C. Agostinelli and U. Lund, R package 'circular, Circular Statistics, p.15, 2013.

K. E. Aitken, K. L. Wiebe, and K. Martin, Nest-site reuse patterns for a cavity-nesting bird community in interior British Columbia, AUK, vol.119, pp.391-402, 2002.

K. E. Aitken and K. Martin, The importance of excavators in hole-nesting communities: availability and use of natural tree holes in old mixed forests of western Canada, Journal of Ornithology, vol.148, pp.425-434, 2007.

P. Angelstam and G. Mikusinski, Woodpecker Assemblages in Natural and Managed Boreal and Hemiboreal Forest -a Review, Annales Zoologici Fennici, vol.31, pp.157-172, 1994.

M. Bai, F. Wichmann, and M. Mühlenberg, The Abundance of Tree Holes and Their Utilization by Hole-Nesting Birds in a Primeval Boreal Forest of Mongolia, Acta Ornithologica, vol.38, pp.95-102, 2003.

A. Berg, B. Ehnstrom, L. Gustafsson, T. Hallingback, M. Jonsell et al., Threatened Plant, Animal, and Fungus Species in Swedish Forests: Distribution and Habitat Associations, Conservation Biology, vol.8, pp.718-731, 1994.

G. Bjorse and R. Bradshaw, 2000 years of forest dynamics in southern Sweden: suggestions for forest management. Forest Ecology and Management, vol.104, pp.15-26, 1998.

L. A. Blanc and K. Martin, Identifying suitable woodpecker nest trees using decay selection profiles in trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides), Forest Ecology and Management, vol.286, pp.192-202, 2012.

A. Carlson, U. Sandström, and K. Olsson, Availability and use of natural tree holes by cavity nesting birds in a Swedish deciduous forest, Ardea, vol.86, pp.109-119, 1998.

K. L. Cockle, K. Martin, and T. Wesolowski, Woodpeckers, decay, and the future of cavity-nesting vertebrate communities worldwide, Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, vol.9, pp.377-382, 2011.

E. Domingo-gómez, Effects of tree retention on cavity-nesting birds in northern Sweden. Master's thesis, 2014.

P. Drapeau, A. Nappi, L. Imbeau, and M. Saint-germain, Standing deadwood for keystone bird species in the eastern boreal forest: Managing for snag dynamics, The Forestry Chronicle, vol.85, pp.227-234, 2009.

M. C. Drever and K. Martin, Response of woodpeckers to changes in forest health and harvest: Implications for conservation of avian biodiversity. Forest Ecology and Management, vol.259, pp.958-966, 2010.

L. Edenius and J. Elmberg, Landscape level effects of modern forestry on bird communities in North Swedish boreal forests, Landscape Ecology, vol.11, pp.325-338, 1996.

A. B. Edworthy, K. L. Wiebe, and K. Martin, Survival analysis of a critical resource for cavity-nesting communities: patterns of tree cavity longevity, Ecological Applications, vol.22, pp.1733-1742, 2012.

, ESRI (Environmental Systems Resource Institute), 2009.

P. Esseen, B. Ehnstrom, L. Ericson, and K. Sjoberg, Boreal forests. Ecological Bulletins, vol.46, pp.16-47, 1997.

D. A. Fournier, H. J. Skaug, J. Ancheta, J. Ianelli, A. Magnusson et al., AD Model Builder: using automatic differentiation for statistical inference of highly parameterized complex nonlinear models, Optimization Methods and Software, vol.27, pp.233-249, 2012.

S. Hagvar, G. Hagvar, and E. Monness, Nest Site Selection in Norwegian Woodpeckers, Holarctic Ecology, vol.13, pp.156-165, 1990.

M. L. Hunter, Maintaining Biodiversity in Forest Ecosystems, 1999.

L. Imbeau, M. Mönkkönen, and A. Desrochers, Long-Term Effects of Forestry on Birds of the Eastern Canadian Boreal Forests: A Comparison with Fennoscandia, Conservation Biology, vol.15, pp.1151-1162, 2001.

K. Johnsson, The Black Woodpecker Dryocopus Martius as a Keystone Species in Forest, 1992.

J. Kouki, S. Lofman, P. Martikainen, S. Rouvinen, and A. Uotila, Forest fragmentation in Fennoscandia: Linking habitat requirements of wood-associated threatened species to landscape and habitat changes, Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, pp.27-37, 2001.

N. Kruys, J. Fridman, F. Gotmark, P. Simonsson, and L. Gustafsson, Retaining trees for conservation at clearcutting has increased structural diversity in young Swedish production forests. Forest Ecology and Management, vol.304, pp.312-321, 2013.

S. Larsson and K. Danell, Science and the management of Boreal Forest biodiversityPreface, Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, pp.4-4, 2001.

P. Li and T. Martin, Nest-Site Selection and Nesting Success of Cavity-Nesting Birds in High Elevation Forest Drainages, AUK, vol.108, pp.405-418, 1991.

A. Lõhmus, P. Lõhmus, J. Remm, and K. Vellak, Old-growth structural elements in a strict reserve and commercial forest landscape in Estonia, Forest Ecology and Management, vol.216, pp.201-215, 2005.

