S. Abdullah, A. Khera, and D. Leonard, Sex differences in the association between leptin and CRP: Results from the Dallas Heart Study, Atherosclerosis, vol.195, issue.2, pp.404-410, 2007.
DOI : 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2006.10.022

J. Abramson, C. Lewis, and N. Murrah, Relation of C-Reactive Protein and Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha to Ambulatory Blood Pressure Variability in Healthy Adults, The American Journal of Cardiology, vol.98, issue.5, pp.649-6521129, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/j.amjcard.2006.03.045

S. Taskinen and M. , Diabetic dyslipidaemia, Curr Opin Lipidol. pin Hematol, vol.1713, pp.238-24634, 2006.

A. Takada and M. , High plasma immunoreactive leptin level in essential hypertension ymes and transporters in inflammation nosis and classification of diabetes mellitus and its complications. Part 1: diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus provisional report of a, Am J Hypertens. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. Lancet, vol.1046366, pp.1171-1174123, 1997.

M. Albrink and J. Meigs, The relationship between serum triglycerides and skinfold thickness in

B. Antuna-puente, B. Feve, and S. Fellahi, Adipokines: The missing link between insulin resistance and obesity, Diabetes & Metabolism, vol.34, issue.1
DOI : 10.1016/j.diabet.2007.09.004

P. Arner, Resistin: yet another adipokine tells us that men are not mice. Diabetologia. tions -an update. Diabetes Obes Metab, 2008.

B. Balkau and M. Charles, Comment on the provisional report from the WHO consultation

L. Adams and P. Angulo, Recent concepts in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, Diabetic Medicine, vol.111, issue.9
DOI : 10.1002/hep.20420

V. Afshar-kharghan and P. Thiagarajan, Leukocyte adhesion and thrombosis, Current Opinion in Hematology, vol.13, issue.1
DOI : 10.1097/01.moh.0000190107.54790.de

A. Aitken, T. Richardson, and E. Morgan, Regulation of drug-metabolizing enz

K. Alberti, P. Zimmet, and J. Shaw, Metabolic Syndrome
DOI : 10.1007/s00125-006-0266-8

K. Alberti and P. Zimmet, Definition, diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus and its complications. Part 1: diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus. Provisional report of a WHO Consultation, Diabetic Medicine, vol.15, issue.7, pp.539-553, 1998.
DOI : 10.1002/(SICI)1096-9136(199807)15:7<539::AID-DIA668>3.0.CO;2-S

S. Arora, Leptin and its metabolic interac

A. Astrup and N. Finer, Redefining Type 2 diabetes: 'Diabesity' or 'Obesity Dependent Diabetes Mellitus'?, Obesity Reviews, vol.24, issue.2, pp.57-59, 2000.
DOI : 10.1001/archinte.160.9.1321

M. Banerji, M. Buckley, and R. Chaiken, Liver fat, serum triglycerides and visceral adipose tissue in insulin-sensitive and insulin-resistant black men with NIDDM, Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord, vol.19, pp.846-850, 1995.

N. Barzilai, J. Wang, and D. Massilon, Leptin selectively decreases visceral adiposity and enhances insulin action., Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol.100, issue.12, pp.3105-3110, 1997.
DOI : 10.1172/JCI119865

URL : http://www.jci.org/articles/view/119865/files/pdf

J. Beltowski, Role of leptin in blood pressure regulation and arterial hypertension, Journal of Hypertension, vol.24, issue.5
DOI : 10.1097/01.hjh.0000222743.06584.66

J. Berndt, N. Kloting, and S. Kralisch, Plasma visfatin concentrations and fat depot-specific
DOI : 10.2337/diabetes.54.10.2911

URL : http://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/content/diabetes/54/10/2911.full.pdf

E. Bernotiene, G. Palmer, C. Gabay, S. Breslow, and J. , The role of leptin in innate and adaptive immune responses Increased apo A-I and apo A-II fractional catabolic rate in patients with low high density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels with or without

J. Bruun, S. Pedersen, and K. Kristensen, Effects of pro-inflammatory cytokines Liver enzyme activity and body mass index, J Occup Environ le. orks. Science, vol.269, pp.546-549, 1995.

