. .. Table-of-contents,

. .. Methodology,

. , Checklist of the European bumblebee species

. , Climatic risks of European bumblebees

. , Non-modelled European bumblebee species

. , General patterns of future risk

. , Distribution maps of West-Palavearctic bumblebees, vol.17

I. Park, M. G. Gibbs, J. Danforth, B. N. Lakso, A. N. Winfree et al., Biodiversity ensures plant-pollinator phenological synchrony against climate change, 236 Climatic Risk and Distribution Atlas of European Bumblebees Climatic Risk and Distribution Atlas of European Bumblebees Bartomeus, vol.16, pp.1331-1339, 2013.

M. V. Berezin, Ekologiya i gnezdovanie shmelej na ostrove Wrangel' [Ecology and nesting of bumblebess of Wrangel Island, Proceedings of Colloquia of All-Union Entomological Society. Section for the Study of Social Insects, pp.19-28, 1990.

A. Bertsch, Discrimination of the bumblebee species Bombus cryptarum and B. lucorum by means of male labial gland secretions and morphological characters (Hymenoptera : Apidae) Entomologia Generalis, vol.22, pp.129-145, 1997.

J. C. Biesmeijer, S. P. Roberts, M. Reemer, R. Ohlemüller, M. Edwards et al., Parallel declines in pollinators and insect-pollinated plants in Britain and the Netherlands, vol.313, pp.351-354, 2006.

J. Blondel, Evolution and ecology of birds on islands: Trends and prospects, Vie et Milieu, vol.50, pp.205-220, 2000.

N. Brasero, T. Lecocq, T. De-meulemeester, K. Urbanová, M. Rami et al., The male sexual marking pheromones of the Bombus laesus group: toward an integrative approach. Eurbee 5th European Conference of Apidology, p.1, 2012.

R. E. Buttermore, N. Pomeroy, W. Hobson, T. Semmens, and R. Hart, Assessment of the genetic base of Tasmanian bumble bees (Bombus terrestris) for development as pollination agents, Journal of Apicultural Research, vol.37, pp.23-25, 1998.

S. A. Cameron, J. D. Lozier, J. P. Strange, J. B. Koch, N. Cordes et al., Patterns of widespread decline in North American bumble bees, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol.108, pp.662-667, 2011.

L. G. Carvalheiro, W. E. Kunin, P. Keil, J. Aguirre-gutiérrez, W. N. Ellis et al., Species richness declines and biotic homogenisation have slowed down for NW-European pollinators and plants, vol.16, pp.870-878, 2013.

L. Castro, Nuevas citas de tres Bombinae (Hym. pidae) de la Peninsula Ibérica, vol.11, p.413, 1987.

L. Castro, Nuevas citas de tres Bombinae (Hym. APidae) de la Peninsula Ibérica, vol.12, pp.281-289, 1988.

I. Chen, J. K. Hill, R. Ohlemüller, D. B. Roy, and C. D. Thomas, Rapid range shifts of species associated with high levels of climate warming, Science, vol.333, pp.1024-1030, 2011.

M. Chalvet, La forêt domaniale de la Sainte-Baume : un espace exceptionnel et protégé en Provence. Les Cahiers de Framespa, vol.13, pp.1-20, 2013.

L. Chittka, T. C. Ings, and N. E. Raine, Chance and adaptation in the evolution of island bumblebee behaviour, Population Ecology, vol.46, pp.243-251, 2004.

J. Cohen, A coefficient of agreement for nominal scales, Educational and Psychological Measurement, vol.20, pp.37-46, 1960.

M. E. Colin and L. P. Belzunces, Evidence of synergy between prochloraz and deltamethrin in Apis mellifera L.: a convenient biological approach, Pesticide Science, vol.36, pp.115-119, 1992.

B. Darvill, S. O'connor, G. C. Lye, J. Waters, O. Lepais et al., Cryptic differences in dispersal lead to differential sensitivity to habitat fragmentation in two bumblebee species, Molecular Ecology, vol.19, pp.53-63, 2010.

A. J. Davis, L. S. Jenkinson, J. H. Lawton, B. Shorrocks, and S. Wood, Making mistakes when predicting shifts in species range in response to global warming, Nature, vol.391, pp.783-789, 1998.

T. De-meulemeester, M. Aytekin, S. Cameron, and P. Rasmont, Nest architecture and species status of the bumble bee Bombus (Mendacibombus) shaposhnikovi (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Bombini), vol.42, pp.301-306, 2011.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01003553

R. Delmas, Contribution à l'étude de la faune française des Bombinae (Hymenoptera, Apoidea, Bombidae), N.S.), vol.12, pp.247-290, 1976.

V. Devictor, R. Julliard, D. Couvet, and F. Jiguet, Birds are tracking climate warming, but not fast enough, Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, vol.275, pp.2743-2748, 2008.
DOI : 10.1098/rspb.2008.0878

URL : http://europepmc.org/articles/pmc2605823?pdf=render

V. Devictor, C. Van-swaay, T. Brereton, L. Brotons, D. Chamberlain et al., Differences in the climatic debts of birds and butterflies at a continental scale, Nature Climate Change, vol.2, pp.121-124, 2012.

S. Z. Dobrowski, J. H. Thorne, J. A. Greenberg, H. D. Safford, A. R. Mynsberge et al., Modeling plant ranges over 75 years of climate change in California, USA: temporal transferability and species traits, Ecological Monographs, vol.81, pp.241-257, 2011.

H. Donath, Der Strassentod als bestandsgefährdender Faktor für Hummeln (Insecta, Hymenoptera, Bombidae), Naturschutzarbeit in Berlin und Brandenburg, vol.22, pp.39-43, 1986.

C. F. Dormann, J. Elith, S. Bacher, C. Buchmann, G. Carl et al., Collinearity: a review of methods to deal with it and a simulation study evaluating their performance, Ecography, vol.36, pp.27-46, 2013.

S. Dullinger, A. Gattringer, W. Thuiller, D. Moser, N. E. Zimmermann et al., Extinction debt of high-mountain plants under twenty-first-century climate change, Climatic Risk and Distribution Atlas of European Bumblebees Silc, vol.2, pp.619-622, 2012.

