Stress néonatal et régulation à long terme de la prise alimentaire chez le rat : explorations neuroendocriniennes, morphofonctionnelles et comportementales

Abstract : The aim of this work was to study immediate and persistent effects of a neonatal stress (maternal deprivation) on the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and on the food intake in the rat. Experimental rat pups were placed in an incubator either on the 5th or the 14th postnatal day (DEP5 or DEP14 treatment); control rats were not separated from the mother. Maternal deprivation induced no HPA response on the 5th postnatal day, but it activated the HPA axis on the 14th postnatal day. In adults, a diminution of the corticosterone feedback appeared in DEP5 rats in a stressful situation, whereas a transitory increase of the ACTH response was observed in DEP14 rats. We show for the first time that the perturbation of neonatal maturation modifies persistently feeding behaviour, and this modification depends on the age at which deprivation is experienced. Both DEP groups had a diminished basal food intake and an increased anorexic response to dexnorfenfluramine. DEP5 rats had also a decreased preference for carbohydrates, an increased hedonic response, and a decreased anorexic response to dexfenfluramine. The anorexic response of DEP14 rats to restraint stress was increased. Our results, showing a connection between maternal deprivation and disturbed feeding behaviour as well as anxiety, support the hypothesis according to which early stress increases vulnerability to many psychiatric diseases, such as anorexia nervosa and depression. In the future, maternal deprivation can become a useful model for the research into human eating disorders.
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Zsuzsa Penke. Stress néonatal et régulation à long terme de la prise alimentaire chez le rat : explorations neuroendocriniennes, morphofonctionnelles et comportementales. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université Henri Poincaré - Nancy 1, 2002. Français. ⟨NNT : 2002NAN10250⟩. ⟨tel-01747497⟩

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