A. Cervero, F. Dominguez, and J. Horcajadas, The role of the leptin in reproduction, Current Opinion in Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol.18, issue.3
DOI : 10.1097/01.gco.0000193004.35287.89

C. Bell, M. Benzinou, and A. Siddiq, Genome-wide linkage analysis for severe obesity in french 1865, pp.789-801, 2006.

E. Brinton and E. Hypertriglyceridemia, Increased apo A-I and apo A-II fractional catabolic rate in patients with low high density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels with or without hypertriglyceridemia., Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol.87, issue.2, pp.536-544, 1991.
DOI : 10.1172/JCI115028

M. Bullo, P. Garcia-lorda, and I. Megias, Systemic Inflammation, Adipose Tissue Tumor Necrosis Factor, and Leptin Expression, Obesity Research, vol.408, issue.4, pp.525-531, 2003.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1749-6632.1983.tb23267.x

S. Bustin, Quantification of mRNA using real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR): trends and problems, Journal of Molecular Endocrinology, vol.29, issue.1, pp.23-39, 2002.
DOI : 10.1677/jme.0.0290023

A. Cameron, J. Shaw, and P. Zimmet, The metabolic syndrome: prevalence in worldwide populations, Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America, vol.33, issue.2, pp.351-75, 2004.
DOI : 10.1016/j.ecl.2004.03.005

L. Campfield, F. Smith, and Y. Guisez, Recombinant mouse OB protein: evidence for a peripheral signal linking adiposity and central neural networks, Science, vol.269, issue.5223
DOI : 10.1126/science.7624778

J. Caro, J. Kolaczynski, and M. Nyce, Decreased cerebrospinal-fluid/serum leptin ratio in obesity: a possible mechanism for leptin resistance, The Lancet, vol.348, issue.9021, pp.159-161, 1996.
DOI : 10.1016/S0140-6736(96)03173-X

M. Chen, F. Chung, and D. Chang, Elevated Plasma Level of Visfatin/Pre-B Cell Colony-Enhancing Factor in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, vol.91, issue.1, pp.295-299, 2006.
DOI : 10.1210/jc.2005-1475

S. Cheng, M. Grow, and C. Pallaud, A Multilocus Genotyping Assay for Candidate Markers of Cardiovascular Disease Risk, Genome Research, vol.9, issue.10, pp.936-949947, 1999.
DOI : 10.1101/gr.9.10.936

S. Cinti, The role of brown adipose tissue in human obesity, Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, vol.16, issue.8
DOI : 10.1016/j.numecd.2006.07.009

S. Cleland, N. Sattar, and J. Petrie, Endothelial dysfunction as a possible link between Cent Weight loss regulates inflammation-related genes in white adipose tissue of obese subjects, FASEB J, vol.18134, pp.1657-16692455, 2004.

L. Bertrais and S. , Relationships between changes in weight and changes in cardiovascular risk factors in middle-aged French subjects: effect of dieting, Int J Obes Relat

S. Debey, U. Schoenbeck, and M. Hellmich, Comparison of different isolation techniques prior 207

H. Chon, C. Gaillard, and B. Van-der-meijden, Broadly altered gene expression in blood leukocytes in essential hypertension is absent during tr

J. Chudek and A. Wiecek, Adipose tissue, inflammation and endothelial dysfunction, Pharmacol Rep, vol.58, pp.81-88, 2006.

S. Cinti, R. Matteis, and C. Pico, Secretory granules of endocrine and chief cells of human stomach mucosa contain leptin, International Journal of Obesity, vol.42, issue.6, pp.789-793569, 2000.
DOI : 10.1016/S0074-7696(08)60982-1

P. Cohen and J. Friedman, Leptin and the Control of Metabolism: Role for Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase-1 (SCD-1), The Journal of Nutrition, vol.82, issue.9
DOI : 10.1152/physrev.00018.2001

D. Coleman, Obese and diabetes: Two mutant genes causing diabetes-obesity syndromes in mice, Diabetologia, vol.148, issue.3, pp.141-148, 1978.
DOI : 10.3181/00379727-148-38569

R. Considine, E. Considine, and C. Williams, Evidence against either a premature stop codon or the absence of obese gene mRNA in human obesity., Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol.95, issue.6
DOI : 10.1172/JCI118007

M. Correia and K. Rahmouni, Role of leptin in the cardiovascular and endocrine complications of metabolic syndrome, Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism, vol.902, issue.6, pp.603-61, 2006.
DOI : 10.1016/j.lfs.2003.10.029

O. Costerousse, J. Allegrini, and M. Lopez, Angiotensin I-converting enzyme in human circulating mononuclear cells: genetic polymorphism of expression in T-lym Czernichow S

