D. Guillemot, P. Maison, C. Carbon, B. Balkau, F. Vauzello.-kervroëdan et al., Trends in Antimicrobial Drug Use in the Community???France, 1981???1992, The Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol.177, issue.2, pp.492-499, 1998.
DOI : 10.1086/517384

S. Fridlin, S. Cd, J. Edwards, E. Pryor, M. Le-jr et al., Surveillance of antimicrobial use and antimicrobial resistance in United States hospitals: Projet ICARE phase 2. Project ITllensive Care Antimicrobial Resistance Epidermiology (ICARE) hospitals, Qin Infe<:t Dis, vol.29, issue.2, pp.245-52, 1999.

M. Borg, P. Zarb, M. Ferech, and H. Goossens, Antibiotic consumption in southern and eastern Mediterranean hospitals: results from the ARMed project, Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, vol.42, issue.2, pp.830-836
DOI : 10.1016/S0924-8579(00)00148-5

D. Day, T. Lubowsli, Y. Cc, J. Main, V. Vleet et al., Computer-assisted evaluati<-l of antibiotic regimen covera~ ruv:l cost, Qin Ther, vol.21, issue.8, pp.1418-1443

W. Ounagan, R. Woodward, G. Me<ioff, J. Gray, . Iii et al., Antimicrobial misuse in patients with positive blood cultures, The American Journal of Medicine, vol.87, issue.3, pp.253-262, 1989.
DOI : 10.1016/S0002-9343(89)80146-9

M. Denton, M. Morgan, and R. White, Quality of prescribing of intravenous antibiotics in a district general hospital., BMJ, vol.302, issue.6772, p.327, 1991.
DOI : 10.1136/bmj.302.6772.327-a

J. Barenfanger, M. Short, and A. Groesh, Improved Antimicrobial Interventions Have Benefits, Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol.39, issue.8, p.2823, 2001.
DOI : 10.1128/JCM.39.8.2823-2828.2001

. Bantar-e, B. Sartori, E. Vesco, H. E. Saùl, M. Salarnone et al., A hospital wide intervention program to optimiz.e the quality of antibioti<: use: impact on prescribing practice, antibioti<: ~­ sumption, çost savings, and bacterial resistance, Cin Infeo:t Dis, vol.37, issue.2, pp.180-186, 2003.

J. Mait, H. Moffet, and C. Kunin, GuideliTllS fotimproving the use of antimicrobial agents in hospitals: a statemeTII by the Infeo:tious dise.ues Society ~ America, J Infeo:t Dis, vol.157, 1988.

H. Ministry, lth ruv:l Ministry ~ Food Agriculture and Fisheries , Denmarl. Rep:n1 fn:m the European Union Conference on 'The Microbial Threat

A. Guidelines-for and . Classification, Oslo: WHO Collabotative Center for Drug Statistics Methodology, Norwegian Institute of Public Hea.lth, 2007.

J. Gums, R. Yanoey, . Jr, C. Hamilton, and P. Kubilis, A Randomized, Prospective Study Measuring Outcomes after Antibiotic Therapy Intervention by a Multidisciplinary Consult Team, Pharmacotherapy, vol.41, issue.17, pp.1369-77, 1999.
DOI : 10.1016/S0140-6736(81)90657-7

V. Gunten, V. Tr<lilletn, J. Beney, K. Bouoo1er, L. Je et al., Impact of an interdisciplinary strategy on antibiotic use: a prospective controlled study in three hospitals, Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, vol.55, issue.3, p.362, 2005.
DOI : 10.7326/0003-4819-133-2-200007180-00012

A. Apisamthanaral, S. Danchaivijitr, T. Kbawo:-haroenporn, J. Warachan, B. Bruley et al., ~rw::1 ~n ~nlihiotir-~ntrol l'1"Oz'''m in ~ ft>rti~ry ~~'" hoo.I'it~1 in Thailand, Cin Infeo:t Dis, vol.42, issue.6, pp.768-75

R. Mach, J. Vicel, M. Prusova, P. Batka, V. Rysavy et al., Impact of a multidisciplinary approach on antibiotic consumption, cost and microbial resistance in a Czech hospital, Pharmacy World & Science, vol.55, issue.11, pp.565-72, 2007.
DOI : 10.1007/s00134-002-1565-2

A. Mo}-'~,..-"...., Ibo Nd

G. Rolinson, Forty years of beta-lactam research, Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, vol.41, issue.6, pp.589-603, 1998.
DOI : 10.1093/jac/41.6.589

S. Levy and F. Breton, Le Paradoxe des antibiotiques ? comment un miracle tue le miracle, p.240, 1999.

P. Choutet, Utilisation des antibiotiques : excès et conséquences, RevPrat, vol.53, pp.1527-1559, 2003.

L. Henriet and D. Guillemot, Pharmaco-??pid??miologie des r??sistances, consommation des antibiotiques, M??decine et Maladies Infectieuses, vol.30, issue.S3, pp.160-163, 2000.
DOI : 10.1016/S0399-077X(00)89084-8

D. Boccia, S. Alegiani, A. Pantosti, M. Moro, and G. Traversa, The geographic relationship between the use of antimicrobial drugs and the pattern of resistance for Streptococcus pneumoniae in Italy, Eur J Clin Pharmacol, vol.60, pp.115-124, 2004.

H. Goossens, M. Ferech, V. Stichele, R. Elseviers, M. Esac-project et al., Outpatient antibiotic use in Europe and association with resistance: a cross-national database study, The Lancet, vol.365, issue.9459, pp.579-87, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/S0140-6736(05)70799-6

M. Lipsitch and M. Samore, Antimicrobial use and antimicrobial resistance: a population perspective. Emerg InfectDis, pp.347-54, 2002.

D. Livermore, Bacterial Resistance: Origins, Epidemiology, and Impact, Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol.46, issue.1, pp.11-23, 2003.
DOI : 10.1093/jac/46.3.347

R. Cantón, Antibiotic resistance genes from the environment: a perspective through newly identified antibiotic resistance mechanisms in the clinical setting, Clinical Microbiology and Infection, vol.15
DOI : 10.1111/j.1469-0691.2008.02679.x

D. Guillemot and R. Leclercq, Impact de l'exposition des populations sur le risque de r??sistance bact??rienne, M??decine et Maladies Infectieuses, vol.35, pp.212-232, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/S0399-077X(05)83004-5

O. Connor, J. Johnson, S. Gerding, and D. , Clostridium difficile Infection Caused by the Epidemic BI/NAP1/027 Strain, Gastroenterology, vol.136, issue.6, pp.1913-1937, 2009.
DOI : 10.1053/j.gastro.2009.02.073

M. Heinzelmann, M. Scott, and T. Lam, Factors predisposing to bacterial invasion and infection, The American Journal of Surgery, vol.183, issue.2, pp.179-90, 2002.
DOI : 10.1016/S0002-9610(01)00866-2

D. Monnet, Consommation d???antibiotiques et r??sistance bact??rienne, Annales Fran??aises d'Anesth??sie et de R??animation, vol.19, issue.5, pp.409-426, 2000.
DOI : 10.1016/S0750-7658(00)90211-9

D. Guillemot, C. Carbon, B. Balkau, P. Geslin, H. Lecoeur et al., Low dosage and long treatment duration of Beta-lactam : risk factors for carriage of pecicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae, Jama. Feb, vol.4279, issue.5, pp.365-70, 1998.

