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Worldwide trends in body-mass index, underweight, overweight, and obesity from 1975 to 2016: a pooled analysis of 2416 population-based measurement studies in 128·9 million children, adolescents, and adults

Leandra Abarca-Gómez Ziad Abdeen Zargar Abdul Hamid Niveen Abu-Rmeileh Benjamin Acosta-Cazares Cecilia Acuin Robert Adams Wichai Aekplakorn Kaosar Afsana Carlos Aguilar-Salinas Charles Agyemang Alireza Ahmadvand Wolfgang Ahrens Kamel Ajlouni Nazgul Akhtaeva Hazzaa Al-Hazzaa Amani Rashed Al-Othman Rajaa Al-Raddadi Fadia Al Buhairan Shahla Al Dhukair Mohamed Ali Osman Ali Ala'A Alkerwi Mar Alvarez-Pedrerol Eman Aly Deepak Amarapurkar Philippe Amouyel Antoinette Amuzu Lars Bo Andersen Sigmund Anderssen Dolores Andrade Lars Ängquist Ranjit Mohan Anjana Hajer Aounallah-Skhiri Joana Araújo Inger Ariansen Tahir Aris Nimmathota Arlappa Dominique Arveiler Krishna Aryal Thor Aspelund Felix Assah Maria Cecília F Assunção May Soe Aung Mária Avdicová Ana Azevedo Fereidoun Azizi Bontha Babu Suhad Bahijri Jennifer Baker Nagalla Balakrishna Mohamed Bamoshmoosh Maciej Banach Piotr Bandosz José Banegas Carlo Barbagallo Alberto Barceló Amina Barkat Aluisio Jd Barros Mauro Vg Barros Iqbal Bata Anwar Batieha Rosangela Batista Assembekov Batyrbek Louise Baur Robert Beaglehole Habiba Ben Romdhane Judith Benedics Mikhail Benet Antonio Bernabe-Ortiz Gailute Bernotiene Heloisa Bettiol Aroor Bhagyalaxmi Sumit Bharadwaj Santosh Bhargava Zaid Bhatti Hongsheng Bi Yufang Bi Anna Biehl Mukharram Bikbov Bihungum Bista Dusko Bjelica Peter Bjerregaard Espen Bjertness Marius Bjertness Cecilia Björkelund Anneke Blokstra Simona Bo Martin Bobak Lynne Boddy Bernhard Boehm Heiner Boeing Jose Boggia Carlos Boissonnet Marialaura Bonaccio Vanina Bongard Pascal Bovet Lien Braeckevelt Lutgart Braeckman Marjolijn Ce Bragt Imperia Brajkovich Francesco Branca Juergen Breckenkamp João Breda Hermann Brenner Lizzy Brewster Garry Brian Lacramioara Brinduse Graziella Bruno H B(as) Bueno-De-Mesquita Anna Bugge Marta Buoncristiano Genc Burazeri Con Burns Antonio Cabrera de León Joseph Cacciottolo Hui Cai Tilema Cama Christine Cameron José Camolas Günay Can Ana Paula C Cândido Mario Capanzana Vincenzo Capuano Viviane Cardoso Axel Carlsson Maria Carvalho Felipe Casanueva Juan-Pablo Casas Carmelo Caserta Snehalatha Chamukuttan Angelique Chan Queenie Chan Himanshu Chaturvedi Nishi Chaturvedi Chien-Jen Chen Fangfang Chen Huashuai Chen Shuohua Chen Zhengming Chen Ching-Yu Cheng Angela Chetrit Ekaterina Chikova-Iscener Arnaud Chiolero Shu-Ti Chiou María-Dolores Chirlaque Belong Cho Yumi Cho Kaare Christensen Diego Christofaro Jerzy Chudek Renata Cifkova Eliza Cinteza Frank Claessens Els Clays Hans Concin Susana Confortin Cyrus Cooper