J. Ralph, Hydroxycinnamates in lignification, Phytochem Rev, vol.9, pp.65-83, 2010.

J. C. Del-rio, J. Rencoret, P. Prinsen, A. T. Martinez, J. Ralph et al., Structural Characterization of Wheat Straw Lignin as Revealed by Analytical Pyrolysis, 2D-NMR, and Reductive Cleavage Methods, J. Agric. Food Chem, vol.60, pp.5922-5935, 2012.

J. Vogel, Unique aspects of the grass cell wall, Curr. Opin. Plant Biol, vol.11, pp.301-307, 2008.

J. C. Del-río, G. Marques, J. Rencoret, A. T. Martínez, and A. Gutiérrez, Occurrence of naturally acetylated lignin units, J. Agric. Food Chem, vol.55, pp.5461-5468, 2007.

I. Romero, M. Moya, S. Sanchez, E. Ruiz, E. Castro et al., Ethanolic fermentation of phosphoric acid hydrolysates from olive tree pruning, Ind. Crops Prod, vol.25, pp.160-168, 2007.

T. Zweckmair, M. Becker, K. Ahn, H. Hettegger, P. Kosma et al., A novel method to analyze the degree of acetylation in biopolymers, J. Chromatogr, vol.1372, pp.212-220, 2014.

A. Brandt, L. Chen, B. Von-dongen, T. Welton, and J. P. Hallet, Structural changes in lignins isolated using an acidic ionic liquid water mixture, Green Chem, vol.17, pp.5019-5034, 2015.

T. Zweckmair, H. Hettegger, H. Abushammala, M. Bacher, A. Potthast et al., On the mechanism of the unwanted acetylation of polysaccharides by 1,3-dialkylimidazolium acetate ionic liquids: Part 1-Analysis, acetylating agent, influence of water, and mechanistic considerations, Cellulose, vol.22, pp.3583-3596, 2015.

H. Abushammala, H. Hettegger, M. Bacher, P. Korntner, A. Potthast et al., On the mechanism of the unwanted acetylation of polysaccharides by 1,3-dialkylimidazolium acetate ionic liquids: Part 2-The impact of lignin on the kinetics of cellulose acetylation, 2017.

O. P. Cetinko, D. C. Dibble, G. Cheng, M. S. Kent, B. Knierim et al., Understanding the Impact of Ionic Liquid Pretreatment on Eucalyptus, Biofuels, vol.1, pp.33-46, 2010.

H. Abushammala, J. F. Pontes, G. H. Gomes, A. Osorio-madrazo, R. M. Thire et al., Viscoelastic, and Anatomical Studies on Ionic Liquid-Swollen Norway Spruce as a Screening Tool toward Ionosolv Pulping. Holzforschung, vol.69, pp.1059-1067, 2015.

H. Abushammala, I. Krossing, and M. P. Laborie, Ionic Liquid-Mediated Technology to Produce Cellulose Nanocrystals Directly from Wood, Carbohydr. Polym, vol.134, pp.609-616, 2015.

H. Abushammala, R. Goldsztayn, A. Leao, and M. P. Laborie, Combining Steam Explosion with 1-Ethyl-3-Methylimidazlium Acetate Treatment of Wood Yields Lignin-Coated Cellulose Nanocrystals of High Aspect Ratio, Cellulose, vol.23, pp.1813-1823, 2016.

W. Voigt and H. Porte, South Africa National Biodiversity Institute, p.19, 2007.

S. Junrungreang and P. Jutvapornvanit, Possibility of Cattail for Waste-Water Treatment, 1996.

I. G. Audu, I. Ziegler-devin, H. Winter, M. Bremer, A. Hoffmann et al., Impact of Ionic Liquid 1-Ethyl-3-Methylimidazolium Acetate Mediated Extraction on Lignin Features, vol.7, pp.114-140, 2017.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02297038

J. Ralph and F. Lu, The DFRC Method for Lignin Analysis. 6. A Simple Modification for Identifying Natural Acetates on Lignins, J. Agric. Food Chem, vol.46, pp.4616-4619, 1998.

J. C. Del-rio, P. Prinsen, J. Rencoret, L. Nieto, J. Jimenez-barbero et al., Structural characterization of lignin in the Cortex and pith of Elephant grass (Pennisetum Purpureum) stems, J. Agric. Food Chem, vol.60, pp.3619-3634, 2012.

F. Lu and J. Ralph, The DFRC (Derivatization followed by reductive cleavage) method and its applications for lignin characterization

F. Lu and . Ed, , pp.27-64, 2014.

J. Schafer, F. Urbat, K. Rund, and M. J. Bunzel, A Stable-Isotope Dilution GC-MS Approach for the Analysis of DFRC (Derivatization Followed by Reductive Cleavage) Monomers from Low Lignin Plant Materials, J. Agric. Food Chem, vol.63, pp.2668-2673, 2015.

O. B. Wurzburg, Methods in Carbohydrate Chemistry, Acetylation, vol.IV, pp.286-288, 1964.

S. Levigne, M. Thomas, M. C. Ralet, B. Quemener, and T. F. Thibault, Determination of the degrees of methylation and acetylation of pectins using a C18 column and internal standards. Food Hydrocoll, vol.16, pp.547-550, 2002.