P. Hawkey, The growing burden of antimicrobial resistance, Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, vol.60, issue.5, pp.1-9, 2008.
DOI : 10.1093/jac/dkm310

M. Hecker, D. Aron, N. Patel, M. Lehmann, and C. Donskey, Unnecessary Use of Antimicrobials in Hospitalized Patients, Archives of Internal Medicine, vol.163, issue.8, pp.972-980, 2003.
DOI : 10.1001/archinte.163.8.972

I. Odenholt, I. Gustafsson, E. Löwdin, and O. Cars, Suboptimal Antibiotic Dosage as a Risk Factor for Selection of Penicillin-Resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae: In Vitro Kinetic Model, Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, vol.47, issue.2, pp.518-541, 2003.
DOI : 10.1128/AAC.47.2.518-523.2003

J. Decousser, B. Lamy, P. Pina, and P. Allouch, Trends in antibiotic susceptibility of bloodstream pathogens in hospitalized patients in France, 1996 to 2007, Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease, vol.66, issue.3, pp.292-300, 1996.
DOI : 10.1016/j.diagmicrobio.2009.10.007

M. De-kraker and N. Van-de-sande-bruinsma, Trends in antimicrobial resistance in Europe: update of EARSS results Euro Surveill, Mar, vol.1512, issue.3, pp.70315-70318, 2007.

M. Ferech, S. Coenen, K. Dvorakova, E. Hendrickx, C. Suetens et al., European Surveillance of Antimicrobial Consumption (ESAC): outpatient penicillin use in Europe, Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, vol.50, issue.2, pp.408-420, 2006.
DOI : 10.1093/jac/dkf501

H. Goossens, R. Vander-stichele, M. Elseviers, M. Ferech, and S. Blot, European Surveillance of Antibiotic Comsuption (ESAC) Project Group. Hospital consumption of antibiotics in 15 European countries: results of the ESAC Retrospective Data Collection, J Antimicrob Chemother, 1997.

A. Nationale-d, Accréditation et d'Evaluation en Santé (ANAES)Bon usage des antibiotiques à l'hôpital .Recommandation pour maîtriser le développement des résistances bactériennes .Août, Disponible en ligne sur, 1996.

E. Chain, H. Florey, M. Adelaide, A. Gardner, N. Heatley et al., et al Penicillin as a chemotherapeutic agent, Lancet, vol.2, pp.226-234, 1940.

M. Swartz, Bacterial Meningitis ??? A View of the Past 90 Years, New England Journal of Medicine, vol.351, issue.18, pp.1826-1834, 2004.
DOI : 10.1056/NEJMp048246

H. Lode, Safety and Tolerability of Commonly Prescribed Oral Antibiotics for the Treatment of Respiratory Tract Infections, The American Journal of Medicine, vol.123, issue.4, pp.26-38, 2010.
DOI : 10.1016/j.amjmed.2010.02.004

S. Dancer, How antibiotics can make us sick: the less obvious adverse effects of antimicrobial chemotherapy, The Lancet Infectious Diseases, vol.4, issue.10, pp.611-620, 2004.
DOI : 10.1016/S1473-3099(04)01145-4

R. Baxter, G. Ray, and B. Fireman, Conclusions., Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology, vol.47, issue.01, pp.44-50, 2008.
DOI : 10.1086/381551

R. Owens, C. Donskey, R. Gaynes, V. Loo, and C. Muto, Infection, Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol.12, issue.s1, pp.19-31, 2008.
DOI : 10.1086/521861

M. Aldeyab, S. Harbarth, N. Vernaz, M. Kearney, M. Scott et al., Quasiexperimental Study of the Effects of Antibiotic Use, Gastric Acid-Suppressive Agents, and Infection Control Practices on the Incidence of Clostridium difficile-Associated Diarrhea in Hospitalized Patients, Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, vol.53, issue.5, pp.2082-2090, 2009.
DOI : 10.1128/AAC.01214-08

J. Blondeau, What have we learned about antimicrobial use and the risks for Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea?, Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, vol.31, issue.3, pp.238-280, 2009.
DOI : 10.1086/314030

E. Abraham and E. Chain, An Enzyme from Bacteria able to Destroy Penicillin, Nature, vol.146, issue.3713, pp.146-837, 1940.
DOI : 10.1038/146837a0

H. Alexander and W. Redman, Mechanism of emergence of resistance to streptomycin of H. pertussis and H. parapertussis during treatment with this antibiotic. Pediatrics, pp.461-468, 1949.

M. Finland, Changing patterns of resistance of certain pathogenic bacteria to antimicrobial agentsN Engl J Med, pp.570-80, 1955.

J. Sanford, C. Favour, and F. Mao, The emergence of antibiotic-resistant gramnegative bacilli J Lab Clin Med, pp.540-545, 1955.

L. Weinstein, T. Chang, J. Hudson, and W. Hartl, STUDIES OF THE EFFECT OF SULFONAMIDE-ANTIBIOTIC COMBINATIONS ON THE EMERGENCE OF DRUG RESISTANCE, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol.51, issue.3, pp.408-424, 1957.
DOI : 10.3181/00379727-60-15129

K. Bush, Antibacterial drug discovery in the 21st century, Clinical Microbiology and Infection, vol.10, issue.4, pp.10-17, 2004.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1465-0691.2004.1005.x

M. Barber, Methicillin-resistant staphylococci, Journal of Clinical Pathology, vol.14, issue.4, pp.385-93, 1961.
DOI : 10.1136/jcp.14.4.385

R. Gonzales, P. Schreckenberger, M. Graham, S. Kelkar, K. Denbesten et al., Infections due to vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium resistant to linezolid Lancet, p.1179, 2001.

S. Tsiodras, H. Gold, G. Sakoulas, G. Eliopoulos, C. Wennersten et al., Linezolid resistance in a clinical isolate of Staphylococcus aureus, The Lancet, vol.358, issue.9277, pp.207-215, 2001.
DOI : 10.1016/S0140-6736(01)05410-1

G. Cuzon, J. Ouanich, R. Gondret, T. Naas, and P. Nordmann, ABSTRACT, Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, vol.55, issue.5
DOI : 10.1128/AAC.01452-10

G. Wright, Antibiotics: Bacterial Resistance, pp.1451-70, 2005.
DOI : 10.1128/AAC.39.3.577

M. Babic, A. Hujer, and R. Bonomo, What's new in antibiotic resistance? Focus on beta-lactamases, Drug Resistance Updates, vol.9, issue.3, pp.142-56, 2006.
DOI : 10.1016/j.drup.2006.05.005

G. Jacoby and L. Munoz-price, The new beta-lactamases, N Engl J Med, 2005.

K. Bush, G. Jacoby, and A. Medeiros, A functional classification scheme for beta-lactamases and its correlation with molecular structure, Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, vol.39, issue.6, pp.1211-1233, 1995.
DOI : 10.1128/AAC.39.6.1211

A. Doléans-jordheim, S. Michalet, E. Bergeron, S. Boisset, F. Souard et al., Efflux pumps: their role in Staphylococcus aureus antibiotic resistance, Ann Biol Clin, vol.66, issue.5, pp.499-508, 2008.