Rachel Cooper Tara Coppinger Simona Costanzo Dominique Cottel Chris Cowell Cora Craig Ana Crujeiras Alexandra Cucu Graziella d'Arrigo Eleonora d'Orsi Jean Dallongeville Albertino Damasceno Camilla Damsgaard Rachel Dankner Thomas Dantoft Saeed Dastgiri Luc Dauchet Kairat Davletov Guy de Backer Dirk de Bacquer Amalia de Curtis Giovanni de Gaetano Stefaan de Henauw Paula Duarte de Oliveira Karin de Ridder Delphine de Smedt Mohan Deepa Alexander Deev Abbas Dehghan Hélène Delisle Francis Delpeuch Valérie Deschamps Klodian Dhana Augusto Di Castelnuovo Juvenal Soares Dias-Da-Costa Alejandro Diaz Zivka Dika Shirin Djalalinia Ha Tp Do Annette Dobson Maria Benedetta Donati Chiara Donfrancesco Silvana Donoso Angela Döring Maria Dorobantu Ahmad Reza Dorosty Kouamelan Doua Wojciech Drygas Jia Li Duan Charmaine Duante Vesselka Duleva Virginija Dulskiene Vilnis Dzerve Elzbieta Dziankowska-Zaborszczyk Eruke Egbagbe Robert Eggertsen Gabriele Eiben Ulf Ekelund Jalila El Ati Paul Elliott Reina Engle-Stone Rajiv Erasmus Cihangir Erem Louise Eriksen Johan Eriksson Jorge Escobedo-De La Peña Alun Evans David Faeh Caroline Fall Victoria Farrugia Sant'Angelo Farshad Farzadfar Francisco Felix-Redondo Trevor Ferguson Romulo Fernandes Daniel Fernández-Bergés Daniel Ferrante Marika Ferrari Catterina Ferreccio Jean Ferrieres Joseph Finn Krista Fischer Eric Monterubio Flores Bernhard Föger Leng Huat Foo Ann-Sofie Forslund Maria Forsner Heba Fouad Damian Francis Maria Do Carmo Franco Oscar Franco Guillermo Frontera Flavio Fuchs Sandra Fuchs Yuki Fujita Takuro Furusawa Zbigniew Gaciong Mihai Gafencu Daniela Galeone Fabio Galvano Manoli Garcia-De-La-Hera Dickman Gareta Sarah Garnett Jean-Michel Gaspoz Magda Gasull Louise Gates Harald Geiger Johanna Geleijnse Anoosheh Ghasemian Simona Giampaoli Francesco Gianfagna Tiffany Gill Jonathan Giovannelli Aleksander Giwercman Justyna Godos Sibel Gogen Rebecca Goldsmith David Goltzman Helen Gonçalves Margot González-Leon Juan González-Rivas Marcela Gonzalez-Gross Frederic Gottrand Antonio Pedro Graça Sidsel Graff-Iversen Dušan Grafnetter Aneta Grajda Maria Grammatikopoulou Ronald Gregor Tomasz Grodzicki Anders Grøntved Giuseppe Grosso Gabriella Gruden Vera Grujic Dongfeng Gu Emanuela Gualdi-Russo Pilar Guallar-Castillón Ong Peng Guan Elias Gudmundsson Vilmundur Gudnason Ramiro Guerrero Idris Guessous Andre Guimaraes Martin Gulliford Johanna Gunnlaugsdottir Marc Gunter Xiuhua Guo Yin Guo Prakash Gupta Rajeev Gupta Oye Gureje Beata Gurzkowska Laura Gutierrez Felix Gutzwiller Farzad Hadaegh Charalambos Hadjigeorgiou Khairil Si-Ramlee Jytte Halkjær Ian Hambleton Rebecca Hardy Rachakulla Hari Kumar Maria Hassapidou Jun Hata Jiang He Regina Heidinger-Felso Mirjam Heinen Marleen Elisabeth Hendriks Ana Henriques Leticia