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Suivi du comportement osmotique des plaquettes sanguines : Développement et évaluation d'un test automatique de mesure de la réponse des plaquettes à des variations de pression osmotique

Abstract : Studying the osmotic resistance of swelling of platelets has often been suggested as a test to access the viability of this cell. this evaluation is of a particular interest to enrich the rheological understandings, to diagnose eventually membrane anomalies and principally to insert it in platelet concentrates quality control before transfusion. A number of authors have analysed the behaviour of platelets in hypotonic media by a variety of complementary methods (cells count, morphology, determinations of substances released,...). Most studies are currently based on the so-called " hypotonic shock response" test (HSR). Yet any platelet viability evaluation technique is standardised, used in reference or does correspond with proper instrumentation. In this study, we describe an automated test using slow dialysis to assess platelet osmotic resistance. The "Fragilimeter", device used routinelly to characterise RBC fragility, has been adapted to the study of platelet osmotic behaviour. The variation in light transmission through a platelet suspension according to NaCI concentration are linked to the change in cellular volume (lysis) and so characterise viability of the cells. This interpretation was dealt with a theoretical approach of platelet optical properties completed by a system response analysis. The results obtained with normal platelets revealed the good reproductibility and sensibility of the technique and the influence to the measures of several parameters : anti coagulant(citrate, EDTA), cellular concentration and temperature. The test was applied to the platelet concentrates quality control for transfusion. This measure device associated with a processing unit permit adaptation for others applications, as HSR test (indeed future platelet aggregation tests), and software evolution for treatment data. Finally the osmotic fragility test can be applied to toher particles or biological cells : spermatozoas, lymphocytes,...The response of different executed tests with Fragilimeter, confirmed by a bilogical validation, permit to complete measure scale actually operational with this commercialised apparatus.
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https://hal.univ-lorraine.fr/tel-01748368
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Thierry Gigout. Suivi du comportement osmotique des plaquettes sanguines : Développement et évaluation d'un test automatique de mesure de la réponse des plaquettes à des variations de pression osmotique. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université Henri Poincaré - Nancy 1, 1998. Français. ⟨NNT : 1998NAN11015⟩. ⟨tel-01748368⟩

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