K. Poole, Efflux-mediated antimicrobial resistance, J Antimicrob Chemother, 2005.

I. Guinote, R. Matos, P. Freire, and C. Arraiano, BolA affects cell growth, and binds to the promoters of penicillin-binding proteins 5 and 6 and regulates their expression, J Microbiol Biotechnol, vol.21, issue.3, pp.243-51, 2011.

S. Bobba, V. Ponnaluri, M. Mukherji, and W. Gutheil, ABSTRACT, Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, vol.55, issue.6, pp.2783-2790, 2011.
DOI : 10.1128/AAC.01327-10

I. Lessard and C. Walsh, VanX, a bacterial D-alanyl-D-alanine dipeptidase: Resistance, immunity, or survival function?, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol.42, issue.5, pp.11028-11060, 1999.
DOI : 10.1128/jb.176.8.2398-2405.1994

URL : http://www.pnas.org/content/96/20/11028.full.pdf

D. Eaves, L. Randall, D. Gray, A. Buckley, M. Woodward et al., Prevalence of Mutations within the Quinolone Resistance-Determining Region of gyrA, gyrB, parC, and parE and Association with Antibiotic Resistance in Quinolone-Resistant Salmonella enterica, Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, vol.48, issue.10, 2004.
DOI : 10.1128/AAC.48.10.4012-4015.2004

M. Kim, L. Jun, S. Shin, M. Park, S. Jung et al., Mutations in the gyrB, parC, and parE genes of quinolone-resistant isolates and mutants of Edwardsiella tarda, J Microbiol Biotechnol, 1920.

B. Marchou, F. Bellido, R. Charnas, C. Lucain, and J. Pechère, Contribution of beta-lactamase hydrolysis and outer membrane permeability to ceftriaxone resistance in Enterobacter cloacae., Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, vol.31, issue.10, pp.1589-95, 1987.
DOI : 10.1128/AAC.31.10.1589

J. Pagès, Porines bact??riennes et sensibilit?? aux antibiotiques, m??decine/sciences, vol.20, issue.3, pp.346-51, 2004.
DOI : 10.1051/medsci/2004203346

D. Monnet, F. Mackenzie, J. Lopez-lozano, A. Beyaert, M. Camacho et al., Antimicrobial-Drug Use and Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Emerging Infectious Diseases, vol.7, issue.1, pp.1432-1473, 1996.
DOI : 10.3201/eid0701.010129

M. Bonten, D. Austin, and M. Lipsitch, Understanding the Spread of Antibiotic Resistant Pathogens in Hospitals: Mathematical Models as Tools for Control, Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol.35, issue.10, pp.1739-1785, 200115.
DOI : 10.1128/AAC.35.7.1284

K. Madaras-kelly, Optimizing Antibiotic Use in Hospitals: The Role of Population-Based Antibiotic Surveillance in Limiting Antibiotic Resistance, Pharmacotherapy, vol.8, issue.7, pp.1627-1660, 2003.
DOI : 10.1001/jama.280.14.1233

A. Muller, M. Thouverez, D. Talon, and X. Bertrand, Contribution de la pression de s??lection antibiotique dans l???acquisition de Staphylococcus aureus r??sistant ?? la m??ticilline (SARM) dans un centre hospitalier universitaire, Pathologie Biologie, vol.51, issue.8-9, pp.454-463, 2003.
DOI : 10.1016/S0369-8114(03)00146-9

H. Goossens, Antibiotic consumption and link to resistance, Clinical Microbiology and Infection, vol.15, issue.3, pp.12-17, 2009.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1469-0691.2009.02725.x

A. Minooee and L. Rickman, Expanding the role of the infection control professional in the cost-effective use of antibiotics, American Journal of Infection Control, vol.28, issue.1, pp.57-65, 2000.
DOI : 10.1016/S0196-6553(00)90013-0

F. Mattner, F. Biertz, S. Ziesing, P. Gastmeier, and I. Chaberny, Long-term persistence of MRSA in re-admitted patients, Infection, vol.19, issue.5, pp.363-71, 2010.
DOI : 10.1093/clinids/19.6.1123

G. Cuzon, T. Naas, M. Guibert, and P. Nordmann, In vivo selection of imipenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae producing extended-spectrum ??-lactamase CTX-M-15 and plasmid-encoded DHA-1 cephalosporinase, International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, vol.35, issue.3, pp.265-273, 2010.
DOI : 10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2009.10.021

S. Cosgrove, The Relationship between Antimicrobial Resistance and Patient Outcomes: Mortality, Length of Hospital Stay, and Health Care Costs, Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol.22, issue.2, pp.82-91, 200615.
DOI : 10.1093/clinids/22.4.663

C. Giske, D. Monnet, O. Cars, and Y. Carmeli, Clinical and Economic Impact of Common Multidrug-Resistant Gram-Negative Bacilli, Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, vol.52, issue.3, pp.813-834, 2008.
DOI : 10.1128/AAC.01169-07

R. Weinstein, Hospital and societal costs of antimicrobial-resistant infections in a Chicago teaching hospital: implications for antibiotic stewardship, Clin Infect Dis, vol.49, pp.1175-84, 200915.

P. Montravers, Impact ??conomique des ?? mauvaises prescriptions ??, Annales Fran??aises d'Anesth??sie et de R??animation, vol.19, issue.5, pp.388-94, 2000.
DOI : 10.1016/S0750-7658(00)90208-9

P. Segura, M. François, C. Gagnon, and S. Sauvé, Review of the Occurrence of Anti-infectives in Contaminated Wastewaters and Natural and Drinking Waters, Environmental Health Perspectives, vol.117, issue.5, pp.675-84, 2009.
DOI : 10.1289/ehp.11776

C. Xi, Y. Zhang, C. Marrs, W. Ye, C. Simon et al., Prevalence of Antibiotic Resistance in Drinking Water Treatment and Distribution Systems, Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol.75, issue.17, pp.5714-5722, 2009.
DOI : 10.1128/AEM.00382-09

H. Conseil-de-la-santé-publique, Recommandations relatives aux mesures à mettre en oeuvre pour prévenir l'émergence des entérobactéries BLSE et lutte contre leur dissémination Rapport de la Commission spécialisée « sécurité des patients: infections nosocomiales et autres événements indésirables liées aux soins, 2011.