Hernandez Cadena Sauli Herrala Victor Herrera Isabelle Herter-Aeberli Ramin Heshmat Ilpo Tapani Hihtaniemi Sai Yin Ho Suzanne Ho Michael Hobbs Albert Hofman Wilma Hopman Andrea Rvr Horimoto Claudia Hormiga Bernardo Horta Leila Houti Christina Howitt Thein Thein Htay Aung Soe Htet Maung Maung Than Htike Yonghua Hu José María Huerta Constanta Huidumac Petrescu Martijn Huisman Abdullatif Husseini Chinh Nguyen Huu Inge Huybrechts Nahla Hwalla Jolanda Hyska Licia Iacoviello Anna Iannone Jesús Ibarluzea Mohsen Ibrahim Nayu Ikeda M Arfan Ikram Vilma Irazola Muhammad Islam Aziz Al-Safi Ismail Vanja Ivkovic Masanori Iwasaki Rod Jackson Jeremy Jacobs Hashem Jaddou Tazeen Jafar Kazi Jamil Konrad Jamrozik Imre Janszky Juel Jarani Grazyna Jasienska Ana Jelakovic Bojan Jelakovic Garry Jennings Seung-Lyeal Jeong Chao Qiang Jiang Santa Magaly Jiménez-Acosta Michel Joffres Mattias Johansson Jost Jonas Torben Jørgensen Pradeep Joshi Dragana Jovic Jacek Józwiak Anne Juolevi Gregor Jurak Vesna Jureša Rudolf Kaaks Anthony Kafatos Eero Kajantie Ofra Kalter-Leibovici Nor Azmi Kamaruddin Efthymios Kapantais Khem Karki Amir Kasaeian Jussi Kauhanen Prabhdeep Kaur Maryam Kavousi Gyulli Kazakbaeva Ulrich Keil Lital Keinan Boker Sirkka Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi Cecily Kelleher Han Cg Kemper Andre Kengne Alina Kerimkulova Mathilde Kersting Timothy Key Yousef Saleh Khader Davood Khalili Mohammad Khateeb Kay-Tee Khaw Ilse Msl Khouw Ursula Kiechl-Kohlendorfer Stefan Kiechl Japhet Killewo Jeongseon Kim Yeon-Yong Kim Jeannette Klimont Jurate Klumbiene Michael Knoflach Bhawesh Koirala Elin Kolle Patrick Kolsteren Paul Korrovits Jelena Kos Seppo Koskinen Katsuyasu Kouda Viktoria Kovacs Sudhir Kowlessur Slawomir Koziel Wolfgang Kratzer Susi Kriemler Peter Lund Kristensen Steinar Krokstad Daan Kromhout Herculina Kruger Ruzena Kubinova Renata Kuciene Diana Kuh Urho Kujala Zbigniew Kulaga R Krishna Kumar Marie Kunešová Pawel Kurjata Yadlapalli Kusuma Kari Kuulasmaa Catherine Kyobutungi Quang Ngoc La Fatima Zahra Laamiri Tiina Laatikainen Carl Lachat Youcef Laid Tai Hing Lam Orlando Landrove Vera Lanska Georg Lappas Bagher Larijani Lars Laugsand Laura Lauria Khanh Le Nguyen Bao Tuyen Le May Antonnette O Lebanan Catherine Leclercq Jeannette Lee Jeonghee Lee Terho Lehtimäki Luz León-Muñoz Naomi Levitt Christa Lilly Wei-Yen Lim M Fernanda Lima-Costa Hsien-Ho Lin Xu Lin Lars Lind Allan Linneberg Lauren Lissner Mieczyslaw Litwin Jing Liu Helle-Mai Loit Luis Lopes Roberto Lorbeer Paulo Lotufo José Eugenio Lozano Dalia Luksiene Annamari Lundqvist Nuno Lunet Per Lytsy Guansheng Ma George Ll Machado-Coelho Aristides Machado-Rodrigues Suka Machi Stefania Maggi Dianna Magliano Emmanuella Magriplis Alagappan Mahaletchumy Bernard Maire Marjeta Majer Marcia