R. Defronzo and E. Ferrannini, Insulin Resistance: A Multifaceted Syndrome Responsible for NIDDM, Obesity, Hypertension, Dyslipidemia, and Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease, Diabetes Care, vol.14, issue.3, pp.173-19452, 1991.
DOI : 10.2337/diacare.14.3.173

C. Dina, D. Meyre, and S. Gallina, Variation in FTO contributes to childhood obesity and severe ed and untreated type 2 diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance, Diabetes Res Clin Pract

G. Dubuc, S. Phinney, and J. Stern, Changes of serum leptin and endocrine and metabolic

J. Eady, G. Wortley, and Y. Wormstone, Variation in gene expression profiles of peripheral

E. Eberle, A. Doering, and U. Keil, Weight change and change of total cholesterol and high-density- iol, pp.487-492, 1991.

R. Eckel, T. Yost, D. T. Jensen, and G. Stefano, Alterations in lipoprotein lipase in insulin resistance ammation-sensitive plasma proteins and incidence sch Proinflammation: a common denominator or initiator of different athophysiological disease processes, Int J Obes insulin resistance syndrome. Endocr Pract. Med Sci Monit, vol.98, pp.237-252, 2002.

J. P. Despres, Is visceral obesity the cause of the metabolic s

J. Despres and I. Lemieux, Abdominal obesity and metabolic syndrome, Nature, vol.44, 2006.

J. Despres, S. Moorjani, and P. Lupien, Regional distribution of body fat, plasma lipoproteins, and cardiovascular disease, Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, vol.10, issue.4, pp.497-502, 1990.
DOI : 10.1161/01.ATV.10.4.497

D. Girolamo, N. Tedla, N. Lloyd, and A. , Expression of matrix metalloproteinases by human plasma cells and B lymphocytes, European Journal of Immunology, vol.265, issue.6, pp.1773-1784, 1998.
DOI : 10.1016/S0934-8832(11)80238-6

T. Dogru, A. Sonmez, and I. Tasci, Plasma visfatin levels in patients with newly diagnos parameters after 7 days of energy restriction in men and women, Metabolism, vol.7647, pp.24-29429, 1998.

R. Eckel, S. Grundy, and P. Zimmet, The metabolic syndrome, The Lancet, vol.365, issue.9468, pp.1415-1428, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/S0140-6736(05)66378-7

D. Einhorn, G. Reaven, and R. Cobin, American College of Endocrinology position statement on the

G. Engstrom, B. Hedblad, and L. Stavenow, Inflammation-Sensitive Plasma Proteins Are Associated With Future Weight Gain, Diabetes, vol.52, issue.8, pp.2097-2101, 2003.
DOI : 10.2337/diabetes.52.8.2097

URL : http://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/content/diabetes/52/8/2097.full.pdf

G. Engstrom, L. Stavenow, and B. Hedblad, Inflammation-Sensitive Plasma Proteins and Incidence of Myocardial Infarction in Men With Low Cardiovascular Risk, Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, vol.23, issue.12, pp.2247-2251, 2003.
DOI : 10.1161/01.ATV.0000102924.11767.8D

H. Gerstein, Glucose: a Continuous Risk Factor for Cardiovascular Disease, Diabetic Medicine, vol.14, issue.S3, 1997.
DOI : 10.1002/(SICI)1096-9136(199708)14:3+<S25::AID-DIA441>3.3.CO;2-T

H. Ghanim, A. Aljada, and D. Hofmeyer, Circulating Mononuclear Cells in the Obese Are in a Proinflammatory State, Circulation, vol.110, issue.12, pp.1564-1571, 2004.
DOI : 10.1161/01.CIR.0000142055.53122.FA

A. Giacomello, D. Sciascio, N. Quaratino, C. Bi, S. Pratley et al., Relation between serum triglyceride level, serum urate concentration, and fractional urate excretion 1:S121- S126. yndrome and risk of major coronary events in the Scandinavian Simvastatin Survival Study (4S) and the Air Force Genomic structure and promoter analysis of the human obese la MJ et al. Apolipoproteins in obesity: effect of weight loss, Metabolism. utr.Texas Coronary Gong DW J Med. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord, vol.46982819, pp.1085-1089251, 1995.