M. Edwards and M. Jenner, Field Guide to the Bumblebees of Great Britain and Ireland, Ocelli Limited, 2009.

J. Elith and C. H. Graham, Do they? How do they? WHY do they differ? On finding reasons for differing performances of species distribution models, Ecography, vol.32, pp.66-77, 2009.

J. Elith, C. H. Graham, R. P. Anderson, M. Dudík, S. Ferrier et al., Novel methods improve prediction of species' distributions from occurrence data, Ecography, vol.29, pp.129-151, 2006.

, ArcGIS Desktop: Release 10.2. European Environment Agency (2009) Looking back on looking forward: a review of evaluative, ESRI, 2013.

A. H. Fielding and J. F. Bell, A review of methods for the assessment of prediction errors in conservation presence/absence models, Environmental Conservation, vol.24, pp.38-49, 1997.

J. R. Forrest and J. D. Thomson, An examination of synchrony between insect emergence and flowering in Rocky Mountain meadows, Ecological Monographs, vol.81, pp.469-491, 2011.

J. B. Free, N. Gammans, B. Banks, and M. Edwards, The return of the native: Loss and repatriation of the short-haired bumblebee Bombus subterraneus, vol.21, pp.116-118, 1993.

K. Goka, K. Okabe, M. Yoneda, and S. Niwa, Bumblebee commercialization will cause worldwide migration of parasitic mites, Molecular Ecology, vol.10, pp.2095-2099, 2001.

D. Goulson and M. E. Hanley, Distribution and forage use of exotic bumblebees in South Island, New Zealand Journal of Ecology, vol.28, pp.225-232, 2004.

D. Goulson, D. Goulson, M. E. Hanley, B. Darvill, J. S. Ellis et al., Bumblebees: their behaviour and ecology, vol.122, pp.1-8, 2003.

D. Goulson, J. C. Kaden, O. Lepais, G. C. Lye, and B. Darvill, Population structure, dispersal and colonization history of the garden bumblebee Bombus hortorum in the Western Isles of Scotland, Conservation Genetics, vol.12, pp.867-879, 2011.

D. Goulson, G. C. Lye, and B. Darvill, Decline and conservation of bumble bees, Annual Review of Entomology, vol.53, pp.191-208, 2008.

D. Goulson, J. C. Stout, and A. R. Kells, Do alien bumblebees compete with native flower-visiting insects in Tasmania, Journal of Insect Conservation, vol.6, pp.179-189, 2002.

M. H. Graham, Confronting multicollinearity in ecological multiple regression, Ecology, vol.84, pp.2809-2815, 2003.

S. V. Groom, M. I. Stevens, and M. P. Schwarz, Parallel responses of bees to Pleistocene climate change in three isolated archipelagos of the southwestern Pacific, Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, vol.281, 2014.

A. Guisan and W. Thuiller, Predicting species distribution: offering more than simple habitat models, Ecology Letters, vol.8, pp.993-1009, 2005.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1461-0248.2005.00792.x

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/halsde-00274246

A. Guisan and N. E. Zimmermann, Predictive habitat distribution models in ecology, Ecological Modelling, vol.135, pp.147-186, 2000.

A. Hampe and R. J. Petit, Conserving biodiversity under climate change: the rear edge matters, Ecology Letters, vol.8, pp.461-468, 2005.

J. A. Hanley and B. J. Mcneil, The meaning and use of the area under a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, Radiology, vol.143, pp.29-36, 1982.

J. Hanspach, O. Schweiger, I. Kühn, M. Plattner, P. B. Pearman et al., Host plant availability potentially limits butterfly distributions under cold environmental conditions, Ecography, vol.37, pp.301-308, 2014.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1600-0587.2013.00195.x

F. E. Harrell, K. L. Lee, and D. B. Mark, Multivariable prognostic models: issues in developing models, evaluating assumptions and adequacy, and measuring and reducing errors, Statistics in Medicine, vol.15, pp.361-87, 1996.

T. D. Hatten, C. Looney, J. P. Strange, and N. A. Bosque-pérez, Bumble bee fauna of Palouse Prairie: Survey of native bee pollinators in a fragmented ecosystem, Journal of Insect Science, vol.13, p.26, 2013.

T. B. Hayes, A. Collins, M. Lee, M. Mendoza, N. Noriega et al., Hermaphroditic, demasculinized frogs after exposure to the herbicide atrazine at low ecologically relevant doses, vol.99, pp.5476-80, 2002.

J. Heath and J. Leclercq, The European Invertebrates Survey. Preliminairy notice-Cartographie des Invertébrés Européens, Notice préliminaire-Erfassung der Europäischen Wirbellosen, vorläufige Mitteilung, Biological Records Centre, Abbots Riplon and Faculté des Sciences agronomiques de Gembloux, ) and Faculté des Sciences Agronomiques, 1969.

R. K. Heikkinen, M. Luoto, M. B. Araújo, R. Virkkala, W. Thuiller et al., Methods and uncertainties in bioclimatic envelope modelling under climate change, Progress in Physical Geography, vol.30, pp.751-777, 2006.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/halsde-00293180

R. K. Heikkinen, M. Luoto, R. Virkkala, and K. Rainio, Effects of habitat cover, landscape structure and spatial variables on the abundance of birds in an agricultural-forest mosaic, Journal of Applied Ecology, vol.41, pp.824-835, 2004.

R. K. Marmion, M. Luoto, and M. , Does the interpolation accuracy of species distribution models come at the expense of transferability?, Climatic Risk and Distribution Atlas of European Bumblebees Heikkinen, vol.35, pp.276-288, 2012.

B. Heinrich, Bumblebee economics, 1979.

A. P. Hendry, T. J. Farrugia, and M. T. Kinnison, Human influences on rates of phenotypic change in wild animal populations, Molecular Ecology, vol.17, pp.20-29, 2008.

J. M. Herrera, E. F. Ploquin, J. Rodríguez-pérez, and J. R. Obeso, Determining habitat suitability for bumblebees in a mountain system: a baseline approach for testing the impact of climate change on the occurrence and abundance of species, Journal of Biogeography, vol.41, pp.700-712, 2014.

