. Cependant, les cellules sont encore organisées en couches, la kératine mature normalement (présence de la couche granuleuse : G et orthokératose) et la chromatine présente un aspect normal

. D. Références-bibliographiques-1 and . Tobin, Biochemistry of human skin--our brain on the outside, Chem Soc Rev, vol.35, pp.52-67, 2006.

R. K. Freinkel and D. T. Woodley, Structures and functions of epidermis and dermis, The biology of the skin, pp.8-24, 2001.

C. Dezutter-dambuyant, S. Peyrol, and E. Roux, Ultrastructure de la matrice extracellulaire dermique, Actualités en biologie, pp.41-45, 2007.

E. Leboit, G. Burg, D. Weedon, and A. Sarasin, Introduction, Pathology and Genetics of Skin Tumours, pp.5-10, 2006.

B. Guillot and F. Grange, Epidémiologie des cancers cutanés en France, Dépistage et cancers cutanés, pp.9-20, 2008.

L. Remontet, J. Esteve, A. Bouvier, P. Grosclaude, and G. Launoy, Cancer incidence and mortality in France over the period, Rev Epidemiol Sante Publique, vol.51, pp.3-30, 1978.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00427472

S. Astner and R. R. Anderson, Skin phototypes, J Invest Dermatol, vol.122, p.xxxxxxi, 2003.

F. Afaq, V. M. Adhami, and H. Mukhtar, Photochemoprevention of ultraviolet B signaling and photocarcinogenesisUltraviolet radiation and cutaneous carcinogenesis, 10. V. Molho-Pessach, and M. Lotem, pp.153-173, 2005.

C. Dezutter-dambuyant, S. Franck, and B. Coulomb, Interaction infrarouges et ultraviolets : rôle clef de la mitochondrieNon-coherent near infrared radiation protects normal human dermal fibroblasts from solar ultraviolet toxicity, Actualités en biologie cutanée, pp.97-101, 1998.

M. R. Hussein, T. E. Franco, R. M. Rohan, . R. Santella-15, C. Lacave et al., 14Mechanisms and biological markers of carcinogenesis," in Cancer precursors. Epidemiology, detection, and, preventionHistoire naturelle des cancers Biologie des lésions précancéreusesIntroductionLe patient en dermatologieSpectrophotometric intracutaneous analysis in the diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma: a pilot studyMechanisms of pulsed laser ablation of biological tissues, Melanocytic dysplastic naevi occupy the middle ground between benign melanocytic naevi and cutaneous malignant melanomas: emerging clues Dictionnaire des Cancers Dermatologie manuel et atlas, Maloine 19. A. Vogel, and V. Venugopalan, pp.453-456, 2002.

L. T. Perelman and V. Backman, Light Scattering Spectroscopy of Epithelial Tissues: Principles and Applications, Handbook of optical biomedical diagnostics, pp.675-724, 2002.
DOI : 10.1117/3.2219608.ch2

M. Crawford, S. Fitzmaurice, H. S. Kabani, M. Levin, R. R. Seiler et al., Detection of preinvasive cancer cells, Nature, vol.406, pp.35-36, 2000.

K. Sokolov, M. Follen, R. Richards-kortum, A. Mayevsky, and G. G. Rogatsky, Optical spectroscopy for detection of neoplasiaMitochondrial function in vivo evaluated by NADH fluorescence: from animal models to human studies, Curr Opin Chem Biol Am J Physiol Cell Physiol, vol.6, issue.292, pp.651-658, 2002.

P. Kosterin, G. H. Kim, M. Muschol, A. L. Obaid, and B. M. Salzberg, Changes in FAD and NADH fluorescence in neurosecretory terminals are triggered by calcium entry and by ADP productionUltraviolet-induced autofluorescence characterization of normal and tumoral esophageal epithelium cells with quantitation of NAD(P)H, 25. S. Villette, S. Pigaglio-Deshayes, C. Vever-Bizet, P. Validire, and G. Bourg-Heckly, pp.113-124, 2005.

