umberto, Biointegration of bone grafting materials and osseointegrated implants in oral and maxillofacial surgery

M. L. Urken, D. Buchbinder, and P. D. Costantino, Oromandibular reconstruction using microvascular composite flaps : report of 210 cases, Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg, vol.124, issue.1, pp.46-55, 1998.
DOI : 10.1001/archotol.124.1.46

URL : https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamaotolaryngology/articlepdf/218404/OOA7302.pdf

J. P. Van-den-bergh, C. M. Bruggenkate, F. J. Disch, and D. B. Tuinzing, Anatomical aspects of sinus floor elevations, Clin Oral Implants Res, vol.11, issue.3, pp.256-65, 2000.

J. T. Van-gemert, R. J. Van-es, and A. J. Rosenberg, Free vascularized flaps for reconstruction of the mandible : complications, success, and dental rehabilitation, J Oral Maxillofac Surg, vol.70, issue.7, pp.1692-1700, 2012.

R. Van-noort, The future of dental devices is digital, Dent Mater, vol.28, issue.1, pp.3-12, 2012.

T. Venskutonis, G. Plotino, G. Juodzbalys, and L. Mickevi?ien?, The importance of cone-beam computed tomography in the management of endodontic problems : a review of the literature, J Endod, vol.40, issue.12, pp.1895-901, 2014.

M. Vercruyssen, T. Fortin, G. Widmann, R. Jacobs, and M. Quirynen, Different techniques of static/dynamic guided implant surgery : modalities and indications, Periodontol, vol.66, issue.1, pp.214-241, 2000.

M. Vercruyssen, G. Van-de-wiele, W. Teughels, and I. Naert, Implant-and patient-centred outcomes of guided surgery, a 1-year follow-up : an RCT comparing guided surgerywith conventional implant placement, J Clin Periodontol, vol.41, issue.12, pp.1154-60, 2014.

K. G. Vinzenz, J. Holle, E. Würinger, K. J. Kulenkampff, and H. Plenk, Revascularized composite grafts with inserted implants for reconstructing the maxilla-improved flap design and flap prefabrication

, Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg, vol.36, issue.5, pp.346-52, 1998.

M. C. Von-doernberg, V. Rechenberg, B. Bohner, and M. , In vivo behavior of calcium phosphate scaffolds with four different pore sizes, Biomaterials, vol.27, issue.30, pp.5186-98, 2006.

W. Geng, C. Liu, Y. Su, J. Li, and Y. Zhou, Accuracy of different types of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing surgical guides for dental implant placement, Int J Clin Exp Med, vol.8, issue.6, pp.8442-8449, 2015.

B. Wendel, D. Rietzel, F. Kühnlein, R. Feulner, and G. Hülder, Additive Processing of Polymers, Macromolecular Materials and Engineering, vol.293, issue.10, pp.799-809, 2008.

F. Wilde, H. Hanken, F. Probst, A. Schramm, M. Heiland et al., Multicenter study on the use of patient-specific CAD/CAM reconstruction plates for mandibular reconstruction

, Int J Comput Assist Radiol Surg, vol.10, issue.12, pp.2035-51, 2015.

W. F. Willems, T. Kremer, P. Friedrich, and A. T. Bishop, Surgical revascularization in structural orthotopic bone allograft increases bone remodeling, Clin Orthop Relat Res, vol.472, issue.9, pp.2870-2877, 2014.

W. Report, Additive manufacturing and 3D printing state of the Industry : annual worldwide progress report

G. Xu, C. Yang, X. D. Fan, C. Q. Yu, X. Y. Cai et al., Anatomic relationship between impacted third mandibular molar and the mandibular canal as the risk factor of inferior alveolar nerve injury, Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg, vol.51, issue.8, pp.215-224, 2013.

M. Yamane, M. Yamaoka, M. Hayashi, I. Furutoyo, N. Komori et al., Measuring tooth mobility with a no-contact vibration device, J Periodontal Res, vol.43, issue.1, pp.84-89, 2008.

A. Yeo, C. Cheok, S. H. Teoh, Z. Y. Zhang, D. Buser et al., Lateral ridge augmentation using a PCL-TCP scaffold in a clinically relevant but challenging micropigmodel

, Clin Oral Implants Res, vol.23, issue.12, pp.1322-1354, 2012.

I. Zein, D. W. Hutmacher, K. C. Tan, and S. H. Teoh, Fused deposition modeling of novel scaffold architectures for tissue engineering applications, Biomaterials, vol.23, issue.4, pp.1169-85, 2002.