J. K. Hill, C. D. Thomas, and B. Huntley, Climate and habitat availability determine 20th century changes in a butterfly's range margin, Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, vol.266, pp.1197-1206, 1999.

H. M. Hines, Historical biogeography, divergence times, and diversification patterns of bumble bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Bombus), Systematic Biology, vol.57, pp.58-75, 2008.

A. A. Hoffmann and C. M. Sgrò, Climate change and evolutionary adaptation, Nature, vol.470, pp.479-85, 2011.

G. E. Hutchinson, Concluding remarks, Cold Spring Harbor Symposium on Quantitative Biology, vol.22, pp.415-427, 1957.

A. M. Iler, D. W. Inouye, T. T. Høye, A. J. Miller-rushing, L. A. Burkle et al., Maintenance of temporal synchrony between syrphid flies and floral resources despite differential phenological responses to climate, Global Change Biology, vol.19, pp.2348-59, 2013.

T. C. Ings, N. L. Ings, L. Chittka, and P. Rasmont, A failed invasion? Commercially introduced pollinators in Southern France, Apidologie, vol.41, pp.1-13, 2010.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00892043

M. N. Inoue, J. Yokoyama, and I. Washitani, Displacement of Japanese native bumblebees by the recently introduced Bombus terrestris (L.) (Hymenoptera: Apidae), Journal of Insect Conservation, vol.12, pp.135-146, 2008.

F. Intoppa, M. G. Piazza, G. Bolchi-serini, and M. Cornalba, I Bombi; Guida al riconoscimento delle specie italiene, vol.174, 2009.

, Climate Change, The Scientific Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 2001.

T. F. Stocker, D. Qin, G. Plattner, M. Tignor, S. K. Allen et al., Climate Change, The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 2013.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/in2p3-00182754

S. Iserbyt and P. Rasmont, The effect of climatic variation on abundance and diversity of bumblebees: A ten years survey in a mountain hotspot, vol.48, pp.261-273, 2012.

S. T. Jackson and D. F. Sax, Balancing biodiversity in a changing environment: extinction debt, immigration credit and species turnover, Trends in Ecology & Evolution, vol.25, pp.153-60, 2010.

J. M. Jeschke, S. Bacher, T. M. Blackburn, J. T. Dick, F. Essl et al., Defining the impact of non-native species, Conservation Biology, vol.28, pp.1188-1194, 2014.

R. M. Johnson, L. Dahlgren, B. D. Siegfried, and M. D. Ellis, Acaricide, fungicide and drug interactions in honey bees (Apis mellifera), PLoS ONE, vol.8, p.54092, 2013.

R. M. Johnson, M. D. Ellis, C. A. Mullin, and M. Frazier, Pesticides and honey bee toxicity-USA, Apidologie, vol.41, pp.312-331, 2010.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00892096

Y. Kanbe, I. Okada, M. Yoneda, K. Goka, and K. Tsuchida, Interspecific mating of the introduced bumblebee Bombus terrestris and the native Japanese bumblebee Bombus hypocrita sapporoensis results in inviable hybrids, Naturwissenschaften, vol.95, pp.1003-1008, 2008.

T. Kenta, N. Inari, T. Nagamitsu, K. Goka, and T. Hiura, Commercialized European bumblebee can cause pollination disturbance: An experiment on seven native plant species in Japan, Biological Conservation, vol.134, pp.298-309, 2007.

H. M. Kharouba, S. R. Paquette, J. T. Kerr, and M. Vellend, Predicting the sensitivity of butterfly phenology to temperature over the past century, Global Change Biology, vol.20, pp.504-518, 2014.

A. P. Kirilenko and R. S. Hanley, Using multiple methods to predict climate change impacts on bumblebees in North America, Proceedings of the Third IASTED International Conference on Environmental Modelling and Simulation, pp.42-47, 2007.

A. M. Klein, B. E. Vaissière, J. H. Cane, I. Steffan-dewenter, S. A. Cunningham et al., Importance of pollinators in changing landscapes for world crops, Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, vol.274, pp.303-313, 2007.

A. Kosior, W. Celary, P. Olejniczak, J. Fija?, W. Król et al., The decline of the bumble bees and cuckoo bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Bombini) of Western and Central Europe, vol.41, pp.79-88, 2007.

F. B. Kraus, S. Wolf, and R. F. Moritz, Male flight distance and population substructure in the bumblebee Bombus terrestris, Journal of Animal Ecology, vol.78, pp.247-252, 2009.

J. Krauss, R. Bommarco, M. Guardiola, R. K. Heikkinen, A. Helm et al., Climatic Risk and Distribution Atlas of European Bumblebees Habitat fragmentation causes immediate and time-delayed biodiversity loss at different trophic levels, Ecology Letters, vol.13, pp.597-605, 2010.

J. Kriechbaumer, 1870) Vier neue Hummelarten. Verhaudlungen der Kaiserlich-Königlichen Zoologischen-Botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien, vol.20, pp.157-160

E. Krüger, Phänoanalytische Studien an einigen Arten der Untergattung Terrestribombus O. Vogt (Hymen. Bomb.). I. Teil, Tijdschrift voor Entomologie, vol.93, pp.141-197, 1951.

E. Krüger, Phänoanalytische Studien an einigen Arten der Untergattung Terrestribombus O. Vogt (Hymenoptera, Bombidae). III. Teil. Tijdschrift voor Entomologie, vol.101, pp.283-344, 1958.

G. Kruseman, Bombus muscorum et ses sous-espèces de la Manche. Entomologische Berichten, vol.24, pp.245-247, 1964.

G. Kudo and T. Y. Ida, Early onset of spring increases the phenological mismatch between plants and pollinators, Ecology, vol.94, pp.2311-2320, 2013.

G. Kudo, Vulnerability of phenological synchrony between plants and pollinators in an alpine ecosystem, Ecological Research, vol.29, pp.571-581, 2013.

O. Kudrna, A. Harpke, K. Lux, J. Pennerstorfer, O. Schweiger et al., Distribution Atlas of Butterflies in Europe, Gesellschaft für Schmetterlingsschutz, 2011.

M. Kuhlmann, J. S. Ascher, H. H. Dathe, A. W. Ebmer, P. Hartmann et al., Checklist of the Western Palaearctic Bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Anthophila), 2014.