S. Grundy, H. Brewer, J. Cleeman, and J. , Definition of metabolic syndrome: Report of the 8. erican Diabetes Association conference on scientific issues related to management, Circulation

J. Haddad, N. Saade, and B. Safieh-garabedian, Cytokines and neuro-immune-endocrine 1

G. Gibbons, C. Liew, and M. Goodarzi, Genetic Markers: Progress and Potential for Cardiovascular Disease, Circulation, vol.109, issue.25_suppl_1, pp.47-58, 2004.
DOI : 10.1161/01.CIR.0000133440.86427.26

A. Gil, A. Maria, and M. Gil-campos, Altered signalling and gene expression associated with the immune system and the inflammatory response in obesity, British Journal of Nutrition, vol.84, issue.S1
DOI : 10.1515/CCLM.2007.083

L. Groop and M. Orho-melander, The dysmetabolic syndrome, Journal of Internal Medicine, vol.106, issue.2, pp.105-120, 2001.
DOI : 10.1172/JCI10665

S. Grundy, B. Hansen, S. Smith, and J. , Clinical management of metabolic syndrome: report of the American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute/Am 556. interactions: a role for the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal revolving axis, J Neuroimmunol, vol.133, pp.1-19, 2002.

D. Haider, K. Schindler, and G. Schaller, Increased Plasma Visfatin Concentrations in Morbidly Obese Subjects Are Reduced after Gastric Banding, The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, vol.91, issue.4, pp.1578-158, 2006.
DOI : 10.1210/jc.2005-2248

J. Halaas, K. Gajiwala, and M. Maffei, Weight-reducing effects of the plasma protein encoded by the obese gene, Science, vol.269, issue.5223, pp.543-546, 1995.
DOI : 10.1126/science.7624777

R. Hegele, T. Joy, A. Attar, and S. , Thematic review series

L. Heilbronn, M. Noakes, and P. Clifton, Energy restriction and weight loss on very-low-fat diets

L. Hellstrom, H. Wahrenberg, and K. Hruska, Mechanisms behind gender differences in A, Eschwege E et al. Weight change and changes in the metabolic syndrome as the French population moves towards overweight: the D, E.S.I.R. cohort. Int J

M. Horiguchi, M. Kimura, and J. Skurnick, Parameters of lymphocyte Na+-Ca2+ regulation and

G. Hotamisligil, N. Shargill, B. Spiegelman, P. D. Kuo, and S. , Adipose expression of tumor necrosis factor Correlation between white blood cell count and metabolic syndrome in adolescence xidative metabolism are rapidly altered by leptin in vivo, Pediatr Int. Endocrinology, vol.49147, pp.827-8321480, 2006.

G. Hansson, Inflammation, Atherosclerosis, and Coronary Artery Disease, New England Journal of Medicine, vol.352, issue.16, pp.1685-1695, 2005.
DOI : 10.1056/NEJMra043430

L. Hardie, N. Guilhot, and P. Trayhurn, Regulation of Leptin Production in Cultured Mature White Adipocytes, Hormone and Metabolic Research, vol.28, issue.12, pp.685-689, 1996.
DOI : 10.1055/s-2007-979878

P. Havel, Role of adipose tissue in body-weight regulation: mechanisms regulating leptin production and energy balance, Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, vol.16, issue.03, pp.359-371250, 2000.
DOI : 10.1001/jama.282.16.1568

T. Hillier and F. Epidemiol, blood pressure: the gender effect, Hypertension, vol.3532, pp.190-196869, 1998.

W. Huang, N. Dedousis, and A. Bandi, Liver triglyceride secretion and lipid o

J. Huggett, K. Dheda, B. Ingalls, A. Dickie, M. Snell et al., Obese, a new mutation in the house mouse, J Hered, vol.41, pp.317-318, 1950.

B. Isomaa, P. Almgren, and T. Tuomi, Cardiovascular Morbidity and Mortality Associated With the Metabolic Syndrome, Diabetes Care, vol.24, issue.4, pp.683-689, 2001.
DOI : 10.2337/diacare.24.4.683

S. Jia, Y. Li, and J. Parodo, Pre-B cell colony-enhancing factor inhibits neutrophil apoptosis in

W. Jian, T. Luo, and H. Zhang, The visfatin gene is associated with glucose and lipid

N. Kaplan, R. Kawamoto, H. Tomita, and Y. Oka, The deadly quartet. Upper-body obesity, glucose intolerance, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypertension, Archives of Internal Medicine, vol.149, issue.7
DOI : 10.1001/archinte.149.7.1514