Makdisse Reza Malekzadeh Rahul Malhotra Kodavanti Mallikharjuna Rao Sofia Malyutina Yannis Manios Jim Mann Enzo Manzato Paula Margozzini Anastasia Markaki Oonagh Markey Larissa Marques Pedro Marques-Vidal Jaume Marrugat Yves Martin-Prével Rosemarie Martin Reynaldo Martorell Eva Martos Stefano Marventano Shariq Masoodi Ellisiv Mathiesen Alicia Matijasevich Tandi Matsha Artur Mazur Jean Claude N Mbanya Shelly Mcfarlane Stephen Mcgarvey Martin Mckee Stela Mclachlan Rachael Mclean Scott Mclean Breige Mcnulty Safiah Md Yusof Sounnia Mediene-Benchekor Jurate Medzioniene Aline Meirhaeghe Jørgen Meisfjord Christa Meisinger Ana Maria B Menezes Geetha Menon Gert Bm Mensink Indrapal Meshram Andres Metspalu Haakon Meyer Jie Mi Kim Michaelsen Nathalie Michels Kairit Mikkel Jody Miller Cláudia Minderico Juan Francisco Miquel Daphne Mirkopoulou Erkin Mirrakhimov Marjeta Mišigoj-Durakovic Antonio Mistretta Veronica Mocanu Pietro Modesti Mostafa Mohamed Kazem Mohammad Noushin Mohammadifard Viswanathan Mohan Salim Mohanna Muhammad Fadhli Mohd Yusoff Drude Molbo Line Møllehave Niels Møller Dénes Molnár Amirabbas Momenan Charles Mondo Eric Monterrubio Kotsedi Daniel K Monyeki Jin Soo Moon Leila Moreira Alain Morejon Luis Moreno Karen Morgan Erik Lykke Mortensen George Moschonis Malgorzata Mossakowska Jorge Mota Anabela Mota-Pinto Mohammad Esmaeel Motlagh Jorge Motta Thet Thet Mu Magdalena Muc Maria Lorenza Muiesan Martina Müller-Nurasyid Neil Murphy Jaakko Mursu Elaine Murtagh Vera Musil Iraj Nabipour Gabriele Nagel Balkish Naidu Harunobu Nakamura Jana Námešná Ei Ei K Nang Vinay Nangia Martin Nankap Sameer Narake Paola Nardone Eva Maria Navarrete-Muñoz William Neal Ilona Nenko Flavio Nervi Chung Nguyen Nguyen Nguyen Quang Ngoc Nguyen Ramfis Nieto-Martínez Guang Ning Toshiharu Ninomiya Sania Nishtar Marianna Noale Oscar Noboa Teresa Norat Sawada Norie Davide Noto Mohannad Al Nsour Dermot O'Reilly Galina Obreja Eiji Oda Glenn Oehlers Kyungwon Oh Kumiko Ohara Örn Olafsson Maria Teresa Anselmo Olinto Isabel Oliveira Maciej Oltarzewski Mohd Azahadi Omar Altan Onat Sok King Ong Lariane Ono Pedro Ordunez Rui Ornelas Ana Ortiz Merete Osler Clive Osmond Sergej Ostojic Afshin Ostovar Johanna Otero Kim Overvad Ellis Owusu-Dabo Fred Michel Paccaud Elena Pahomova Andrzej Pajak Domenico Palli Alberto Palloni Luigi Palmieri Wen-Harn Pan Songhomitra Panda-Jonas Arvind Pandey Francesco Panza Dimitrios Papandreou Soon-Woo Park Winsome Parnell Mahboubeh Parsaeian Ionela Pascanu Nikhil Patel Ivan Pecin Mangesh Pednekar Nasheeta Peer Petra Peeters Sergio Viana Peixoto Markku Peltonen Alexandre Pereira Napoleon Perez-Farinos Cynthia Pérez Annette Peters Janina Petkeviciene Ausra Petrauskiene Niloofar Peykari Son Thai Pham Daniela Pierannunzio Iris Pigeot Hynek Pikhart