M. Kuhlmann, D. Guo, R. Veldtman, and J. Donaldson, Consequences of warming up a hotspot: Species range shifts within a centre of bee diversity. Diversity and Distributions, vol.18, pp.885-897, 2012.

C. R. Lawson, J. Bennie, J. A. Hodgson, C. D. Thomas, and R. J. Wilson, Topographic microclimates drive microhabitat associations at the range margin of a butterfly, Ecography, vol.37, pp.732-740, 2014.

T. Lecocq, N. Brasero, T. De-meulemeester, D. Michez, S. Dellicour et al., An integrative taxonomic approach to assess the status of Corsican bumblebees: implications for conservation, Animal Conservation, 2014.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01972512

T. Lecocq, S. Dellicour, D. Michez, M. Dehon, A. Dewulf et al., Methods for species delimitation in bumblebees (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Bombus): towards an integrative approach. Zoological Scripta
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01972516

T. Lecocq, S. Dellicour, D. Michez, P. Lhomme, M. Vanderplanck et al., Scent of a break-up: phylogeography and reproductive trait divergences in the red-tailed bumblebee, 2013.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01005060

, BMC Evolutionary Biology, vol.13, p.263

T. Lecocq, P. Lhomme, D. Michez, S. Dellicour, I. Valterová et al., Molecular and chemical charaters to evaluate species status of two cuckoo bumblebees: Bombus barbutellus and Bombus maxillosus (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Bombini), Systematic Entomology, vol.36, pp.453-469, 2011.

T. Lecocq, N. J. Vereecken, D. Michez, S. Dellicour, P. Lhomme et al., Patterns of genetic and reproductive traits differentiation in Mainland vs. Corsican populations of bumblebees, PLoS ONE, vol.8, p.65642, 2013.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01972282

O. Lepais, B. Darvill, S. O'connor, J. L. Osborne, R. A. Sanderson et al., Estimation of bumblebee queen dispersal distances using sibship reconstruction method, Molecular Ecology, vol.19, pp.819-831, 2010.

J. M. Lobo, A. Jiménez-valverde, and J. Hortal, The uncertain nature of absences and their importance in species distribution modelling, Ecography, vol.33, pp.103-114, 2010.

J. M. Lobo, A. Jiménez-valverde, and R. Real, AUC: a misleading measure of the performance of predictive distribution models, Global Ecology and Biogeography, vol.17, pp.145-151, 2008.

A. Løken, Studies on Scandinavian bumble bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae). Norsk Entomologisk Tidsskrift, vol.20, pp.1-218, 1973.

A. Løken, Scandinavian species of the genus Psithyrus Lepeletier, Hymenoptera: Apidae). Entomologica Scandinavia (Supplement), vol.23, pp.1-45, 1984.

J. Lumaret, Toxicité de certains helminthicides vis-à-vis des insectes coprophages et conséquences sur la disparition des excréments de la surface du sol, Acta Oecologica/Oecologia Applicata, vol.7, pp.313-324, 1986.

M. Lurgi, B. C. López, and J. M. Montoya, Novel communities from climate change, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, vol.367, pp.2913-2935, 2012.

M. Madsen, B. O. Nielsen, P. Holter, O. C. Pedersen, J. B. Jespersen et al., Treating cattle with ivermectin: Effects on the fauna and decomposition of dung pats, The Journal of Applied Ecology, vol.27, pp.1-15, 1990.

A. C. Martins, R. B. Gonçalves, and G. A. Melo, Changes in wild bee fauna of a grassland in Brazil reveal negative effects associated with growing urbanization during the last 40 years, Zoologia (Curitiba), vol.30, pp.157-176, 2013.

C. Mayer, D. Michez, A. Chyzy, E. Brédat, and A. Jacquemart, The abundance and pollen foraging behaviour of bumble bees in relation to population size of whortleberry (Vaccinium uliginosum), PLoS ONE, vol.7, p.50353, 2012.

I. Meeus, M. J. Brown, D. C. De-graaf, and G. Smagghe, Effects of invasive parasites on bumble bee declines, Conservation Biology, vol.25, pp.662-671, 2011.

, The bees of the world, Climatic Risk and Distribution Atlas of European Bumblebees Michener, 2000.

K. Mikkola, Spring migrations of wasps and bumble bees on the southern coast of Finland (Hymenoptera, Vespidae and Apidae), Annales Entomologici Fennici, vol.44, pp.10-26, 1978.

V. Millien, Morphological evolution is accelerated among island mammals, PLoS Biology, vol.4, pp.1863-1868, 2006.
DOI : 10.1371/journal.pbio.0040321

URL : https://journals.plos.org/plosbiology/article/file?id=10.1371/journal.pbio.0040321&type=printable

T. D. Mitchell, T. R. Carter, P. D. Jones, M. Hulme, M. ;. New et al., A comprehensive set of high-resolution grids of monthly climate for Europe and the globe: the observed record (1901-2000) and 16 scenarios, PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, vol.7, p.2421, 2001.

T. L. Morelli, A. B. Smith, C. R. Kastely, I. Mastroserio, C. Moritz et al., Anthropogenic refugia ameliorate the severe climate-related decline of a montane mammal along its trailing edge, Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, vol.279, pp.4279-86, 2012.

X. Morin and W. Thuiller, Comparing niche-and process-based models to reduce prediction uncertainty in species range shifts under climate change, Ecology, vol.90, pp.1301-1313, 2009.

W. F. Morris, C. A. Pfister, S. Tuljapurkar, C. V. Haridas, C. L. Boggs et al., Longevity can buffer plant and animal populations against changing climatic variability, Ecology, vol.89, pp.19-25, 2008.
DOI : 10.1890/07-0774.1

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00428177

H. Müller and O. Eriksson, A pragmatic and utilitarian view of species translocation as a tool in conservation biology, Biodiversity and Conservation, vol.22, pp.1837-1841, 2013.

T. E. Murray, M. F. Coffey, E. Kehoe, and F. G. Horgan, Pathogen prevalence in commercially reared bumble bees and evidence of spillover in conspecific populations, Biological Conservation, vol.159, pp.269-276, 2013.