G. Taubes, The Bacteria Fight Back, Science, vol.321, issue.5887, pp.356-61, 2008.
DOI : 10.1126/science.321.5887.356

J. Boyce, S. Opal, J. Chow, M. Zervos, G. Potter-bynoe et al., Outbreak of multidrug-resistant Enterococcus faecium with transferable vanB class vancomycin resistance, J Clin Microbiol, vol.32, issue.5, pp.1148-53, 1994.

D. Hocquet, P. Plésiat, B. Dehecq, P. Mariotte, D. Talon et al., Nationwide Investigation of Extended-Spectrum ??-Lactamases, Metallo-??-Lactamases, and Extended-Spectrum Oxacillinases Produced by Ceftazidime-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strains in France, Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, vol.54, issue.8, pp.3512-3517, 2010.
DOI : 10.1128/AAC.01646-09

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00510525

M. Dulon, F. Haamann, C. Peters, A. Schablon, and A. Nienhaus, MRSA prevalence in european healthcare settings: a review, BMC Infectious Diseases, vol.75, issue.Suppl 1, p.138, 2011.
DOI : 10.1086/605921

T. Coque, F. Baquero, and R. Canton, Increasing prevalence of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in Europe. Euro Surveill pii: 19044. Review. Erratum in: Euro Surveill, 2008.

B. Dunais, P. Bruno-bazureault, H. Carsenti-dellamonica, P. Touboul, and C. Pradier, A decade-long surveillance of nasopharyngeal colonisation with Streptococcus pneumoniae among children attending day-care centres in south-eastern France: 1999???2008, European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases, vol.25, issue.10, pp.837-880, 2008.
DOI : 10.1097/01.inf.0000239266.20642.26

C. Frei, B. Makos, K. Daniels, and C. Oramasionwu, Emergence of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus skin and soft tissue infections as a common cause of hospitalization in United States children, Journal of Pediatric Surgery, vol.45, issue.10, pp.1967-74, 2010.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2010.05.009

A. Clements, R. Magalhaes, A. Tatem, D. Paterson, and T. Riley, Clostridium difficile PCR ribotype 027: assessing the risks of further worldwide spread, The Lancet Infectious Diseases, vol.10, issue.6, pp.395-404, 2010.
DOI : 10.1016/S1473-3099(10)70080-3

S. Dekeyser, E. Beclin, S. Nguyen, F. Dufossez, and D. Descamps, ??pid??mie ?? Enterococcus faecium r??sistant ?? la vancomycine de type Van B au centre hospitalier de B??thune (Pas-de-Calais). R??alisation de deux enqu??tes de pr??valence en mai??2008 et en janvier??2009, Pathologie Biologie, vol.58, issue.2, pp.21-26, 2008.
DOI : 10.1016/j.patbio.2009.07.002

S. Pneumoniae, S. , E. Coli, E. Faecium, E. Faecalis et al., On-going surveillance of, EARSS annual report, 2009.

I. Dossier-thématique, Resistance aux anti-infectieux Disponible en ligne sur :http://www.invs.sante.fr/surveillance/resistance/default

F. Maurice, Institut de Veille Sanitaire Disponible en ligne sur :http:/www.invs .santé.fr/publications, p.46, 2008.

R. Van-der-stichele, M. Elseviers, M. Ferech, S. Blot, and H. Goossens, Hospital consumption of antibiotics in 15 European countries: results of the ESAC Retrospective Data Collection (1997???2002), Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, vol.46, issue.1, pp.159-67, 1997.
DOI : 10.1093/jac/46.2.307

D. Macpherson, B. Gushulak, W. Baine, S. Bala, P. Gubbins et al., Population Mobility, Globalization, and Antimicrobial Drug Resistance, Emerging Infectious Diseases, vol.15, pp.1727-1759, 2009.
DOI : 10.3201/eid1511.090419

S. Godreuil, H. Marchandin, A. Boulier, A. Boumzebra, J. Campos et al., A 6-year study of glycopeptides-resistant enterococci in 3 intensive care units of the University Hospital of, Montpellier Pathol Biol, vol.55, pp.8-9418, 2007.

G. Birgand, K. Miliani, A. Carbonne, and P. Astagneau, Is high consumption of antibiotics associated with Clostridium difficile polymerase chain reactionribotype 027 infections in France? Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol, pp.302-307, 2010.

I. Poilane, C. Fantinato, P. Cruaud, and A. Collignon, Epidemiological study of Clostridium difficile strains isolated in Jean-Verdier-René-Muret hospitals from, Pathol Biol, vol.56, pp.7-8412, 2001.

K. Kumarasamy, M. Toleman, T. Walsh, J. Bagaria, F. Butt et al., Emergence of a new antibiotic resistance mechanism in India, Pakistan, and the UK: a molecular, biological, and epidemiological study, The Lancet Infectious Diseases, vol.10, issue.9, pp.597-602, 2010.
DOI : 10.1016/S1473-3099(10)70143-2

S. Bronzwaer, A. Lönnroth, and R. Haigh, The European Community Strategy Against Antimicrobial Resistance, Eurosurveillance, vol.9, issue.1, p.441, 2004.
DOI : 10.2807/esm.09.01.00441-en

S. Norrby, C. Nord, and R. Finch, Lack of development of new antimicrobial drugs: a potential serious threat to public health, The Lancet Infectious Diseases, vol.5, issue.2, pp.115-124, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/S1473-3099(05)70086-4

R. Finch and P. Hunter, Antibiotic resistance--action to promote new technologies: report of an EU Intergovernmental Conference, pp.12-13

E. Ema, The bacterial challenge: time to react, 2009.

O. Cars, S. Mölstad, and A. Melander, Variation in antibiotic use in the European Union, The Lancet, vol.357, issue.9271, pp.1851-1854, 2001.
DOI : 10.1016/S0140-6736(00)04972-2

D. Guillemot, P. Maugendre, C. Chauvin, and C. Sermet, Consommation des antibiotiques en France, Bulletin Epidémiologique Hebdomadaire, pp.32-33, 2004.

H. Damon, Réseau européen de surveillance de la résistance bactérienne aux

J. Mcgowan and . Jr, Abstract, Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology, vol.42, issue.S1, pp.36-43, 2000.
DOI : 10.1086/314564

S. Saizy-callaert, R. Causse, C. Furhman, L. Paih, M. Thébault et al., Impact of a multidisciplinary approach to the control of antibiotic prescription in a general hospital, Journal of Hospital Infection, vol.53, issue.3, pp.177-82, 2003.
DOI : 10.1053/jhin.2002.1307

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00597263

H. Wickens and J. A. , Impact of the Hospital Pharmacy Initiative for promoting prudent use of antibiotics in hospitals in England, Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, vol.14, issue.6, pp.1230-1237, 2006.
DOI : 10.1002/pds.1042

P. Stahl, François Apport d'une consultation systématique d'infectiologie à la maîtrise de l'antibiothérapie en réanimation. Réanimation, pp.281-287, 2005.