T. Kazumi, A. Kawaguchi, and J. Katoh, Fasting insulin and leptin serum levels are associated

J. Kim, Y. Choi, and J. Hong, Association of metabolic syndrome with white blood cell H et al. Crystal structure of visfatin/pre-B cell colony-enhancing factor 1/nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase, free and in complex with the anti-cancer agent FKpression profiling of adipose tissue: individual, depot-dependent, and sex-dependent variabilities Molecular characteristics of serum visfatin and differential detection by immunoassays rrelation of oxidative stress parameters and inflammatory markers in coronary artery disease patients egulation of the novel adipocytokine visfatin in 3T3-L1 adipocytes visfatin gene expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes Activity and expression of glutathione Stransferase pi in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Nutrition. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. Clin Biochem. J Endocrinol. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. Clin Chim Acta, vol.209240185289364, pp.115-1204783, 2004.

N. Isse, Y. Ogawa, and N. Tamura, Gene, Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol.86, issue.46, pp.27728-27733, 1995.
DOI : 10.1126/science.8211130

J. Jason, L. Archibald, and O. Nwanyanwu, Comparison of serum and cell-specific cytokines in humans experimental inflammation and clinical sepsis, Chinese population, pp.1097-11031318, 2001.

M. Kim, J. Lee, and K. , Crystal Structure of Visfatin/Pre-B Cell Colony-enhancing Factor 1/Nicotinamide Phosphoribosyltransferase, Free and in Complex with the Anti-cancer Agent FK-866, Journal of Molecular Biology, vol.362, issue.1, pp.66-77, 2006.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jmb.2006.06.082

S. Kralisch, J. Klein, and U. Lossner, Interleukin-6 is a negative regulator of Kuzma M

J. Lee, K. Kawakubo, and Y. Kobayashi, Effects of ten year body weight variability on 4, pp.948-954

I. Lemieux, A. Pascot, and D. Prud-'homme, Elevated C-reactive protein: another component of the

S. Liangpunsakul and N. Chalasani, Unexplained Elevations in Alanine Aminotransferase in Individuals with the Metabolic Syndrome: Results from the Third National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHANES III), The American Journal of the Medical Sciences, vol.329, issue.3, pp.111-116, 2005.
DOI : 10.1097/00000441-200503000-00001

L. Cava, A. Matarese, G. Laaksonen, D. Lakka, and T. , The weight of leptin in immunity The metabolic syndrome and total and cardiovascular disease morta, Nat Rev Im Lakka HM

S. Lakoski, M. Cushman, and M. Criqui, Gender and C-reactive protein: Data from the Multiethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) cohort, American Heart Journal, vol.152, issue.3, pp.593-598, 2006.
DOI : 10.1016/j.ahj.2006.02.015

J. Lampe, S. Stepaniants, and M. Mao, Signatures of environmental exposures using peripheral leukocyte gene expression: tobacco smoke

S. Lee, I. Janssen, and R. Ross, Interindividual variation in abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue: influence of measurement site, Journal of Applied Physiology, vol.97, issue.3
DOI : 10.2165/00007256-200333100-00001

L. Leiter, From hyperglycemia to the risk of cardiovascular disease, Rev Cardiovasc Med, vol.7, issue.2, pp.3-9, 2006.

G. Lewis and G. Steiner, Acute Effects of Insulin in the Control of VLDL Production in Humans: Implications for the insulin-resistant state, Diabetes Care, vol.19, issue.4, pp.390-393, 1996.
DOI : 10.2337/diacare.19.4.390

J. Li and J. Chen, Inflammation may be a bridge connecting hypertension and atherosclerosis, Medical Hypotheses, vol.64, issue.5, pp.925-929, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/j.mehy.2004.10.016

P. Libby, Inflammation and cardiovascular disease mechanisms, The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol.43, issue.2, pp.456-460, 2006.
DOI : 10.1056/NEJMoa042378

C. Liew, J. Ma, and H. Tang, The peripheral blood transcriptome dynamically reflects system , Chen CH et al. Hypertension was the major risk factor leading to development of cardiovascular diseases among men with hyperuricemia, J Rheumatol

K. Chan, Y. Chan, and J. , Mesenteric fat thickness as an independent determinant of fatty liver nship to plasma levels and gene expression, Int J Obes (Lond). J Clin Invest, vol.3099191, pp.787-7932398, 1997.

