Contribution à l’étude de l’insertion électrochimique du lithium dans des nanocomposites graphite/Pb et graphite/Sn/Sb

Abstract : The main propose of this work is to investigate new anode materials possessing high mass capacity and being able of replacing graphite in Li-ion batteries. Electrode materials constituted of Pb and Sn/Sb alloy nanoparticles dispersed on the graphite surface, were obtained by chemical reduction of a metal halide, in the presence of graphite, using an alkoxide - activated hydride (NaH or LiH) as a reducing agent. To collect information about the structural and the morphological characteristics of graphite-metal powders, XRD, TEM and SEM analyses were performed. These results allowed to establish a relation between the powder sample characteristics and the encountered electrochemical performances (mass capacity and cycling stability) during lithium insertion / de-insertion process. Graphite – Pb system was used as model for studying the influence of metal-graphite interactions on the electrochemical behaviour of graphite-metal compounds. The results point out to a weak interaction between Pb metal particles and the graphite surface, which seems to be the main reason for the poor electrochemical performances observed during cycling. The systematic study of graphite/(1-x)Sn/(x)Sb composites as function of Sb content appears to show that antimony semi-metallic character is responsible for SnSb pinning on the graphite surface and improvement of their electrochemical properties. Structural and morphological studies have also shown that hydride nature influences sample homogeneity, since LiH, compared to NaH, conducts to an uniform dispersion of the anchored nanoparticles on the graphite surface and to an higher mass capacity retention and stability upon cycling.
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Catarina Pereira Nabais. Contribution à l’étude de l’insertion électrochimique du lithium dans des nanocomposites graphite/Pb et graphite/Sn/Sb. Science des matériaux [cond-mat.mtrl-sci]. Université Henri Poincaré - Nancy 1, 2008. Français. ⟨NNT : 2008NAN10029⟩. ⟨tel-01746324⟩

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