H. Montiel, En quoi le microbiologiste peut-il contribuer ?? l???am??lioration de la qualit?? de l???antibioth??rapie???, M??decine et Maladies Infectieuses, vol.33, issue.1, pp.1-12, 2003.
DOI : 10.1016/S0399-077X(02)00437-7

H. Leblebicioglu, A. Akbulut, S. Ulusoy, M. Sunbul, K. Aydin et al., Informal consultations in infectious diseases and clinical microbiology practice, Clinical Microbiology and Infection, vol.9, issue.7, pp.724-730, 2003.
DOI : 10.1046/j.1469-0691.2003.00584.x

K. De-with, L. Maier, M. Steib-bauert, P. Kern, and W. Kern, Trends in Antibiotic Use at a University Hospital: Defined or Prescribed Daily Doses? Patient Days or Admissions as Denominator?, Infection, vol.34, issue.2, pp.91-95, 2006.
DOI : 10.1007/s15010-006-5085-9

S. Alfandari, B. Guery, E. Senneville, H. Georges, O. Leroy et al., Diminution de la consommation des antibiotiques apr??s introduction d'ordonnances nominatives ?? dur??e limit??e, M??decine et Maladies Infectieuses, vol.29, issue.9, pp.567-72, 1999.
DOI : 10.1016/S0399-077X(00)80085-2

D. Nathwani and P. Davey, Antibiotic prescribingare there lessons for physicians?, QJM, vol.92, issue.5, pp.287-92, 1999.
DOI : 10.1093/qjmed/92.5.287

R. Roberts, B. Hota, I. Ahmad, R. Scott, S. Foster et al., Hospital and Societal Costs of Antimicrobial???Resistant Infections in a Chicago Teaching Hospital: Implications for Antibiotic Stewardship, Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol.49, issue.8, pp.1175-84, 2009.
DOI : 10.1086/605630

M. Eccles, J. Grimshaw, M. Campbell, and C. Ramsay, Research designs for studies evaluating the effectiveness of change and improvement strategies. Qual Saf Health Care, Feb, vol.12, issue.1, pp.47-52, 2003.

J. Frenk and A. Donabedian, State intervention in medical care: types, trends and variables.Health Policy Plan, pp.17-31, 1987.

J. Tu, L. Donovan, D. Lee, J. Wang, P. Austin et al., Effectiveness of Public Report Cards for Improving the Quality of Cardiac Care, JAMA, vol.302, issue.21, pp.2330-2337, 2009.
DOI : 10.1001/jama.2009.1731

G. Scagliotti, T. Brodowicz, F. Shepherd, C. Zielinski, J. Vansteenkiste et al., Treatment-byhistology interaction analyses in three phase III trials show superiority of pemetrexed in nonsquamous non-small cell lung cancer, J Thorac Oncol, 2011.

C. Rumeau-rouquette, B. Blondel, M. Kaminski, and G. Bréart, Principes de l'évaluation des résultats. Epidémiologie méthodes et pratique.Col Statistique en biologie et en médecine, Médecine ?Science

P. Craig, P. Dieppe, S. Macintyre, S. Michie, I. Nazareth et al., Developing and evaluating complex interventions: new guidance, 2011.

. Centre-cochrane-français, Définir le meilleur type d'étude .Disponible en ligne, 2011.

J. Burns, A. Scheinberg, M. Ryan, and K. Rose, Ouvrier RARandomized trial of botulinum toxin to prevent pes cavus progression in pediatric Charcot-Marie- Tooth disease type 1A.Muscle Nerve, pp.262-269, 2010.

G. Rabbani, S. Ahmed, I. Hossain, R. Islam, F. Marni et al., Green Banana Reduces Clinical Severity of Childhood Shigellosis, The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, vol.28, issue.5, pp.420-425, 2009.
DOI : 10.1097/INF.0b013e31819510b5

N. Kucher, S. Koo, R. Quiroz, J. Cooper, . Paternomd et al., Electronic Alerts to Prevent Venous Thromboembolism among Hospitalized Patients, New England Journal of Medicine, vol.352, issue.10, pp.969-77, 2005.
DOI : 10.1056/NEJMoa041533

M. Campbell, A. Donner, and N. Klar, Developments in cluster randomized trials andStatistics in Medicine, Statistics in Medicine, vol.328, issue.1, pp.2-19, 2007.
DOI : 10.1002/sim.2731

S. Ornstein, R. Jenkins, P. Nietert, C. Feifer, L. Roylance et al., A multimethod quality improvement intervention to improve preventive

I. Ray-coquard, T. Philip, G. De-laroche, X. Froger, J. Suchaud et al., A controlled ???before-after??? study: impact of a clinical guidelines programme and regional cancer network organization on medical practice, British Journal of Cancer, vol.11, issue.3, pp.313-334, 2002.
DOI : 10.1200/JCO.1993.11.10.1879

J. Etter and E. Laszlo, Evaluation of a poster campaign against passive smoking for World No-Tobacco Day, Patient Education and Counseling, vol.57, issue.2, pp.190-198, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/j.pec.2004.05.015

J. Martens, R. Winkens, T. Van-der-weijden, D. De-bruyn, and J. Severens, Does a joint development and dissemination of multidisciplinary guidelines improve prescribing behaviour: a pre/post study with concurrent control group and a randomised trial, BMC Health Services Research, vol.5, issue.16, p.145, 2006.
DOI : 10.3310/hta5160

M. Spilman, A. Goetz, J. Schultz, R. Bellingham, and D. Johnson, Effects of a corporate health promotion program, J.Occup Med, vol.28, pp.285-289, 1986.

J. Bouyer, D. Hémon, S. Cordier, F. Derriennic, I. Stuker et al., Epidemiologie principes et methodes quantitatives

I. Colombet, A. Bura-rivière, R. Chatila, G. Chatellier, and P. Durieux, Personalized versus non-personalized computerized decision support system to increase therapeutic quality control of oral anticoagulant therapy: an alternating time series analysis, BMC Health Services Research, vol.29, issue.5, p.27, 2004.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1445-5994.1999.tb01623.x

P. Mol, J. Wieringa, P. Nannanpanday, R. Gans, J. Degener et al., Improving compliance with hospital antibiotic guidelines: a time-series intervention analysis. Antimicrob Chemother, pp.550-557, 2005.