E. Leboit, G. Burg, D. Weedon, and A. Sarasin, Melanocytic tumours," in Pathology and genetics of skin tumours, 2006.

A. Hennessy, C. Oh, B. Diffey, K. Wakamatsu, S. Ito et al., Eumelanin and pheomelanin concentrations in human epidermis before and after UVB irradiation, Pigment Cell Research, vol.11, issue.3, pp.220-223, 2005.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1600-0749.2005.00233.x

. Maddox, A multifactorial analysis of melanoma: prognostic histopathological features comparing Clark's and Breslow's staging methodsThickness cross-sectional areas and depth of invasion in the prognosis of cutaneous melanoma, Ann Surg Ann Surg, vol.188, pp.732-742, 1970.

W. Liu, J. P. Dowling, W. K. Murray, G. A. Mcarthur, J. F. Thompson et al., Rate of Growth in Melanomas, Précis illustré de dermoscopie, Groupe Liaisons 38. R. Johr, H. P. Soyer, G. Argenziano, R. Hofmann-Wellenhof, and M. Scalvenzi, pp.1551-1558, 1999.
DOI : 10.1001/archderm.142.12.1551

W. Stolz, A. Riemann, A. B. Cognetta, and L. Pillet, ABCD rule of dermatoscopy: a new practical method for early recognition of malignant melanoma, Eur J Dermatol, vol.4, pp.864-865, 1994.

M. Binder, H. Kittler, A. Seeber, A. Steiner, H. Pehamberger et al., Epiluminescence microscopy-based classification of pigmented skin lesions using computerized image analysis and an artificial neural network, Melanoma Research, vol.8, issue.3, pp.261-266, 1998.
DOI : 10.1097/00008390-199806000-00009

M. Binder, H. Kittler, S. Dreiseitl, H. Ganster, K. Wolff et al., Computer-aided epiluminescence microscopy of pigmented skin lesions: the value of clinical data for the classification process, Melanoma Research, vol.10, issue.6, pp.556-561, 2000.
DOI : 10.1097/00008390-200012000-00007

S. Oliviero and . Wang, Automatic differentiation of melanoma from melanocytic nevi with multispectral digital dermoscopy: a feasibility study, J Am Acad Dermatol, vol.44, pp.207-218, 2001.

G. Taddeucci, P. Dell-'eva, and . Barbini, Digital dermoscopy analysis for the differentiation of atypical nevi and early melanoma: a new quantitative semiologyDigital videomicroscopy and image analysis with automatic classification for detection of thin melanomas, Arch Dermatol Melanoma Res, vol.135, issue.9, pp.1459-1465, 1999.

G. Argenziano, G. Fabbrocini, P. Carli, V. D. Giorgi, and M. Delfino, Clinical and dermatoscopic criteria for the preoperative evaluation of cutaneous melanoma thickness, Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, vol.40, issue.1, pp.61-68, 1999.
DOI : 10.1016/S0190-9622(99)70528-1

P. Carli, V. De-giorgi, D. Palli, V. Giannotti, and B. Giannotti, Preoperative assessment of melanoma thickness by ABCD score of dermatoscopy, Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, vol.43, issue.3, pp.459-466, 2000.
DOI : 10.1067/mjd.2000.106518

G. Pellacani and S. Seidenari, Preoperative melanoma thickness determination by 20-MHz sonography and digital videomicroscopy in combinationIn vivo spectrophotometric evaluation of neoplastic and nonneoplastic skin pigmented lesions. II: Discriminant analysis between nevus and melanoma, Arch Dermatol Photochem Photobiol, vol.139, issue.55, pp.293-298, 1992.

O. Rourke and N. Knight, Computer image analysis of pigmented skin lesions, Melanoma Res, vol.1, issue.50, pp.231-236, 1991.

C. Bartoli, . A. Clemente-51, N. Green, J. Martin, M. O. Pfitzner et al., computerized image analysis system designed as an aid to diagnosis of cutaneous melanomaComputer image analysis in the diagnosis of melanomaDetection of melanomas by digital imaging of spectrally resolved ultraviolet light-induced autofluorescence of human skin, Optical imaging and automated melanoma detection: questions and answers, pp.163-170, 1992.

V. P. Wallace, D. C. Crawford, P. S. Mortimer, R. J. Ott, J. C. Bamber et al., Spectrophotometric assessment of pigmented skin lesions: methods and feature selection for evaluation of diagnostic performanceSpectrophotometric imaging of cutaneous pigmented lesions: discriminant analysis, optical properties and histological characteristics, Phys Med Biol J Photochem Photobiol B, vol.45, issue.42, pp.735-751, 1998.

