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Caractéristiques histologiques et biochimiques des systèmes nerveux et musculaire après lésions neurodégénératives périphériques : Etude du modèle murin dystonia musculorum

Abstract : The "dystoniamusculorum" (Dstdt-J) mouse is the result of a recessive autosomal mutation of the dystonin (dst) gene responsible for the expression of a protein of the cytoskeleton, normally present in sensory peripheral neurons and numerous central nervous structures. The mutation is characterised by primary degeneration of peripheral afferent fibers followed by degenerative processes in secondary cerebellar and thalamic afferents. Postural reflex dysfunction and a severe ataxia occurat the same time as peripheral neurodegenerative processes. To study the impact of axonal transport alteration on neuronal activity as well as sensory degeneration on motorfunctions, histopathatological and biochemical studies have were performed on brain and skeletal muscles of B6C3Fea /a-Dstdt-j mice displayed in two groups, homozygotes Dstdt-J and controls. In addition to sensory defects, histopathological evaluation showed central alterations affecting the segmentar nuclei and motor control regions, such as cerebellum, red nucleus, and pontine nuclei. Regional metabolism assessed by cytochrome oxidase histochemistry showed hypermetabolic activity in cerebellum and motor regions of the brain stem involved in equilibrium, muscle tonicity, and postural reflexes. Brain cholinergic innervation was performed by histochemical labelling of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity. Enzymatic hyperactivity was observed in target structures of the cholinergic pedunculo-pontine tegmental nucleus, the thalamus, and the basal ganglia. The morphological and functional alterations observed in the three skeletal muscles (masseteric, flexor digitorum superficialis and tongue) were characterized by muscle hypotonicity and hypoactivity. A partial muscular fiber degeneration was observed, probably as a result of sensory denervation rather than an intrinsic defect of muscle fibers. Several sensory neuropathies (Friedreich's ataxia or infant-onset spinocerebellar ataxia) have similar clinicopathological features. The present studies are of interest in understanding the physiopathology of these lesions. They can also contribute in the study of the pathological effects of trigeminal deafferentation induced by compression
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  • HAL Id : tel-01746304, version 1

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Céline Clément. Caractéristiques histologiques et biochimiques des systèmes nerveux et musculaire après lésions neurodégénératives périphériques : Etude du modèle murin dystonia musculorum. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université Henri Poincaré - Nancy 1, 2011. Français. ⟨NNT : 2011NAN10140⟩. ⟨tel-01746304⟩

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