A. Speets, J. Wolleswinkel, A. Forsgren, and P. Sobocki, Use of medical resources and indirect costs of otitis media in Sweden, Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, vol.23, issue.2, pp.137-183, 2011.
DOI : 10.1136/jech.56.3.200

S. Glass, D. Pearl, S. Mcewen, and R. Finley, A province-level risk factor analysis of fluoroquinolone consumption patterns in Canada (2000-06), Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, vol.45, issue.3, pp.2019-2046, 2010.
DOI : 10.1128/AAC.45.3.883-892.2001

A. Rogues, C. Dumartin, A. Lashéras, A. Venier, A. Fourrier et al., Determinants of Glycopeptides Consumption in Hospitals, Microbial Drug Resistance, vol.13, issue.3, pp.199-203, 2007.
DOI : 10.1089/mdr.2007.754

S. Glass, D. Pearl, S. Mcewen, and R. Finley, A province-level risk factor analysis of fluoroquinolone consumption patterns in Canada (2000-06), Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, vol.45, issue.3, pp.2019-2046, 2010.
DOI : 10.1128/AAC.45.3.883-892.2001

D. Day, T. Lubowski, C. Yamaga, J. Main, V. Vleet et al., Computer-assisted evaluation of antibiotic regimen coverage and cost, Clinical Therapeutics, vol.21, issue.8, p.1417, 1999.
DOI : 10.1016/S0149-2918(99)80042-3

J. Avorn, S. Soumerai, and W. Taylor, Reduction of Incorrect Antibiotic Dosing Through a Structured Educational Order Form, Archives of Internal Medicine, vol.148, issue.8, pp.1720-1724, 1988.
DOI : 10.1001/archinte.1988.00380080024009

W. Dunagan, R. Woodward, G. Medoff, J. Gray, . Iii et al., Antimicrobial misuse in patients with positive blood cultures, The American Journal of Medicine, vol.87, issue.3, pp.253-262, 1989.
DOI : 10.1016/S0002-9343(89)80146-9

J. Barenfanger, M. Short, and A. Groesh, Improved Antimicrobial Interventions Have Benefits, Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol.39, issue.8, pp.2823-2831, 2001.
DOI : 10.1128/JCM.39.8.2823-2828.2001

C. Bantar, B. Sartori, E. Vesco, C. Heft, M. Saùl et al., A Hospitalwide Intervention Program to Optimize the Quality of Antibiotic Use: Impact on Prescribing Practice, Antibiotic Consumption, Cost Savings, and Bacterial Resistance, Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol.171, issue.4, pp.180-186, 2003.
DOI : 10.1093/infdis/171.4.897

J. Marr, H. Moffet, and C. Kunin, Guidelines for Improving the Use of Antimicrobial Agents in Hospitals: A Statement by the Infectious Diseases Society of America, The Journal of Urology, vol.140, issue.6, pp.869-76, 1988.
DOI : 10.1016/S0022-5347(17)42137-9

S. Seligman, Reduction in antibiotic costs by restricting use of an oral cephalosporin, The American Journal of Medicine, vol.71, issue.6, pp.941-945, 1981.
DOI : 10.1016/0002-9343(81)90304-1

R. Woodward, G. Medoff, M. Smith, and J. Gray, Antibiotic cost savings from formulary restrictions and physician monitoring in a medical-school-affiliated hospital, The American Journal of Medicine, vol.83, issue.5, pp.817-840, 1987.
DOI : 10.1016/0002-9343(87)90636-X

J. Quale, D. Landman, G. Saurina, E. Atwood, V. Ditore et al., Manipulation of a Hospital Antimicrobial Formulary to Control an Outbreak of Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci, Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol.23, issue.5, pp.1020-1025, 1996.
DOI : 10.1093/clinids/23.5.1020

M. Martinez, A. Freire, I. Castro, M. Inaraja, A. Ortega et al., Clinical and economic impact of a pharmacist-intervention to promote sequential intravenous to oral clindamycin conversion, Pharmacy World and Science, vol.22, issue.2, pp.53-61, 2000.
DOI : 10.1023/A:1008769204178

F. Mackenzie, I. Gould, J. Bruce, J. Mollison, D. Monnet et al., The role of microbiology and pharmacy departments in the stewardship of antibiotic prescribing in European hospitals, Journal of Hospital Infection, vol.65, issue.2, pp.73-81, 2007.
DOI : 10.1016/S0195-6701(07)60019-X

J. Saulnier, Am??lioration de la qualit?? de l'antibioth??rapie??: r??le du pharmacien en amont de la prescription m??dicale, M??decine et Maladies Infectieuses, vol.33, issue.33, pp.13-27, 2003.
DOI : 10.1016/S0399-077X(02)00438-9

P. Davey, E. Brown, L. Fenelon, R. Finch, I. Gould et al., Interventions to improve antibiotic prescribing practices for hospital inpatients, Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 2005.

V. Von-gunten, J. Reymond, and J. Beney, Clinical and economic outcomes of pharmaceutical services related to antibiotic use: a literature review, Pharmacy World & Science, vol.37, issue.6, pp.146-63, 2007.
DOI : 10.1136/bmj.317.7156.465

T. Dellit, R. Owens, J. Mcgowan, . Jr, D. Gerding et al., Infectious Diseases Society of America; Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America.Infectious Diseases Society of America and the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America guidelines for developing an institutional program to enhance antimicrobial stewardship, Clin Infect Dis, 2007.

G. Counts, Review and control of antimicrobial usage in hospitalized patients. A recommended collaborative approach, JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association, vol.238, issue.20, pp.2170-2172, 1977.
DOI : 10.1001/jama.238.20.2170

D. Nathwani and . Consortium, Antimicrobial prescribing policy and practice in Scotland: recommendations for good antimicrobial practice in acute hospitals, Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, vol.57, issue.6, pp.1189-96, 2006.
DOI : 10.1093/jac/dkl137

R. Mach, J. Vlcek, M. Prusova, P. Batka, and V. Rysavy, Impact of a multidisciplinary approach on antibiotic consumption, cost and microbial resistance in a Czech hospital, Pharmacy World & Science, vol.55, issue.11, pp.565-72, 2007.
DOI : 10.1007/s00134-002-1565-2

V. Von-gunten, N. Troillet, J. Beney, K. Boubaker, J. Lüthi et al., Impact of an interdisciplinary strategy on antibiotic use: a prospective controlled study in three hospitals, Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, vol.55, issue.3, pp.362-368, 2005.
DOI : 10.7326/0003-4819-133-2-200007180-00012

C. Dupont, C. Massé, B. Auvert, B. Page, B. Heym et al., ??valuation des prescriptions d???amoxicilline???acide clavulanique dans un CHU de la r??gion parisienne, La Revue de M??decine Interne, vol.29, issue.3, pp.195-204, 2008.
DOI : 10.1016/j.revmed.2007.11.011

A. Wong-beringer, L. Nguyen, M. Lee, K. Shriner, and J. Pallares, An Antimicrobial Stewardship Program with a Focus on Reducing Fluoroquinolone Overuse, Pharmacotherapy, vol.128, issue.6, pp.736-779, 2009.
DOI : 10.1086/346153

C. Feucht and L. Rice, An Interventional Program to Improve Antibiotic Use, Annals of Pharmacotherapy, vol.46, issue.5, pp.646-651, 2003.
DOI : 10.1164/ajrccm.162.2.9909095

C. Kumana, T. Ching, and Y. Kong, Curtailing unnecessary vancomycin usage in a hospital with high rates of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections, British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, vol.31, issue.RR12, pp.427-432, 2001.
DOI : 10.1080/003655499750006326

S. Alfandari, T. Levent, D. Descamps, S. Hendricx, C. Bonenfant et al., Evaluation of glycopeptide use in nine French hospitals, M??decine et Maladies Infectieuses, vol.40, issue.4, pp.232-237, 2010.
DOI : 10.1016/j.medmal.2009.10.019