E. C. Mussen, J. E. Lopez, and C. Y. Peng, Effects of selected fungicides on growth and development of larval honey bees, Hymenoptera: Apidae). Environmental Entomology, vol.33, pp.1151-1154, 2004.

T. Nagamitsu, H. Yamagishi, T. Kenta, N. Inari, and E. Kato, Competitive effects of the exotic Bombus terrestris on native bumble bees revealed by a field removal experiment, Population Ecology, vol.52, pp.123-136, 2010.

J. L. Neff and B. B. Simpson, Bees, pollination systems and plant diversity, Hymenoptera and Biodiversity, pp.143-167, 1993.

M. New, M. Hulme, and P. Jones, Representing twentieth-century space-time climate variability. Part II: Development of 1901-96 monthly grids of terrestrial surface climate, Journal of Climate, vol.13, pp.2217-2238, 2000.

Y. Nukatsuka and J. Yokoyama, Environmental factors and land uses related to the naturalization of Bombus terrestris in Hokkaido, Japan. Biological Invasions, vol.12, pp.795-804, 2010.

J. D. Olden and D. A. Jackson, Torturing data for the sake of generality: How valid are our regression models?, vol.7, pp.501-510, 2000.

T. Oliver, J. K. Hill, C. D. Thomas, T. Brereton, and D. B. Roy, Changes in habitat specificity of species at their climatic range boundaries, Ecology Letters, vol.12, pp.1091-102, 2009.

C. Ornosa and F. J. Ortiz-sánchez, Hymenoptera: Apoidea I. Introducción. Familias Colletidae, Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, vol.23, 2004.

H. Özbek, The decline of wild bee populations in Turkey, Fauna of Wild Bees in Europe, pp.33-36, 1995.

D. V. Panfilov and . Sem, Apidae-Apidy. Opredelitel' nasekomykh evropeyskoy chasti SSSR. Tom III. Pereponchatokrylye. Pervaya chast, pp.508-519, 1978.

C. Parmesan and G. Yohe, A globally coherent fingerprint of climate change impacts across natural systems, Nature, vol.421, pp.37-42, 2003.

R. G. Pearson and T. P. Dawson, Predicting the impacts of climate change on the distribution of species: are bioclimate envelope models useful?, Global Ecology and Biogeography, vol.12, pp.361-371, 2003.

C. S. Peirce, The numerical measure of the success of predictions, Science, vol.4, issue.93, pp.453-454, 1884.

A. Pekkarinen, Resource partitioning and coexistence in bumblebees (Hymenoptera, Bombinae), Annales Entomologici Fennici, vol.50, pp.97-107, 1984.

V. Peredo-alvarez, P. Rasmont, J. J. Scriven, and D. Goulson, Predicting the global spread of an invasive pollinator, the bumblebee Bombus terrestris, Ecology and Evolution

T. Petanidou, A. S. Kallimanis, S. P. Sgardelis, A. D. Mazaris, J. D. Pantis et al., Variable flowering phenology and pollinator use in a community suggest future phenological mismatch, Acta Oecologica, vol.59, pp.104-111, 2014.

G. Peters, Ursachen für den Rückgang der seltenen heimischen Hummelarten (Hym, Bombus et Psithyrus). Entomologische Berichte, pp.85-90, 1972.

B. Pittioni, Die Hummeln und Schmarotzerhummeln der Balkan-Halbinsel mit besonderer Berucksichtigung der Fauna Bulgariens. I: Allgemeiner Teil. Izvestiya na Tsarskite Prirodonauchni Instituti v Sofiya, vol.11, pp.12-69, 1938.

B. Pittioni, Die boreoalpinen Hummeln und Schmarotzerhummeln (Hymen., Apidae, Bombinae). I. Teil. Mitteilungen aus den Köninglichen Naturwissenschaftlichen Instituten in Sofia, vol.15, pp.155-218, 1942.

, Climatic Risk and Distribution Atlas of European Bumblebees Pittioni, B. (1943) Die boreoalpinen Hummeln und Schmarotzerhummeln (Hymen., Apidae, Bombinae). II. Teil. Mitteilungen aus den Köninglichen Naturwissenschaftlichen Instituten in Sofia, vol.16, pp.1-78

E. F. Ploquin, J. M. Herrera, and J. R. Obeso, Bumblebee community homogenization after uphill shifts in montane areas of northern Spain, Oecologia, vol.173, pp.1649-60, 2013.

C. Polce, M. P. Garratt, M. Termansen, J. Ramirez-villegas, A. J. Challinor et al., Climate-driven spatial mismatches between British orchards and their pollinators: increased risks of pollination deficits, Global Change Biology, vol.20, pp.2815-2843, 2014.

C. A. Polgar, R. B. Primack, E. H. Williams, S. Stichter, and C. Hitchcock, Climate effects on the flight period of Lycaenid butterflies in Massachusetts, Biological Conservation, vol.160, pp.25-31, 2013.

S. G. Potts, J. C. Biesmeijer, R. Bommarco, A. Felicioli, M. Fischer et al., Developing European conservation and mitigation tools for pollination services: Approaches of the STEP (Status and Trends of European Pollinators) project, Journal of Apicultural Research, vol.50, pp.152-164, 2011.

J. Pradervand, L. Pellissier, C. Randin, and A. Guisan, Functional homogenization of bumblebee communities in alpine landscapes under projected climate change, Climate Change Responses, vol.1, pp.1-10, 2014.

O. E. Pr?s-jones and S. Corbet, Bumblebees-Naturalists' Handbook 6, 2011.

, R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, 2013.

O. Radoszkowski, Révision des armures copulatrices des mâles du genre Bombus. Byulletin' Moskovskogo Obshchestva Ispytatelei Prirody, vol.59, pp.51-92, 1884.

C. F. Randin, T. Dirnböck, S. Dullinger, N. E. Zimmermann, M. Zappa et al., Are niche-based species distribution models transferable in space?, Journal of Biogeography, vol.33, pp.1689-1703, 2006.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1365-2699.2006.01466.x

E. Ranta and K. Vepsäläinen, Why are there so many species? Spatio-temporal heterogeneity and northern bumblebee communities, Oikos, vol.36, pp.28-34, 1981.
DOI : 10.2307/3544375

P. Rasmont and A. Adamski, Les Bourdons de la Corse (Hymenoptera, Apoidea, Bombinae). Notes Fauniques de Gembloux, vol.31, pp.1-87, 1995.