B. Hames, R. Ruiz, C. Scarlata, A. Sluiter, J. Sluiter et al., Preparation of Samples for Compositional Analysis, Laboratory Analytical Procedure (LAP), 2008.

J. R. Obst and T. K. Kirk, Isolation of Lignin. Methods Enzymol, vol.161, pp.87-101, 1988.

J. Rencoret, G. Marques, A. Gutierrez, D. Ibarra, J. Li et al., Structural Characterization of Milled Wood Lignins from Different Eucalypt Species, Holzforschung, vol.62, pp.514-526, 2008.

N. Sun, M. Rahman, Y. Qin, M. L. Maxim, H. Rodriguez et al., Complete Dissolution and Partial Delignification of Wood in Ionic Liquid 1-Ethyl-3-Methylimidazolium Acetate, Green Chem, vol.11, pp.646-655, 2009.

R. El-hage, N. Brosse, P. Sannigrahi, and A. Ragauskas, Effects of Process Severity on the Chemical Structure of Miscanthus Ethanol Organosolv Lignin, Polym. Degrad. Stab, vol.95, pp.997-1003, 2010.

F. C. Lu and J. Ralph, Non-degradative dissolution and acetylation of balled milled plant cell walls high-resolution solution state NMR, Plant J, vol.35, pp.535-544, 2003.

J. Rencoret, G. Marques, A. Gutierrez, L. Nieto, J. I. Santos et al., HSQC-NMR analysis of lignin in woody (Eucalyptus globulus and Picea abies) and non-woody (Agave sisalana) ball milled and plant materials at the gel state, vol.63, pp.691-698, 2009.

G. Guiochon and C. L. Guillemin, Quantitative Analysis by Gas Chromatography: Measurement of Peak Area and Derivation of Sample Composition, Laboratory Analyses and On-Line Process Control, pp.629-659, 1988.

D. Kim, Y. Nishiyama, and S. Kuga, Surface acetylation of bacterial cellulose, Cellulose, vol.9, pp.361-367, 2002.

U. P. Agarwal, S. A. Ralph, . Ft-raman, . Spectroscopy, and . Wood, Identifying Contributions of Lignin and Carbohydrate Polymers in the Spectrum of Black Spruce (Picea mariana), Appl. Spectrosc, vol.51, pp.1648-1655, 1997.

J. S. Lupoi and E. A. Smith, Characterization of Woody and Herbaceous Biomasses Lignin Composition with 1064 nm Dispersive Multichannel Raman Spectroscopy, Appl. Spectrosc, vol.66, pp.903-910, 2011.

J. H. Willey and R. H. Atalla, Band assignments in the Raman spectra of celluloses, Carbohydr. Res, vol.160, pp.113-129, 1987.

A. Saariaho, A. Jaaskelainen, M. Nuopponen, and T. Vuorinen, Ultra Violet Raman Spectroscopy in lignin analysis: Determination of characteristic vibrations of pHydroxophenyl, Guaiacyl, and Syringyl lignin structures, Appl. Spectrosc, vol.57, pp.58-66, 2003.

M. W. Meyer, J. S. Lupoi, and E. A. Smith, 1064 nm dispersive multichannel Raman spectroscopy for the analysis of plant lignin, Anal. Chim. Acta, vol.706, pp.164-170, 2011.

. Lundquist, Proton (1H) NMR spectroscopy, In Methods in Lignin Chemistry

S. Y. Lin and C. W. Dence, , pp.242-247, 1992.

S. Li and L. Lundquist, A new method for the analysis of phenolic groups in lignin by 1H NMR spectroscopy, Nordic Pulp Pap. Res. J, vol.9, pp.191-195, 1994.

S. D. Mansfield, H. Kim, F. Lu, and J. Ralph, Whole plant cell wall characterization using solution-state 2D NMR, Nat. Protoc, vol.7, pp.1579-1589, 2012.

L. Meng, S. Kang, X. Zhang, Y. Wu, and R. Sun, Comparative Characterization of Lignins Extracted from Cotton Stalk Based on Complete Dissolution in Different Systems, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res, vol.51, pp.9858-9866, 2012.

H. Kim, J. Ralph, and T. Akiyama, Solution-state 2D NMR of Ball-milled Plant Cell Wall Gels in DMSO-d 6, Bioenergy Res, 2008.

J. Ralph, K. Lundquist, G. Brunow, F. Lu, H. Kim et al., Lignins: Natural polymers from oxidative coupling of 4-hydroxyphenyl-propanoids, Phytochem. Rev, vol.3, pp.29-60, 2004.

J. Rencoret, J. C. Del-rio, A. Gutierrez, A. T. Martinez, S. Li et al., Origin of the acetylated structures present in white birch (Betula pendula Roth) milled wood lignin, Wood Sci. Technol, 2011.

C. Lapierre and C. Rolando, Thioacidolyses of pre-methylated lignin samples from Pine compression and Poplar woods, Holzforschung: Int. J. Biol. Chem. Phys. Technol. Wood, vol.42, 1988.