Aida Pilav Lorenza Pilotto Francesco Pistelli Freda Pitakaka Aleksandra Piwonska Pedro Plans-Rubió Bee Koon Poh Hermann Pohlabeln Raluca Pop Stevo Popovic Miquel Porta Marileen Lp Portegies Georg Posch Dimitrios Poulimeneas Hamed Pouraram Akram Pourshams Hossein Poustchi Rajendra Pradeepa Mathur Prashant Jacqueline Price Jardena Puder Iveta Pudule Maria Puiu Margus Punab Radwan Qasrawi Mostafa Qorbani Tran Quoc Bao Ivana Radic Ricardas Radisauskas Mahfuzar Rahman Mahmudur Rahman Olli Raitakari Manu Raj Sudha Ramachandra Rao Ambady Ramachandran Jacqueline Ramke Elisabete Ramos Rafel Ramos Sanjay Rampal Ramon Rascon-Pacheco Josep Redon Paul Ferdinand M Reganit Lourdes Ribas-Barba Robespierre Ribeiro Elio Riboli Fernando Rigo Tobias de Wit Ana Rito Raphael Ritti-Dias Juan Rivera Sian Robinson Cynthia Robitaille Daniela Rodrigues Fernando Rodríguez-Artalejo María del Cristo Rodriguez-Perez Laura Rodríguez-Villamizar Rosalba Rojas-Martinez Nipa Rojroongwasinkul Dora Romaguera Kimmo Ronkainen Annika Rosengren Ian Rouse Joel Gr Roy Adolfo Rubinstein Frank Rühli Blanca Sandra Ruiz-Betancourt Paola Russo Marcin Rutkowski Charumathi Sabanayagam Harshpal Sachdev Olfa Saidi Benoit Salanave Eduardo Salazar Martinez Diego Salmerón Veikko Salomaa Jukka Salonen Massimo Salvetti Jose Sánchez-Abanto S Sandjaja Susana Sans Loreto Santa Marina Diana Santos Ina Santos Osvaldo Santos Renata Nunes dos Santos Rute Santos Jouko Saramies Luis Sardinha Nizal Sarrafzadegan Kai-Uwe Saum Savvas Savva Mathilde Savy Marcia Scazufca Angelika Schaffrath Rosario Herman Schargrodsky Anja Schienkiewitz Sabine Schipf Carsten Schmidt Ida Maria Schmidt Constance Schultsz Aletta Schutte Aye Aye Sein Abhijit Sen Idowu Senbanjo Sadaf Sepanlou Luis Serra-Majem Svetlana Shalnova Sanjib Sharma Jonathan Shaw Kenji Shibuya Dong Wook Shin Youchan Shin Rahman Shiri Alfonso Siani Rosalynn Siantar Abla Sibai Antonio Silva Diego Augusto Santos Silva Mary Simon Judith Simons Leon Simons Agneta Sjöberg Michael Sjöström Sine Skovbjerg Jolanta Slowikowska-Hilczer Przemyslaw Slusarczyk Liam Smeeth Margaret Smith Marieke Snijder Hung-Kwan So Eugène Sobngwi Stefan Söderberg Moesijanti Ye Soekatri Vincenzo Solfrizzi Emily Sonestedt Yi Song Thorkild Ia Sørensen Maroje Soric Charles Sossa Jérome Aicha Soumare Angela Spinelli Igor Spiroski Jan Staessen Hanspeter Stamm Gregor Starc Maria Stathopoulou 1 Kaspar Staub Bill Stavreski Jostein Steene-Johannessen Peter Stehle Aryeh Stein George Stergiou Jochanan Stessman Jutta Stieber Doris Stöckl Tanja Stocks Jakub Stokwiszewski Gareth Stratton Karien Stronks Maria Wany Strufaldi Ramón Suárez-Medina Chien-An Sun Johan Sundström Yn-Tz Sung Jordi Sunyer Paibul Suriyawongpaisal Boyd Swinburn Rody Sy Lucjan Szponar E Shyong Tai Mari-Liis Tammesoo