B. Farina, C. Bartoli, A. Bono, A. Colombo, M. Lualdi et al., Multispectral imaging approach in the diagnosis of cutaneous melanoma: potentiality and limits, Physics in Medicine and Biology, vol.45, issue.5, pp.1243-1254, 2000.
DOI : 10.1088/0031-9155/45/5/312

P. Stucker, K. Altmeyer, and . Hoffmann, Characterization of benign and malignant melanocytic skin lesions using optical coherence tomography in vivo, J Am Acad Dermatol, vol.57, pp.629-637, 2007.

U. Utzinger and R. R. Richards-kortum, Fiber optic probes for biomedical optical spectroscopy, Journal of Biomedical Optics, vol.8, issue.1, pp.121-147, 2003.
DOI : 10.1117/1.1528207

R. Drezek, A. Kamath, C. Macaulay, R. Richards-kortum, I. V. Meglinski et al., Light scattering from normal and neoplastic cells: FDTD modeling based on quantitative cytologyModeling of skin reflectance spectraSequential estimation of optical properties of a twolayered epithelial tissue model from depth-resolved ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectra, Proc. OSA Biomed. Topical Mtg., Technical Digest Saratov Fall Meeting: Optical technologies in Biophysics and Medicine II. 61. Q. Liu, and N. Ramanujam, pp.326-328, 2000.

E. C. De-fabo, F. P. Noonan, T. Fears, and G. Merlino, Ultraviolet B but not Ultraviolet A Radiation Initiates Melanoma, Cancer Research, vol.64, issue.18, pp.6372-6376, 2004.
DOI : 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-04-1454

G. Egidy, S. Jule, P. Bosse, F. Bernex, C. Geffrotin et al., Transcription analysis in the MeLiM swine model identifies RACK1 as a potential marker of malignancy for human melanocytic proliferationInitial studies on an in vivo action spectrum for melanoma induction, Mol Cancer, vol.7, issue.34, 2008.

H. Zeng, C. Macaulay, D. I. Mclean, and B. Palcic, Reconstruction of in vivo skin autofluorescence spectrum from microscopic properties by Monte Carlo simulation, Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology, vol.38, issue.2-3, pp.234-240, 1997.
DOI : 10.1016/S1011-1344(96)00008-5

O. O. Soyemi, M. R. Landry, Y. Yang, P. O. Idwasi, and B. R. Soller, Skin Color Correction for Tissue Spectroscopy: Demonstration of a Novel Approach with Tissue-Mimicking Phantoms, Applied Spectroscopy, vol.5, issue.2, pp.237-244, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/0003-2670(93)80430-S

M. Shimada, J. Hata, Y. Yamada, M. Itoh, A. Uchida et al., Experimental and numerical study of the colour appearance of tattoo models, Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing, vol.7, issue.2, pp.218-224, 2002.
DOI : 10.1007/978-1-4757-6092-7

M. Bartlett, H. R. Jiang-70, M. S. Hunter, T. J. Patterson, J. E. Farrell et al., Measurement of particle size distribution in multilayered skin phantoms using polarized light spectroscopy, Physical Review E, vol.142, issue.3, pp.31906-193, 2002.
DOI : 10.1016/0375-9601(89)90530-6

A. Amelink, M. P. Bard, S. A. Burgers, and H. J. Sterenborg, Single-scattering spectroscopy for the endoscopic analysis of particle size in superficial layers of turbid media, Applied Optics, vol.42, issue.19, pp.4095-4101, 2003.
DOI : 10.1364/AO.42.004095

C. R. Simpson, M. Kohl, M. Essenpreis, M. Cope, and H. J. Schwarzmaier, human skin and subcutaneous tissues measured using the Monte Carlo inversion technique, Physics in Medicine and Biology, vol.43, issue.9, pp.2465-2478, 1998.
DOI : 10.1088/0031-9155/43/9/003

Q. Liu, C. Zhu, and N. Ramanujam, Experimental validation of Monte Carlo modeling of fluorescence in tissues in the UV-visible spectrum, Journal of Biomedical Optics, vol.8, issue.2, pp.223-236, 2003.
DOI : 10.1117/1.1559057

M. Shimada, Y. Yamada, M. Itoh, and T. Yatagai, Melanin and blood concentration in human skin studied by multiple regression analysis: experimentsQuantitative analysis of eumelanin and pheomelanin in humans, mice, and other animals: a comparative review, 76. S. Ito, and K. Wakamatsu, pp.2385-2395, 2001.