P. Courvalin, Vancomycin resistance in gram-positive cocci. CID, pp.25-34, 2006.

J. Lucet, L. Armand-lefevre, and J. Laurichesse, Rapid control of an outbreak of vancomycin-resistant enterococci in a French university hospital, Journal of Hospital Infection, vol.67, issue.1, pp.42-48, 2007.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jhin.2007.06.009

H. Giamarellou and G. Poulakou, Multidrug-Resistant Gram-Negative Infections, Drugs, vol.46, issue.7, pp.1879-901, 2009.
DOI : 10.1128/AAC.34.11.2093

K. Miliani, L. Hériteau, F. Lacavé, L. Carbonne, A. Astagneau et al., Imipenem and ciprofloxacin consumption as factors associated with high incidence rates of resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa in hospitals in northern France, Journal of Hospital Infection, vol.77, issue.4, pp.343-350, 2011.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jhin.2010.11.024

M. Hensgens, A. Goorhuis, C. Van-kinschot, M. Crobach, C. Harmanus et al., Clostridium difficile infection in an endemic setting in the Netherlands, European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases, vol.36, issue.7, pp.587-93, 2011.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1469-0691.2009.03098.x

W. Goettsch, W. Van-pelt, and N. Nagelkerke, Increasing resistance to fluoroquinolones in Escherichia coli from urinary tract infections in The Netherlands, Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, vol.46, issue.2, pp.223-231, 2000.
DOI : 10.1093/jac/46.2.223

M. Michel and L. Gutmann, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococus aureus and vancomycin-resistant enterococci: therapeutic realities and possibilities, The Lancet, vol.349, issue.9069, pp.1901-1906, 1997.
DOI : 10.1016/S0140-6736(96)11192-2

E. Lautenbach, L. Larosa, N. Kasbekar, H. Peng, R. Maniglia et al., Fluoroquinolone Utilization in the Emergency Departments of Academic Medical Centers, Archives of Internal Medicine, vol.163, issue.5, pp.601-605, 2003.
DOI : 10.1001/archinte.163.5.601

J. Leroy, I. Patry, C. Faure, E. Ariskina, J. Gaume et al., Regional audit on fluoroquinolones usage in the hospital and the community: Are these antibiotics over-used?, Pathol Biol, 2009.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00465418

M. Mean, P. Pavese, J. Vittoz, L. Foroni, C. Decouchon et al., Prospective assessment of fluoroquinolone use in a teaching hospital, European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases, vol.6, issue.12, pp.757-763, 2006.
DOI : 10.1007/s00134-002-1565-2

G. Fraser, P. Stogsdill, J. Dickens, J. Wennberg, D. Smith et al., Antibiotic optimization. An evaluation of patient safety and economic outcomes, Archives of Internal Medicine, vol.157, issue.15, pp.564-70, 1997.
DOI : 10.1001/archinte.157.15.1689

J. Schentag, C. Ballow, A. Fritz, J. Paladino, J. Williams et al., Changes in antimicrobial agent usage resulting from interactions among clinical pharmacy, the infectious disease division, and the microbiology laboratory, Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease, vol.16, issue.3, pp.255-64, 1993.
DOI : 10.1016/0732-8893(93)90119-R

S. Salama, C. Rothstein, and L. Manadell, A Multidisciplinary Hospital-based Antimicrobial Use Program: Impact on Hospital Pharmacy Expenditures and Drug Use, Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol.7, issue.2, pp.104-113, 1996.
DOI : 10.1155/1996/685704

M. Scheetz, M. Bolon, M. Postelnick, G. Noskin, and T. Lee, Cost-effectiveness analysis of an antimicrobial stewardship team on bloodstream infections: a probabilistic analysis, Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, vol.138, issue.6, pp.816-841, 2009.
DOI : 10.1093/infdis/138.6.829

K. Witte, A. Nelson, and R. Hutchinson, Effect of pharmacist consultation on rational antimicrobial therapy, Am J Hosp Pharm, vol.37, issue.6, pp.829-861, 1980.

E. Herfindal, L. Bersein, and D. Kishi, Effect of clinical pharmacy services on prescribing on an orthopedic unit, Am J Hosp Pharm, vol.40, issue.11, pp.2472-2480, 19831983.

J. Gums, R. Yancey, . Jr, C. Hamilton, and P. Kubilis, A Randomized, Prospective Study Measuring Outcomes after Antibiotic Therapy Intervention by a Multidisciplinary Consult Team, Pharmacotherapy, vol.41, issue.17, pp.1369-77, 1999.
DOI : 10.1016/S0140-6736(81)90657-7

R. Gross, A. Morgan, D. Kindy, M. Xeiner, G. Gibson et al., Impact of a Hospital???Based Antimicrobial Management Program on Clinical and Economic Outcomes, Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol.82, issue.3, pp.289-95, 2001.
DOI : 10.1002/(SICI)1099-1050(199707)6:4<327::AID-HEC282>3.0.CO;2-W

R. Evans, S. Pestotnik, D. Classen, and J. Burke, Evaluation of a Computer-Assisted Antibiotic-Dose Monitor, Annals of Pharmacotherapy, vol.15, issue.10, pp.1026-1057
DOI : 10.1056/NEJM197612092952405

M. Mullin, S. Hennenfent, J. Ritchie, D. Huey, W. Lonergan et al., A prospective, randomized trial to assess the cost impact of pharmacistinitiated interventions, Arch Intern Med, vol.159, pp.2306-2315, 1999.

T. Bailey, D. Ritchie, M. Mullin, S. Kahn, M. Reichley et al., A randomized, prospective evaluation of an interventional program to discontinue intravenous antibiotics at two tertiary care teaching institutions, Pharmacotherapy, vol.17, issue.2, pp.277-81, 1997.

F. Ansari, K. Gray, D. Nathwani, G. Phillips, S. Ogston et al., Outcomes of an intervention to improve hospital antibiotic prescribing: interrupted time series with segmented regression analysis, Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, vol.52, issue.5, pp.842-850, 2003.
DOI : 10.1093/jac/dkg459

D. Pastel, S. Chang, S. Nessim, R. Shane, and M. Morgan, Department of pharmacy-initiated program for streamlining empirical antibiotic therapy, Hosp Pharm, vol.27, issue.7, pp.596-603614, 1992.

S. Karki, J. Holden, and M. E. , A Team Approach to Reduce Antibiotic Costs, DICP, vol.256, issue.2, pp.202-207, 1990.
DOI : 10.1001/jama.1986.03380080086036

U. Khanderia, The cost ?effectiveness of clinical pharmacist intervention on tobramycin prescribing, Hosp Formul, vol.21, issue.10, pp.1049-56, 1986.

B. Jung and J. Andrews, Effectiveness of an antibiotic cost containment measure, Can J Hosp Pharm, vol.43, issue.3, pp.116-138, 1990.