H. Lundmark, T. Josefsson, and L. Ostlund, The history of clear-cutting in northern Sweden -Driving forces and myths in boreal silviculture, Forest Ecology and Management, vol.307, pp.112-122, 2013.

K. Martin, K. E. Aitken, and K. L. Wiebe, Nest sites and nest webs for cavity-nesting communities in interior British Columbia, Canada: Nest characteristics and niche partitioning, Condor, vol.106, pp.5-19, 2004.

G. Mikusi?ski, M. Gromadzki, and P. Chylarecki, Woodpeckers as Indicators of Forest Bird Diversity, Conservation Biology, vol.15, pp.208-217, 2001.

G. Mikusi?ski and L. Edenius, Assessment of spatial functionality of old forest in Sweden as habitat for virtual species, Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, vol.21, pp.73-83, 2006.

I. Newton, The Role of Nest Sites in Limiting the Numbers of Hole-Nesting Birds -a Review, Biological Conservation, vol.70, pp.265-276, 1994.

S. Nilsson, The Evolution of Nest-Site Selection Among Hole-Nesting Birds -the Importance of Nest Predation and Competition, Ornis Scandinavica, vol.15, pp.167-175, 1984.

U. Ottosson, R. Ottvall, J. Elmberg, M. Green, R. Gustafsson et al., Birds in Sweden -numbers and distribution, 2012.

U. Ouellet-lapointe, Le maintien des espèces cavicoles dans les paysages aménagés en forêt boréale mixte de l'est du Canada. Maîtrise en biologie, 2010.

U. Ouellet-lapointe, P. Drapeau, P. Cadieux, and L. Imbeau, Woodpecker Excavations Suitability for and Occupancy by Cavity Users in the Boreal Mixedwood Forest of Eastern Canada, vol.19, pp.391-397, 2012.

B. Peterson and G. Gauthier, Nest Site Use by Cavity-Nesting Birds of the Cariboo Parkland, Wilson Bull, vol.97, pp.319-331, 1985.

E. Pulliainen, Nest site selection of hole-nesting passerines in natural habitats in eastern Finnish Forest Lapland, Aquilo Series Zoologica, vol.109, 2002.

. R-core-team, R: A language and environment for statistical computing, 2014.

H. Reese, M. Nilsson, P. Sandström, and H. Olsson, Applications using estimates of forest parameters derived from satellite and forest inventory data. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, vol.37, pp.37-55, 2002.

J. Remm and A. Lohmus, Tree cavities in forests -The broad distribution pattern of a keystone structure for biodiversity, Forest Ecology and Management, vol.262, pp.579-585, 2011.

W. Rendell and R. Robertson, Nest-Site Characteristics, Reproductive Success and Cavity Availability for Tree Swallows Breeding in Natural Cavities, Condor, vol.91, pp.875-885, 1989.

P. Renvall, Community structure and dynamics of wood-rotting basidiomycetes on decomposing conifer trunks in northern Finland, Karstenia, vol.35, pp.1-51, 1995.

J. Roberge, P. Angelstam, and M. Villard, Specialised woodpeckers and naturalness in hemiboreal forests -Deriving quantitative targets for conservation planning, Biological Conservation, vol.141, pp.997-1012, 2008.

H. Robles, C. Ciudad, and E. Matthysen, Tree-cavity occurrence, cavity occupation and reproductive performance of secondary cavity-nesting birds in oak forests: The role of traditional management practices, Forest Ecology and Management, vol.261, pp.1428-1435, 2011.

U. Sandström, Enhanced Predation Rates on Cavity Bird Nests at Deciduous Forest Edges -an Experimental-Study, Ornis Fennica, vol.68, pp.93-98, 1991.

U. Sandström, Effects of Forest Management on Density of Tree Holes and Holenesting Birds, 1992.

J. Schepps, S. Lohr, and T. E. Martin, Does Tree Hardness Influence Nest-Tree Selection by Primary Cavity Nesters? The Auk, vol.116, pp.658-665, 1999.

H. Skaug, D. Fournier, B. Bolker, A. Magnusson, and A. Nielsen, R package 'glmmadmb': Generalized Linear Mixed Models using AD Model Builder, p.20, 2014.

F. Stenbacka, J. Hjältén, J. Hilszcza?ski, and M. Dynesius, Saproxylic and nonsaproxylic beetle assemblages in boreal spruce forests of different age and forestry intensity, Ecological Applications, vol.20, pp.2310-2321, 2010.

M. A. Straus, K. Bavrlic, E. Nol, D. M. Burke, and K. A. Elliott, Reproductive success of cavity-nesting birds in partially harvested woodlots, Canadian Journal of Forest Research, vol.41, pp.1004-1017, 2011.

, Map of protected areas, 2014.

S. Forest-agency, Skogenskälla -Geographic data from the Swedish Forest Agency, 2012.

J. Van-balen, C. Booy, J. Vanfraneker, and E. Osieck, Studies on Hole-Nesting Birds in Natural Nest Sites .1. Availability and Occupation of Natural Nest Sites, Ardea, vol.70, pp.1-24, 1982.

R. Virkkala, Why study woodpeckers? The significance of woodpeckers in forest ecosystems, Annales Zoologici Fennici, vol.43, pp.82-85, 2006.