P. Rasmont, S. P. Roberts, B. Cederberg, V. Radchenko, and D. Michez, , 2013.

P. Rasmont and E. Haubruge, Atlas Hymenoptera, 2014.

P. Rasmont and S. Iserbyt, The Bumblebees Scarcity Syndrome: Are heat waves leading to local extinctions of bumblebees (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Bombus). Annales de la Société Entomologique de France, vol.48, pp.275-280, 2012.

P. Rasmont and S. Iserbyt, Atlas of the European bees: genus Bombus, STEP Project. Status and Trends of European Pollinators, Atlas Hymenoptera, 2014.

P. Rasmont and P. Mersch, First estimation of faunistic drift by bumblebees of Belgium, (Hymenoptera: Apidae).-Premiere estimation de la derive faunique chez les bourdons de la Belgique (Hymenoptera: Apidae), vol.118, pp.141-147, 1988.

P. Rasmont, Catalogue commenté des Bourdons de la région ouest-paléarctique (Hymenoptera, Apoïdea, Apidae), Notes fauniques de Gembloux, vol.7, pp.1-72, 1983.

P. Rasmont, La notion d'exerge appliquée à Megabombus (Thoracobombus) pascorum (Scopoli) (Hymenoptera, Apidae), vol.119, pp.185-195, 1983.

P. Rasmont, Centre de richesse et centres de pauvreté de la faune des Bourdons de France (Hymenoptera, Apidae)-Théorie d'Inouye contre théorie de Ranta & Vespäläinen, L'Utilisation des Inventaires informatisés d'Invertébrés pour l'Identification et la Surveillance d'Espaces de grand Intérêt faunistique, p.12, 1989.

P. Rasmont, La régression massive des espèces d'abeilles sauvages et de bourdons d'Europe : un effet de la perturbation mondiale du cycle de l'azote. ctes du colloque Insectes et Biodiversité, 6 octobre, pp.43-60, 2006.

P. Rasmont, A. M. Aytekin, I. Valterová, and P. H. Williams, The fate of Bombus cullumanus: regression and species status, Eurbee5, 5th european conference of apidology, p.185, 2012.

P. Rasmont, A. Coppée, D. Michez, and T. De-meulemeester, An overview of the Bombus terrestris (L. 1758) subspecies (Hymenoptera: Apidae), vol.44, pp.243-250, 2008.

P. Rasmont, J. Leclercq, A. Jacob-remacle, A. Pauly, and C. Gaspar, The faunistic drift of Apoidea in Belgium. Bees for pollination, pp.65-87, 1993.

P. Rasmont, A. Pauly, M. Terzo, S. Patiny, D. Michez et al., The survey of wild bees (Hymenoptera, Apoidea) in Belgium and France, Food & Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Climatic Risk and Distribution Atlas of European Bumblebees Rasmont, vol.93, pp.661-682, 1986.

P. Rasmont, M. Terzo, A. M. Aytekin, H. Hines, K. Urbanova et al., Cephalic secretions of the bumblebee subgenus Sibiricobombus Vogt suggest Bombus niveatus Kriechbaumer and Bombus vorticosus Gerstaecker are conspecific (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Bombus), Apidologie, vol.36, pp.571-584, 2005.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00892170

W. F. Reinig, On the variation of Bombus lapidarius L. and its cuckoo, Psithyrus rupestris Fabr., with notes on mimetic similarity, Journal of Genetic, vol.30, pp.321-356, 1935.

W. F. Reinig, Ein Beitrag zur diluvialen und alluvialen Geschichte der zirkumpolaren Faunen-und Florengebiete, Verlag von Gustav Fischer, pp.170-206, 1937.

W. F. Reinig, Die genetisch-chorologischen Grundlagen der gerichteten geographischenVariabilität, Zeitschrift für Induktive Abstammungs-und Vererbungslehre, vol.76, pp.260-308, 1939.

D. M. Richardson, P. Py?ek, M. Rejmanek, M. G. Barbour, F. D. Panetta et al., Naturalization and invasion of alien plants: concepts and definitions, Diversity Distributions, vol.6, pp.93-107, 2000.

O. Schweiger, J. C. Biesmeijer, R. Bommarco, T. Hickler, P. E. Hulme et al., Multiple stressors on biotic interactions: how climate change and alien species interact to affect pollination, Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society, vol.85, pp.777-95, 2010.

O. Schweiger, R. K. Heikkinen, A. Harpke, T. Hickler, S. Klotz et al., Increasing range mismatching of interacting species under global change is related to their ecological characteristics, Global Ecology and Biogeography, vol.21, pp.88-99, 2012.

O. Schweiger, J. Settele, O. Kudrna, S. Klotz, and I. Kühn, Climate change can cause spatial mismatch of trophically interacting species, Ecology, vol.89, pp.3472-3479, 2008.

J. Sears, Short-haired bumblebee reintroduction, 2014.

J. Settele, V. Hammen, P. Hulme, U. Karlson, S. Klotz et al., ALARM: Assessing LArge-scale environmental Risks for biodiversity with tested Methods. Gaia-Ecological Perspectives for, Science and Society, vol.14, pp.69-72, 2005.

J. Settele, O. Kudrna, A. Harpke, I. Kühn, C. Swaay et al., , p.195

A. Thart, I. Wynhoff, and O. Schweiger, Climatic Risk Atlas of European Butterflies, Biorisk 1 (special issue), BioRisk, vol.10, pp.1-710, 2008.

N. Simon-delso, G. San-martin, E. Bruneau, L. Minsart, C. Mouret et al., Honeybee colony disorder in crop areas: the role of pesticides and viruses, PLoS ONE, vol.9, p.103073, 2014.

A. S. Skorikov, Les bourdons de la faune paléarctique. Partie I. Biologie générale (la zoogéographie y compris), Izvestiya Severnoi Oblastnoi Stantsii Zashchity Rastenii ot Vreditelei, vol.4, pp.1-160, 1922.

J. Soberon and A. T. Peterson, Interpretation of models of fundamental ecological niches and species' distributional areas, Biodiversity Informatics, vol.2, 2005.