P. O. Bethge and K. Lindströnt, Determination of O-acetyl groups in wood, Svensk Papperstidning Nr, vol.17, pp.645-649, 1973.

P. Mansson and B. Samuelsson, Quantitative Determination of O-Acetyl and Other O-Acyl Groups in Cellulosic Materials, Sven. Papperstidn, vol.84, pp.15-24, 1981.

M. Balaban and G. Ucar, Estimation of volatile acids in wood and bark. Holz als Roh-und Werkst, vol.61, pp.465-468, 2003.

J. S. Bacon, A. H. Gordon, and E. J. Morris, Acetyl Groups in Cell-Wall Preparations from Higher Plants, Biochem. J, vol.149, pp.485-487, 1975.

D. Nabarlatz, A. Ebringerová, and D. Montané, Autohydrolysis of agricultural by-products for the production of XYLO-oligosaccharides, Carbohyd. Polym, vol.69, pp.20-28, 2007.

R. Kumar, G. Mago, V. Balan, and C. E. Wyman, Physical and chemical characterizations of corn stover and poplar solids resulting from leading pretreatment technologies, Bioresour. Technol, vol.100, pp.3948-3962, 2009.

C. Rémond, N. Aubry, D. Crônier, S. Noël, F. Martel et al., Combination of ammonia and xylanase pretreatments: Impact on enzymatic xylan and cellulose recovery from wheat straw, Bioresour. Technol, vol.101, pp.6712-6717, 2010.

O. D. Mante, S. P. Babu, and T. E. Amidon, A comprehensive study on relating cell-wall components of lignocellulosic biomass to oxygenated species formed during pyrolysis, J. Anal. Appl. Pyrolysis, vol.108, pp.56-67, 2014.

F. B. Haffner, V. D. Mitchell, R. A. Arundale, and S. Bauer, Compositional analysis of Miscanthus giganteus by near infrared spectroscopy, Cellulose, vol.20, pp.1629-1637, 2013.

F. Nsaful, F. Collard, M. Carrier, J. F. Görgens, and J. H. Knoetze, Lignocellulose pyrolysis with condensable volatiles quantification by thermogravimetric analysis-Thermal desorption/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method, J. Anal. Appl. Pyrolysis, vol.116, pp.86-95, 2015.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01942872

G. Garrote, H. Domínguez, and J. C. Parajó, Autohydrolysis of corncob: Study of non-isothermal operation for xylooligosaccharide production, J. Food Eng, vol.52, pp.211-218, 2002.

Y. Fujii, J. I. Azuma, R. H. Marchessault, F. G. Morin, S. Aibara et al., Chemical composition change of bamboo accompanying its growth, Holzforschung, vol.47, pp.109-115, 1993.

R. J. Gosselink, J. G. Van-dam, and F. H. Zomers, Combined hplc analysis of organic acids and furans formed during organosolv pulping of fiber hemp, J. Wood Chem. Technol, vol.15, pp.1-25, 1995.

D. M. De-carvalho, O. Sevastyanova, L. S. Penna, B. P. Da-silva, M. E. Lindström et al., Assessment of chemical transformations in eucalyptus, sugarcane bagasse and straw during hydrothermal, dilute acid, and alkaline pretreatments, Ind. Crops Prod, vol.73, pp.118-126, 2015.

K. Iiyama, T. L. Bach, K. Natsuki, and B. A. Stone, Rapid and simple determination of o-acetyl groups bound to plant cell walls by acid hydrolysis and 1h NMR measurement, Phytochemistry, vol.35, pp.959-961, 1994.

S. Suzuki, E. B. Rodriguez, K. Iiyama, K. Saito, and H. Shintani, Compositional and structural characteristics of residual biomass from tropical plantations, J. Wood Sci, vol.44, pp.40-46, 1998.

K. Thammasouk, D. Tandjo, and M. H. Penner, Influence of extractives on the analysis of herbaceous biomass, J. Agric. Food Chem, vol.45, pp.437-443, 1997.

J. Gallacher, C. E. Snape, K. Hassan, and M. C. Jarvis, Solid-state 13 C NMR study of palm trunk cell walls, J. Food Agric, vol.64, pp.487-491, 1994.

E. P. Beckers, H. P. Bongers, M. E. Van-der-zee, and C. Sander, Acetyl content determination using different analytical techniques, Proceedings of the First European Conference on Wood Modification, pp.83-101, 2003.

G. Zhang, K. Huang, X. Jiang, D. Huang, and Y. Yang, Acetylation of rice straw for thermoplastic applications, Carbohyd. Polym, vol.96, pp.218-226, 2013.

J. Puls, Chemistry and biochemistry of hemicelluloses: Relationship between hemicellulose structure and enzymes required for hydrolysis, Macromol. Symp, vol.120, pp.183-196, 1997.

P. C. Pinto, D. V. Evtuguin, and C. P. Neto, Structure of hardwood glucuronoxylans: Modifications and impact on pulp retention during wood Kraft pulping, Carbohyd. Polym, vol.60, pp.489-497, 2005.

, This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license, © 2018 by the authors. Licensee MDPI