Abdonas Tamosiunas Eng Joo Tan Xun Tang Frank Tanser Yong Tao Mohammed Rasoul Tarawneh Jakob Tarp Carolina Tarqui-Mamani Oana-Florentina Tautu Radka Taxová Braunerová Anne Taylor Félicité Tchibindat Holger Theobald Xenophon Theodoridis Lutgarde Thijs Betina Thuesen Anne Tjonneland Hanna Tolonen Janne Tolstrup Murat Topbas Roman Topór-Madry María José Tormo Michael Tornaritis Maties Torrent Stefania Toselli Pierre Traissac Dimitrios Trichopoulos Antonia Trichopoulou Oanh Th Trinh Atul Trivedi Lechaba Tshepo Maria Tsigga Shoichiro Tsugane Marshall Tulloch-Reid Fikru Tullu Tomi-Pekka Tuomainen Jaakko Tuomilehto Maria Turley Per Tynelius Themistoklis Tzotzas Christophe Tzourio Peter Ueda Eunice Ugel Flora Am Ukoli Hanno Ulmer Belgin Unal Hannu Mt Uusitalo Gonzalo Valdivia Susana Vale Damaskini Valvi Yvonne van der Schouw Koen van Herck Hoang van Minh Lenie van Rossem Natasja van Schoor Irene Gm van Valkengoed Dirk Vanderschueren Diego Vanuzzo Lars Vatten Tomas Vega Toomas Veidebaum Gustavo Velasquez-Melendez Biruta Velika Giovanni Veronesi Wm Monique Verschuren Cesar Victora Giovanni Viegi Lucie Viet Eira Viikari-Juntura Paolo Vineis Jesus Vioque Jyrki Virtanen Sophie Visvikis-Siest 1 Bharathi Viswanathan Tiina Vlasoff Peter Vollenweider Henry Völzke Sari Voutilainen Martine Vrijheid Alisha Wade Aline Wagner Thomas Waldhör Janette Walton Wan Mohamad Wan Bebakar Wan Nazaimoon Wan Mohamud Rildo Wanderley Ming-Dong Wang Qian Wang Ya Xing Wang Ying-Wei Wang S Goya Wannamethee Nicholas Wareham Adelheid Weber Niels Wedderkopp Deepa Weerasekera Peter Whincup Kurt Widhalm Indah Widyahening Andrzej Wiecek Alet Wijga Rainford Wilks Johann Willeit Peter Willeit Tom Wilsgaard Bogdan Wojtyniak Roy Wong-Mcclure Justin Yy Wong Jyh Eiin Wong Tien Yin Wong Jean Woo Mark Woodward Frederick Wu Jianfeng Wu Shouling Wu Haiquan Xu Liang Xu Uruwan Yamborisut Weili Yan Xiaoguang Yang Nazan Yardim Xingwang Ye Panayiotis Yiallouros Agneta Yngve Akihiro Yoshihara Qi Sheng You Novie Younger-Coleman Faudzi Yusoff Muhammad Fadhli M Yusoff Luciana Zaccagni Vassilis Zafiropulos Ahmad Zainuddin Sabina Zambon Antonis Zampelas Hana Zamrazilová Tomasz Zdrojewski Yi Zeng Dong Zhao Wenhua Zhao Wei Zheng Yingfeng Zheng Bekbolat Zholdin Maigeng Zhou Dan Zhu Baurzhan Zhussupov Esther Zimmermann Julio Zuñiga Cisneros James Bentham Mariachiara Di Cesare Ver Bilano Honor Bixby Bin Zhou Gretchen Stevens Leanne Riley Cristina Taddei Kaveh Hajifathalian Yuan Lu Stefan Savin Melanie Cowan Christopher Paciorek Adela Chirita-Emandi Alison Hayes Joanne Katz Roya Kelishadi Andre Pascal Kengne Young-Ho Khang Avula Laxmaiah Yanping Li Jun Ma J Jaime Miranda Aya Mostafa Martin Neovius Cristina Padez Lekhraj Rampal Aubrianna Zhu James Bennett Goodarz Danaei Zulfiqar Bhutta Majid Ezzati