S. Korossy, S. A. Miller, J. Z. Beer, and V. J. Hearing, UV-induced DNA damage and melanin content in human skin differing in racial/ethnic origin, FASEB J, vol.17, pp.1177-1179, 2003.

T. Morishima and E. Fukada, Quantitative analysis of eumelanin and pheomelanin in human malignant-melanoma tissues, Archives of Dermatological Research, vol.32, issue.3, pp.248-250, 1985.
DOI : 10.1007/BF00404326

E. Pérynancy-université, I. Vandoeuvre-lès-nancy, S. A. Prahl, M. Keizjer, S. L. Jacques et al., modélisation des interactions lumière-tissus et application à la caractérisation de tissus biologiques ex vivo et in vivo pour la détection de cancers 80A Monte-Carlo method of light propagation in tissueMonte Carlo modeling of light transport in multi-layered tissues Computer methods and programs in biomedicine 47, Spectroscopie bimodale en diffusion élastique et autofluorescence résolue spatialement : instrumentation IAEM SPIE, (SPIE, 1989) 82. S. L. JacquesLight distributions from point, line and plane sources for photochemical reactions and fluorescence in turbid biological tissues, pp.102-113, 1995.

W. Fu and C. J. , The Actinic (Solar) Keratosis, Archives of Dermatology, vol.139, issue.1, pp.66-70, 2003.
DOI : 10.1001/archderm.139.1.66

E. Leboit, G. Burg, D. Weedon, A. R. Sarasin-85, C. Lacave et al., Keratinocytic tumours in Pathology and genetics of skin tumours, Montrouge, 2005)Cyclooxygenase-1 deletion enhances apoptosis but does not protect against ultraviolet lightinduced tumors, pp.267-275, 2004.

F. R. De-gruijl and J. C. Van-der-leun, Physical variables in experimental photocarcinogenesis and quantitative relationships between stages of tumor development, Frontiers in Bioscience, vol.7, issue.4, pp.1525-1530, 2002.
DOI : 10.2741/A732

A. Chiron-de-la-casinière, IntroductionProtection against photoaging in the hairless mouse by the isoflavone equol, Photochem Photobiol, vol.81, pp.2-12, 2003.

Y. Liu, G. Viau, and R. Bissonnette, Multiple Large-Surface Photodynamic Therapy Sessions with Topical or Systemic Aminolevulinic Acid and Blue Light in UV-Exposed Hairless Mice, Journal of Cutaneous Medicine and Surgery, vol.626, issue.2, pp.131-139, 2004.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1751-1097.1996.tb09645.x

D. Brash and . Grossman, UVB-induced apoptosis drives clonal expansion during skin tumor development, Carcinogenesis, vol.26, pp.249-257, 2005.

P. Juzenas, S. Sharfaei, J. Moan, and R. Bissonnette, Protoporphyrin IX fluorescence kinetics in UV-induced tumours and normal skin of hairless mice after topical application of 5-aminolevulinic acid methyl ester, Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology, vol.67, issue.1, pp.11-17, 2002.
DOI : 10.1016/S1011-1344(02)00269-5

C. , .. F. Burns, A. N. Uddin, F. Wu, A. Nadas et al., Exposure to chromium (VI) in the drinking water increases susceptibility to UVinduced skin tumors in hairless miceArsenic-induced enhancement of ultraviolet radiation carcinogenesis in mouse skin: a dose-response study, Toxicol Appl Pharmacol Environ Health Perspect, vol.196, issue.112, pp.431-437, 2004.

H. Ahsan, M. H. Aziz, and N. Ahmad, Ultraviolet B exposure activates Stat3 signaling via phosphorylation at tyrosine705 in skin of SKH1 hairless mouse: A target for the management of skin cancer?, Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol.333, issue.1, pp.241-246, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/j.bbrc.2005.05.106

M. Mogensen and G. B. Jemec, Diagnosis of Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer/Keratinocyte Carcinoma, Dermatologic Surgery, vol.33, issue.10, pp.1158-1174, 2007.
DOI : 10.1097/00042728-200710000-00003

Q. Muller, K. Zhang, D. Badizadegan, G. A. Sun, L. T. Thomas et al., Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett's esophagus, M. Follen, and R, pp.1620-1629, 2001.