P. Natl, A. Sci, and U. A. , ry heart disease, cardiovascular disease, and all causes in United States adults sive weight loss on inflammatory adipocytokines and the innate immune system in morbidly obese women role of leptin in human obesity and disease: a review of current evidence, Circulation. J Clin Endocrinol, vol.92110, pp.6957-69601245, 1995.

A. Intern-med-arteau, J. Zaiou, M. Siest, and G. , Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and the metabolic syndrome of human blood cells for mRNA expression profiling: a 15-month stability study Genetic determinants of blood pressure regulation, Hepatology. Curr Opin Lipidol. Clin Chem. J ypertens, vol.13037165123, pp.671-680917, 1999.

L. Lonnqvist, F. Nordfors, L. Jansson, and M. , Leptin secretion from adipose tissue in women

T. Luk, Z. Malam, and J. Marshall, Pre-B cell colony-enhancing factor (PBEF)/visfatin: a novel mediator of innate immunity, Journal of Leukocyte Biology, vol.83, issue.4, pp.804-816, 2008.
DOI : 10.1189/jlb.0807581

J. Ma, A. Dempsey, and D. Stamatiou, Identifying leukocyte gene expression patterns associated with plasma lipid levels in human subjects, Atherosclerosis, vol.191, issue.1
DOI : 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2006.05.032

M. Maffei, H. Fei, and G. Lee, Increased expression in adipocytes of ob RNA in mice with lesions of the hypothalamus and with mutations at the db locus., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol.92, issue.15
DOI : 10.1073/pnas.92.15.6957

M. Manco, J. Fernandez-real, and F. Equitani, Effect of mas Metab, pp.483-490, 2007.

G. Marchesini, E. Bugianesi, and G. Forlani, Nonalcoholic fatty liver, steatohepatitis

G. Matarese, L. Cava, A. Sanna, and V. , Balancing susceptibility to infection and autoimmunity: a role for leptin?, Trends in Immunology, vol.23, issue.4, pp.182-187, 2002.
DOI : 10.1016/S1471-4906(02)02188-9

P. Mauriege, A. Marette, and C. Atgie, Regional variation in adipose tissue metabolism of severely obese premenopausal women, J Lipid Res, vol.36, pp.672-684, 1995.

R. Califf, Metabolic syndrome: definition, pathophysiology, and mechanisms, Am Heart J, vol.14951, pp.33-45755, 2002.

H. Nakamura and K. , Predictors for development of hyperuricemia: an 8- year longitudinal study in middle-aged Japanese men-626. essential hypertension, Metabolism. J Hypertens, vol.5017, pp.621245-249, 1999.

J. Mayes and G. Watson, Direct effects of sex steroid hormones on

S. Mittelman, G. Van-citters, and E. Kirkman, Extreme Insulin Resistance of the Central Adipose Depot In Vivo, Diabetes, vol.51, issue.3
DOI : 10.2337/diabetes.51.3.755

V. Mohamed-ali, J. Pinkney, and S. Coppack, Adipose tissue as an endocrine and paracrine organ, International Journal of Obesity, vol.22, issue.12
DOI : 10.1038/sj.ijo.0800770

D. Moore, H. Li, and N. Jeffries, Using Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells to Determine a Gene Expression Profile of Acute Ischemic Stroke: A Pilot Investigation, Circulation, vol.111, issue.2
DOI : 10.1161/01.CIR.0000152105.79665.C6

F. Morello, R. De-boer, and K. Steffensen, Liver X receptors ?? and ?? regulate renin expression in vivo, Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol.115, issue.7, pp.1913-1922, 2005.
DOI : 10.1172/JCI24594

A. Moschen, A. Kaser, and B. Enrich, Visfatin, an Adipocytokine with Proinflammatory and Immunomodulating Properties, The Journal of Immunology, vol.178, issue.3, pp.1748-1758, 2007.
DOI : 10.4049/jimmunol.178.3.1748

T. Murakami, S. Michelagnoli, and R. Longhi, Triglycerides Are Major Determinants of Cholesterol Esterification/Transfer and HDL Remodeling in Human Plasma, Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, vol.15, issue.11
DOI : 10.1161/01.ATV.15.11.1819

N. Nakanishi, Y. Narkiewicz, K. Somers, V. Mos, and L. , An independent relationship between plasma leptin and heart rate in untreated patients with NCEP-ATPIII. Executive Summary of The Third Report of The National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP)