J. Kuti, T. Le, C. Nightingale, D. Nicolau, and R. Quintiliani, Pharmacoeconomics of a pharmacist-managed program for automatically converting levofloxacin route from i .v to oral, Am J Health Syst Pharm, vol.59, issue.22, pp.2209-2215, 2002.

A. Anglim, B. Klym, K. Byers, W. Scheld, and B. Farr, Effect of a Vancomycin Restriction Policy on Ordering Practices During an Outbreak of Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus faecium, Archives of Internal Medicine, vol.157, issue.10, pp.1132-1138, 1997.
DOI : 10.1001/archinte.1997.00440310098010

J. Thornton, D. Goff, R. Segal, and J. Guy, Impact of a Clinical Pharmacist on Antibiotic Prescribing, Journal of Pharmacy Technology, vol.24, issue.5, pp.195-200, 1991.
DOI : 10.1002/jps.2600680304

N. Chuc, M. Larsson, N. Do, V. Diwan, G. Tomson et al., Improving private pharmacy practice, Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, vol.55, issue.11, pp.1148-1155, 2002.
DOI : 10.1016/S0895-4356(02)00458-4

D. Hickman, M. Stebbins, J. Hanak, and B. Guglielmo, Pharmacy-Based Intervention to Reduce Antibiotic Use for Acute Bronchitis, Annals of Pharmacotherapy, vol.42, issue.2, pp.187-91, 2003.
DOI : 10.1136/bmj.324.7329.91

W. Schaffner, W. Ray, C. Federspiel, and W. Miller, Improving Antibiotic Prescribing in Office Practice, JAMA, vol.250, issue.13, pp.1728-1760, 1983.
DOI : 10.1001/jama.1983.03340130046031

M. Smith, J. Murphy, M. Job, and E. Ward, Amynoglycoside monitoring: use of a pharmacokinetic service versus physician recommendations, Hosp Formul, vol.22102, issue.1, pp.92-101, 1987.

K. Sveska, B. Roffe, D. Solomon, and R. Hoffmann, Outcome of patients treated by aminoglycoside pharmacokinetic dosing service, Am J Hosp Pharm, vol.42, issue.11, pp.2472-2480, 1985.

T. Lynch, C. Possidente, W. Cioffi, and J. Hebert, Multidisciplinary protocol for determining amynoglycoside dosage, Am J Hosp Pharm, vol.49, issue.1, pp.109-124, 1992.

S. Li, L. Ioannides-demos, W. Spicer, D. Spelman, N. Tong et al., Prospective audit of an aminoglycoside consultative service in a general hospital, Med J aust, vol.157, issue.5, pp.308-319, 1992.

T. Welty and A. Copa, Impact of Vancomycin Therapeutic Drug Monitoring on Patient Care, Annals of Pharmacotherapy, vol.11, issue.12, pp.1335-1344, 1994.
DOI : 10.7326/0003-4819-94-3-343

C. Gentry, R. Greenfield, L. Slater, M. Wack, and M. Huycke, Outcomes of an antimicrobial control program in a teaching hospital, Am J Health Syst Pharm, vol.57, issue.3, pp.268-74, 2000.

G. Brown and A. Clarke, Therapeutic interchange of cefazolin with metronidazole for cefoxitin, Am J Hosp Pharm, vol.49, issue.8, pp.1335-1344, 1992.

S. Fridkin, C. Steward, J. Edwards, E. Pryor, J. Mcgowan et al., Surveillance of Antimicrobial Use and Antimicrobial Resistance in United States Hospitals: Project ICARE Phase 2, Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol.29, issue.2, pp.245-52, 1999.
DOI : 10.1086/520193

B. Camins, M. King, J. Wells, H. Googe, M. Patel et al., Trial Registration., Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology, vol.207, issue.10, pp.931-939, 2009.
DOI : 10.1086/321880

G. Dranitsaris, D. Spizzirri, M. Pitre, and A. Mcgeer, A RANDOMIZED TRIAL TO MEASURE THE OPTIMAL ROLE OF THE PHARMACIST IN PROMOTING EVIDENCE-BASED ANTIBIOTIC USE IN ACUTE CARE HOSPITALS, International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care, vol.17, issue.2, pp.171-80, 2001.
DOI : 10.1017/S0266462300105033

S. Goldwater, G. Milkovitch, A. Morrison, J. Lindgren, and B. , Comparaison of therapeutic interchange with standard educational tools influencing Fluoroquinolone prescribing, Am J Health Syst Pharm, vol.58, issue.18, pp.1740-1745, 2001.

D. Slomon, H. Van, and R. Glynn, Academic Detailing to Improve Use of Broad-Spectrum Antibiotics at an Academic Medical Center, Archives of Internal Medicine, vol.161, issue.15, pp.1897-1902, 2001.
DOI : 10.1001/archinte.161.15.1897

S. Gjelstad, A. Fetveit, J. Straand, I. Dalen, S. Rognstad et al., Can antibiotic prescriptions in respiratory tract infections be improved? A cluster-randomized educational intervention in general practice ??? The Prescription Peer Academic Detailing (Rx-PAD) Study [NCT00272155], BMC Health Services Research, vol.6, issue.1, p.75, 2006.
DOI : 10.1186/1472-6963-6-72

A. White, . Jr, R. Atmar, J. Wilson, T. Cate et al., Effects of Requiring prior Authorization for Selected Antimicrobials: Expenditures, Susceptibilities, and Clinical Outcomes, Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol.16, issue.2, pp.230-239, 1997.
DOI : 10.1086/514545

S. Rüttimann, B. Keck, C. Hartmeier, A. Maetzel, and H. Bucher, Long???Term Antibiotic Cost Savings from a Comprehensive Intervention Program in a Medical Department of a University???Affiliated Teaching Hospital, Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol.131, issue.3, pp.348-56, 2004.
DOI : 10.1136/bmj.307.6913.1190

A. Apisarnthanarak, S. Danchaivijitr, T. Khawcharoenporn, J. Limsrivilai, B. Warachan et al., Effectiveness of Education and an Antibiotic-Control Program in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Thailand, Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol.73, issue.3, pp.42768-75, 2006.
DOI : 10.1093/clinids/12.1.136

P. Rattanaumpawan, P. Sutha, and V. Thamlikitkul, Effectiveness of drug use evaluation and antibiotic authorization on patients' clinical outcomes, antibiotic consumption, and antibiotic expenditures, American Journal of Infection Control, vol.38, issue.1, 2010.
DOI : 10.1016/j.ajic.2009.04.288

J. Rahal, C. Urban, D. Horn, K. Freeman, S. Segal-maurer et al., Class Restriction of Cephalosporin Use to Control Total Cephalosporin Resistance in Nosocomial <EMPH TYPE="ITAL">Klebsiella</EMPH>, JAMA, vol.280, issue.14, pp.1233-1240, 1998.
DOI : 10.1001/jama.280.14.1233

P. Carling, T. Fung, A. Killion, N. Terrin, and M. Barza, Conclusion:, Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology, vol.30, issue.09, pp.699-706, 2003.
DOI : 10.1001/jama.280.14.1233