H. Zhang, X. Mao, Z. Du, W. Jiang, X. Han et al., Three dimensional printed macroporous polylactic acid/hydroxyapatite composite scaffolds for promoting bone formation in a critical-size rat calvarial defect model

, Sci Technol Adv Mater, vol.17, issue.1, pp.136-148, 2016.

H. X. Zhang, G. Y. Xiao, X. Wang, Z. G. Dong, Z. Y. Ma et al., Biocompatibility and osteogenesis of calcium phosphate composite scaffolds containing simvastatin-loaded PLGA microspheres for bone tissue engineering, J Biomed Mater Res A, vol.103, issue.10, pp.3250-3258, 2015.

Z. Zhou, F. Buchanan, C. Mitchell, and N. Dunne, Printability of calcium phosphate : calcium sulfate powders for the application of tissue engineered bonescaffolds using the 3D printing technique

, Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, vol.38, pp.1-10, 2014.

I. M. Zlotolow, J. M. Huryn, J. D. Piro, E. Lenchewski, and D. A. Hidalgo, Osseointegrated implants and functional prosthetic rehabilitation in microvascular fibula free flap reconstructed mandibles, Am J Surg, vol.164, issue.6, pp.677-81, 1992.
DOI : 10.1016/s0002-9610(05)80733-0

, Référence bibliographie électronique 215. Atelier Gomex?. Photographie d'usinage d'une aléseuse horizontale

, Disponible sur : www.ateliergomex.qc.ca 216. 3Dsystems?. Communiqué de presse d'acquisition

, Disponible sur : www.zcorp.com/fr 217. 3Dsystems?. Présentation 3Dsystems?

, Disponible sur : www.3dsystems.com 218. 3Dsystems?. Présentation de Zcorporation?

. Disponible,

D. Chappard, Architecture trabéculaire osseuse

, Mars, 2011.

. Disponible,

N. Cohen, État des lieux de l'implantologie en France. Le fil dentaire, 2015.

. Disponible,

, Disponible sur : www.solidworks.fr 222. Dentsply Implants?. Types de guides implantaires

, Disponible sur : www.dentsplyimplants.fr 223. DesignTech?. Schéma de fonctionnement polyjet

, Disponible sur : www.designtechsys.com EOS?. Présentation EOS?

, Disponible sur : www.eos.info 225. EnvisionTEC?. Présentation de EnvisionTEC?

. Disponible,

, Haute Autorité de Santé Indications de l'orthopédie dento-faciale et dento-maxillo-faciale chez l'enfant et l'adolescent. ANAES/Service des recommandations et références professionnelles

, Juin, 2002.

, Disponible sur : www.has-sante.fr

H. Autorité-de-santé, Tomographie volumique à faisceau conique de la face (Cone Beam Computerized Tomography). Rapport d'évaluation technologique, 2009.

, Disponible sur : www.has-sante.fr. 228. Objet?. Technologie PolyJet Matrix?

, Disponible sur : www.exposant.technotheque.fr/files/docs/technologieimpression-polyjet-matrix_1290785526.pdf 229. Makerbot? Industrie. Historique makerbot

, Disponible sur : www.makerbot.com 230. Materialise?. Présentation Matérialise?, 2016.

, Disponible sur : www.materialise.com 231. Mingda?. Photographie d'usinage d'une imprimante stéréolitographique, 2016.

, Disponible sur : www.netfabb.com 233. NobelBiocare?. Présentation de NobelBiocare?

, Disponible sur : www.nobelbiocare.com 234. Organovo?. Présentation et historique Organovo?

, Disponible sur : www.organovo.com 235. Pixmeo?. Présentation d'Osirix?

, Disponible sur : www.osirix-viewer

A. Ranellucci, Présentation de Slic3r

, Disponible sur : www.slic3r.org/about

. Reprap,

. Disponible,

R. Mcneel?, Présentation de Rhinoceros?

, Disponible sur : www.rhino3d.com/fr/ 239. Sculpteo?. Présentation de Sculpteo?

, Disponible sur : www.sculpteo.com/fr/about/ 240. Stratasys?. Propritété de fabrication de la stéréolitographie

, Disponible sur : www.stratasysdirect.com 241. Stratasys?

, Disponible sur : www.stratasys

T. Instrument?, Historique de la technique DLP?

. Disponible,