J. H. Spangenberg, A. Bondeau, T. R. Carter, S. Fronzek, J. Jaeger et al., Scenarios for investigating risks to biodiversity, Global Ecology and Biogeography, vol.21, pp.5-18, 2012.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01788196

J. R. Stewart and A. M. Lister, Cryptic northern refugia and the origins of the modern biota, Trends in Ecology and Evolution, vol.16, pp.608-613, 2001.

J. C. Stout and C. L. Morales, Ecological impacts of invasive alien species on bees, Apidologie, vol.40, pp.388-409, 2009.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00892018

J. Svenning and F. Skov, Could the tree diversity pattern in Europe be generated by postglacial dispersal limitation?, Ecology Letters, vol.10, pp.453-60, 2007.

B. G. Svensson, Pyrobombus lapponicus auct, Europe recognized as two species: P. lapponicus (Fabricius, 1793) and P. monticola (Smith, 1849) (Hymenoptera, vol.10, pp.275-296, 1979.

M. Terzo and P. Rasmont, Xylocopa cantabrita Lepeletier en France (Hymenoptera, Apoidea), vol.108, pp.441-445, 2003.

C. D. Thomas, Translocation of species, climate change, and the end of trying to recreate past ecological communities, Trends in Ecology & Evolution, vol.26, pp.216-237, 2011.

C. D. Thomas, E. J. Bodsworth, R. J. Wilson, A. D. Simmons, Z. G. Davies et al., Ecological and evolutionary processes at expanding range margins, Nature, vol.411, pp.577-81, 2001.

J. A. Thomas, M. G. Telfer, D. B. Roy, C. D. Preston, J. J. Greenwood et al., Comparative losses of British butterflies, birds, and plants and the global extinction crisis, Science, vol.303, pp.1879-81, 2004.

W. Thuiller, Patterns and uncertainties of species' range shifts under climate change, Global Change Biology, vol.10, pp.2020-2027, 2004.

W. Thuiller, M. B. Araújo, and S. Lavorel, Generalized models vs. classification tree analysis: Predicting spatial distributions of plant species at different scales, Journal of Vegetation Science, vol.14, pp.669-680, 2003.

W. Thuiller, M. B. Araújo, and S. Lavorel, Do we need land-cover data to model species distributions in Europe, Journal of Biogeography, vol.31, pp.353-361, 2004.

D. May, R. M. Lehman, C. L. Nowak, and M. A. , Habitat destruction and the extinction debt, Climatic Risk and Distribution Atlas of European Bumblebees Tilman, vol.371, pp.65-66, 1994.

M. W. Tingley, W. B. Monahan, S. R. Beissinger, and C. Moritz, Birds track their Grinnellian niche through a century of climate change. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, pp.19637-19643, 0106.

J. P. Torretta, D. Medan, and A. H. Arahamovich, First record of the invasive bumblebee Bombus terrestris (L.) (Hymenoptera, Apidae) in Argentina. Transactions of the, vol.132, pp.285-289, 2006.

T. G. Tutin, V. H. Heywood, N. A. Burges, D. H. Valentine, S. M. Walters et al., , 2001.

R. Vandame and L. P. Belzunces, Joint actions of deltamethrin and azole fungicides on honey bee thermoregulation, Neuroscience Letters, vol.251, pp.57-60, 1998.

H. H. Velthuis and A. Van-doorn, A century of advances in bumblebee domestication and the economic and environmental aspects of its commercialization for pollination, Apidologie, vol.37, pp.421-451, 2006.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00892201

H. H. Velthuis, The historical background of the domestication of the bumble-bee, Bombus terrestris, and its introduction in agriculture. Pollinating Bees-The conservation link between agriculture and nature, Ministry of Environment, 2002.

B. Vila, M. Vennetier, C. Ripert, O. Chandioux, E. Liang et al., Has global change induced divergent trends in radial growth of Pinus sylvestris and Pinus halepensis at their bioclimatic limit? The example of the, Annals of Forest Science, vol.65, issue.709, pp.1-9, 2008.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00883434

M. Vilà and P. E. Hulme, Jurassic Park? No thanks, Trends in Ecology & Evolution, vol.26, pp.496-503, 2011.

O. Vogt, Studien über das Artproblem. 1. Mitteilung. über das Variieren der Hummeln. I. Teil. Schriften der Berlinischen Gesellschaft Naturforschender, Freunde, pp.28-84, 1909.

O. Vogt, Studien über das Artproblem. 2. Mitteilung. über das Variieren der Hummeln. 2. Teil (Schluss). Schriften der Berlinischen Gesellschaft Naturforschender, pp.31-74, 1911.

B. L. Webber, J. K. Scott, and R. K. Didham, Translocation or bust! A new acclimatization agenda for the 21st century?, Trends in Ecology & Evolution, vol.26, pp.497-498, 2011.

M. J. West-eberhard, Sexual selection, social competition, and speciation, Quarterly Review of Biology, vol.58, pp.155-183, 1983.

P. R. Whitehorn, S. O'connor, F. L. Wackers, and D. Goulson, Neonicotinoid pesticide reduces bumble bee colony growth and queen production, Science, vol.336, pp.351-352, 2012.

P. H. Williams, Why are there so many species of bumble bees at Dungeness?, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, vol.101, pp.31-44, 1989.

P. H. Williams and J. L. Osborne, Bumblebee vulnerability and conservation world-wide, Apidologie, vol.40, pp.367-387, 2009.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00892020

P. H. Williams, The distribution and decline of British bumble bees (Bombus Latr.), Journal of Apicultural Research, vol.21, pp.236-245, 1982.

P. H. Williams, Habitat use by bumble bees (Bombus spp.). Ecological Entomology, vol.13, pp.223-237, 1988.

P. H. Williams, An annotated checklist of bumble bees with an analysis of patterns of description (Hymenoptera: Apidae, Bombini), vol.67, pp.79-152, 1998.

P. H. Williams, J. An, and J. Huang, The bumblebees of the subgenus Subterraneobombus: Integrating evidence from morphology and DNA barcodes (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Bombus), Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, vol.163, pp.813-862, 2011.