. Richards-kortum, Combined reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy for in vivo detection of cervical pre-cancerAutofluorescence and diffuse reflectance properties of malignant and benign breast tissues, J Biomed Opt, vol.10, p.24031, 2005.

L. Brancaleon, A. J. Durkin, J. H. Tu, G. Menaker, J. D. Fallon et al., In vivo Fluorescence Spectroscopy of Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer??, Photochemistry and Photobiology, vol.71, issue.2, pp.178-183, 2001.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1524-4725.1986.tb01987.x

M. Panjehpour, C. E. Julius, M. N. Phan, T. Vo-dinh, and S. Overholt, Laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy for in vivo diagnosis of non-melanoma skin cancers, Lasers in Surgery and Medicine, vol.34, issue.5, pp.367-373, 2002.
DOI : 10.1016/S0959-8049(98)00210-X

P. Diagaradjane, M. A. Yaseen, J. Yu, M. S. Wong, and B. Anvari, Autofluorescence characterization for the early diagnosis of neoplastic changes in DMBA/TPA-induced mouse skin carcinogenesis, Lasers in Surgery and Medicine, vol.78, issue.2, pp.382-395, 2005.
DOI : 10.3346/jkms.1997.12.2.135

W. J. Marshall and S. K. Bangert, Introduction, Biochimie médicale physiopathologie et diagnostic, pp.12-18, 2005.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/halshs-01521846

Y. Wu, P. Xi, J. Y. Qu, T. Cheung, and M. Yu, Depth-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy reveals layered structure of tissue, Optics Express, vol.12, issue.14, pp.3218-3223, 2004.
DOI : 10.1364/OPEX.12.003218

A. Pena, M. Strupler, T. Boulesteix, G. Godeau, and M. Schanne-klein, Spectroscopic analysis of keratin endogenous signal for skin multiphoton microscopy, Optics Express, vol.13, issue.16, pp.6268-6274, 2005.
DOI : 10.1364/OPEX.13.006268

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00807874

M. Mokry, P. Gal, M. Harakalova, Z. Hutnanova, J. Kusnir et al., Experimental Study on Predicting Skin Flap Necrosis by Fluorescence in the FAD and NADH Bands During Surgery, Photochemistry and Photobiology, vol.84, issue.5, pp.1193-1196, 2007.
DOI : 10.1529/biophysj.105.073866

J. Lévy and L. Agopian, Evaluation biométrologique des cosmétiques anti-âge et antiride," in Les secrets de l'anti-âge, Groupe Liaisons, pp.44-67, 2007.

Y. Gauthier, Lentigo, lentiginose," in Troubles pigmentaires cutanés, de la clinique au traitement, pp.57-59, 2005.

C. Beylot, Comment la peau vieillit," in Vieillissement cutané : prévenir, corriger, rajeunir, pp.11-28, 2007.

R. , L. Kelso, M. I. Colome-grimmer, T. Uchida, H. Q. Wang et al., (NGFR) immunostaining for the detection of perineural invasion by cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, Dermatol Surg, vol.32, pp.75-177, 2006.

@. Amouroux, M. Blondel, W. C. Granel-brocard, F. Marchal, F. Guillemin et al., A preliminary study on skin phantoms to test spatially resolved ? diffuse reflectance spectroscopy as a tool to help diagnose cutaneous melanoma: a non-invasive measurement of Breslow index, Production scientifique Publications en journaux scientifiques internationaux à comité de lecture
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00346878

A. Dans, ) Parution prévue en Octobre, Biomedical Materials and Engineering, 2008.

@. Amouroux, M. Díaz-ayil, G. Blondel, W. C. Bourg-heckly, G. Leroux et al., Classification of ultra-violet irradiated mouse skin histological stages by bimodal spectroscopy
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00397511

G. Ajaccioayil, M. Amouroux, W. C. Blondel, G. Bourg-heckly, E. Péry et al., Instrumentation for in vivo bimodal spectroscopy (autofluorescence and diffuse reflectance): experimental validation and preliminary results Congrès JIBEC 07, Congrès scientifique national avec comité de lecture Díaz- pour la spectroscopie bimodale in vivo (autofluorescence et diffusion élastique)- Validation expérimentale et résultats préliminaires sur la peau de souris irradiées aux UV, pp.25-27, 2007.