Mesure en continu et in situ des pollutions dans les milieux aqueux : conception et réalisation d'une instrumentation adaptée à la détection de métaux lourds par potentiométrie sélective

Abstract : Mastering the quality of water demands that industrialised countries develop and improve facilities for the sanitising of water rejected back into the environment. Sewage sometimes contains micropollutants such as heavy metals which, in excess, can be noxious and alter ecosystems. Measuring them accurately is possible - with polarography or spectrometry - yet these techniques can hardly be used for non-stop monitoring. Within this framework, we have developed a detecting device for heavy metals Cu(II) and Pb(Ii). The principle cop.sists in measuring potentials with two ion selective electrodes (ISE), which - by fusing varied data such as temperature, conductivity, pH, Redox - allows the gauging of free or hydroxylic metal. In order to lest the device, we have conceived a testbench reproducing the physical and chemical condition of sewage. The principle consists in injecting specific solutions into a reactor fitted with a measuring set containing sepsors which will carry out the aforementioned measures. Thanks to a system sampling and processing the data, aIl parameters can be measured non-stop. To characterise our tool, we have 'used two modelling methods. On the one hand, we have considered the output from the ISEs as a polynomial combination of all parameters (external models). On the other hand, we have assumed that hydroxylic forms can be parameterised in Nernst's equation (internaI models). Where the copper ISE is, concerned, internal models provide very interesting levels of detection, while extemal models fit the lead ISE best. Still using our test-bench, we have determined our models' limits, especially regarding the measure of Cu (II), in typical cases of reconstituted pollutions. To this end, we have elaborated different tests demonstrating that the internal model - which does not take the Redox potential into account - provides more accuracy than external models. In conclusion, we have shown that, in laboratory conditions, the potentiometric method with ISE is adapted to non-stop detection of heavy metal ions, by correcting the measures of relevant variables. The methodology we have developed can be extended to other heavy metals.
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http://docnum.univ-lorraine.fr/prive/SCD_T_1998_0308_TISSERAND.pdf
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Submitted on : Thursday, March 29, 2018 - 11:01:11 AM
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Pierre Tisserand. Mesure en continu et in situ des pollutions dans les milieux aqueux : conception et réalisation d'une instrumentation adaptée à la détection de métaux lourds par potentiométrie sélective. Autre. Université Henri Poincaré - Nancy 1, 1998. Français. ⟨NNT : 1998NAN10308⟩. ⟨tel-01747482⟩

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