P. H. Williams, J. An, M. J. Brown, J. C. Carolan, D. Goulson et al., Cryptic bumblebee species: consequences for conservation and the trade in greenhouse pollinators, PLoS ONE, vol.7, p.32992, 2012.

P. H. Williams, M. B. Araújo, and P. Rasmont, Can vulnerability among British bumblebee (Bombus) species be explained by niche position and breadth? Biological Conservation, vol.138, pp.493-505, 2007.
DOI : 10.1016/j.biocon.2007.06.001

P. H. Williams, M. J. Brown, J. C. Carolan, J. An, D. Goulson et al., Unveiling cryptic species of the bumblebee subgenus Bombus s. str. worldwide with COI barcodes, Hymenoptera: Apidae). Systematics and Biodiversity, vol.10, pp.21-56, 2012.

P. H. Williams, A. Byvaltsev, C. Sheffield, and P. Rasmont, Bombus cullumanus-An extinct European bumblebee species?, Apidologie, vol.44, pp.121-132, 2013.
DOI : 10.1007/s13592-012-0161-x

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01201277

P. H. Williams, S. A. Cameron, H. M. Hines, B. Cederberg, and P. Rasmont, A simplified subgeneric classification of the bumblebees (genus Bombus), Apidologie, vol.39, pp.46-74, 2008.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00891940

P. H. Williams, S. Colla, and Z. Xie, Bumblebee vulnerability: Common correlates of winners and losers across three continents, Conservation Biology, vol.23, pp.931-940, 2009.

P. H. Williams, C. J. Humphries, and R. I. Vane-wright, Measuring biodiversity: taxonomic relatedness for conservation priorities, Australian Systematic Botany, vol.4, pp.665-679, 1991.
DOI : 10.1071/sb9910665

S. E. Williams, L. P. Shoo, J. L. Isaac, A. A. Hoffmann, and G. Langham, Towards an integrated framework for assessing the vulnerability of species to climate change, PLoS Biology, vol.6, pp.2621-2626, 2008.

K. J. Willis and S. A. Bhagwat, Ecology. Biodiversity and climate change. Science, vol.326, pp.806-807, 2009.

S. G. Willis, D. G. Hole, B. Huntley, . Wiley-blackwells, U. K. Chichester et al., Importation of non-native bumble bees into North America: potential consequences of using Bombus terrestris and other non-native bumble bees for greenhouse crop pollination in Canada, Climatic Risk and Distribution Atlas of European Bumblebees, vol.35, 2006.

Z. Xie, P. H. Williams, and Y. Tang, The effect of grazing on bumblebees in the high rangelands of the eastern Tibetan Plateau of Sichuan, Journal of Insect Conservation, vol.12, pp.695-703, 2008.

J. Yokoyama and M. N. Inoue, Status of the invasion and range expansion of an introduced bumblebee, Japan. Applied Entomology and Zoology, vol.45, pp.21-27, 2010.

H. J. Yoon, M. R. Sohn, Y. M. Choo, J. Li, H. D. Sohn et al., Defensin gene sequences of three different bumblebees, Bombus spp, Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology, vol.12, pp.27-31, 2009.

M. Zarevúcka, Insecticide Resistance of Bumblebee Species, Biodegradation-Life of Science, pp.207-228, 2013.

, 84-48.69-61.92-74.9 No-34.08-47.71-56.18-59.02-68.75-71.85-41.36-51.33-59.38-70.94-80.43-85.95 No 53.16 33.02 40.72 57.18 41.91 29.44-9.97-21.11-23.37-46.56-83.53-87.44 Full-22.06-14.03-16.6-49.39-51.15-64.38-31, TSS, true skill statistic. Empty cells for non-modelled species. Climatic Risk and Distribution Atlas of European Bumblebees

, Bombus saltuarius is a species that only lives in Europe in the north-east of Russia: the Pechora basin and the Ural mountains where it seems extremely rare. It could be found here and there in Siberia, Mongolia and north China. Nothing is known about its way of life

P. Rasmont, M. Franzén, T. Lecocq, A. Harpke, S. P. Roberts et al., , 2015.

, Climatic Risk and Distribution Atlas of European Bumblebees. Pensoft publishing

B. Mons,

F. Markus, Helmholtz-Zentrum für Umweltforschung GmbH-UFZ, Theodor-Lieser-Strasse

, Halle / Germany; markus.franzen@ufz.de, markus

B. Mons,

H. Alexander, Helmholtz-Zentrum für Umweltforschung GmbH-UFZ, Theodor-Lieser-Strasse

/. Halle and . Germany,

R. Stuart and P. M. , Visiting Research Fellow, PO Box, vol.237

B. Jacobus, Naturalis Biodiversity Center, postbus 9517, 2300 RA

C. Björn, Swedish Species Information Centre, vol.7007, p.7

D. Libor, Municipal museum Mariánské Lázn?, vol.11, p.35301

F. Úna, National Biodiversity Data Centre, Carriganore, Waterford, Eire; ufitzpatrick@biodiversityireland.ie Gonseth Yves, Centre Suisse de Cartographie de la Faune (CSCF), Passage Maximilien de Meuron, vol.6

H. Eric,

M. Gilles, 320 chemin du velin F-44420 Mesquer, France; gilles.mahe.fr44@gmail.com Manino Aulo, Dipartimento di Scienze Agrarie, Forestali e Alimentari

. Mons, Obergrubstraße 18, 5161 Elixhausen, Austria; jneumayer@aon.at Ødegaard Frode, Norwegian Institute for Nature Research-NINA

P. Juho, Finnish Museum of Natural History, vol.17

P. Tadeusz, Chair of Ecology and Biogeoraphy, vol.1, pp.87-100

P. Simon and G. , Reading, RG6 6AR, UK; s.g.potts@reading.ac.uk Reemer Menno, European Invertebrate Survey-the Nederlands, Naturalis Biodiversity Center, vol.9517, 2300.

J. Settele, Helmholtz-Zentrum für Umweltforschung GmbH-UFZ, Theodor-Lieser-Strasse 4 / 06120

S. Oliver, Helmholtz-Zentrum für Umweltforschung GmbH-UFZ, Theodor-Lieser-Strasse 4 / 06120