L. Pieroni, J. Bastard, and A. Piton, Interpretation of circulating C-reactive protein levels in adults: Body Mass Index and gender are a must, Diabetes & Metabolism, vol.29, issue.2, pp.133-138, 2003.
DOI : 10.1016/S1262-3636(07)70019-8

S. P. Pincock and . Zimmet, 1643. risks from obesity: possible evolutionary origins931-940. sights and unsolved questions rs in Mexican Americans pensatory hyperinsulinemia, essential hypertension, and in intraabdominal etabolic re than the sum of its parts? Circulation. risk factors before and after weight loss in obese children. ta ells as a systemic NAD biosynthetic enzyme, Lancet. Br J Nutr. J Biomed Sci. Am J pidemiol. Cell Metab, vol.36899121526, pp.839-853974, 2000.

M. Power and J. Schulkin, Sex differences in fat storage, fat metabolism, and the health

G. Puddu, E. Cravero, and G. Arnone, Molecular aspects of atherogenesis: new in Individual-specific variation of gene expression in peripheral blood leukocytes, Genomics, vol.83, pp.980-988, 2004.

K. Rahmouni and W. Haynes, Endothelial effects of leptin: Implications in health and diseases, Current Diabetes Reports, vol.17, issue.4, pp.260-266, 2005.
DOI : 10.1161/01.HYP.37.2.670

D. Rainwater, B. Mitchell, and A. Comuzzie, Association among 5-year changes in weight

G. Reaven and . Banting-lecture, Role of Insulin Resistance in Human Disease, Diabetes, vol.37, issue.12, pp.1595-1607, 1988.
DOI : 10.2337/diab.37.12.1595

G. Reaven, Insulin Resistance/Compensatory Hyperinsulinemia, Essential Hypertension, and Cardiovascular Disease, The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, vol.88, issue.6, pp.2399-2403, 2003.
DOI : 10.1210/jc.2003-030087

M. Rebuffe-scrive, B. Anderson, and L. Olbe, Metabolism of adipose tissue in intraabdominal depots in severely obese men and women, Metabolism, vol.39, issue.10, pp.1021-1025, 1990.
DOI : 10.1016/0026-0495(90)90160-E

M. Rebuffe-scrive, B. Andersson, and L. Olbe, Metabolism of adipose tissue in intraabdominal depots of nonobese men and women, Metabolism, vol.38, issue.5, pp.453-458, 1989.
DOI : 10.1016/0026-0495(89)90198-4

R. Rector, J. Thyfault, and Y. Wei, Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and the metabolic syndrome: An update, World Journal of Gastroenterology, vol.14, issue.2, pp.185-192, 2008.
DOI : 10.3748/wjg.14.185

M. Reilly and D. Rader, The metabolic syndrome: mo, pp.1546-1551, 2003.

T. Reinehr, B. Stoffel-wagner, and C. Roth, High-sensitive C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and cardiovascular Metabolism, pp.1155-1161, 2005.

J. Rentsch and M. Chiesi, Regulation of ob gene mRNA levels in cultured adipocytes, FEBS Letters, vol.46, issue.1, pp.55-59, 1996.
DOI : 10.1074/jbc.270.27.15958

P. Ridker, J. Buring, and N. Cook, C-Reactive Protein, the Metabolic Syndrome, and Risk of Incident Cardiovascular Events: An 8-Year Follow-Up of 14 719 Initially Healthy American Women, Circulation, vol.107, issue.3, pp.391-39713, 2003.
DOI : 10.1161/01.CIR.0000055014.62083.05

M. Saad, S. Damani, and R. Gingerich, Sexual Dimorphism in Plasma Leptin Concentration, Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, vol.82, issue.2
DOI : 10.1210/jc.82.2.579

B. Samal, Y. Sun, and G. Stearns, Cloning and characterization of the cDNA encoding a novel, pp.1-1437

M. Rolland-cachera, T. Cole, and M. Sempe, Body Mass Index variations: centiles from birth to 87 years, Eur J Clin.Nutr, vol.4, 1991.

A. Rongvaux, R. Shea, and M. Mulks, Pre-B-cell colony-enhancing factor, whose expression is up-regulated in activated lymphocytes, is a nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase

T. Ronti, G. Lupattelli, and E. Mannarino, The endocrine function of adipose tissue: an update, Clinical Endocrinology, vol.46, issue.8, pp.355-365, 2006.
DOI : 10.2337/diab.46.2.S9

N. Ruderman, D. Chisholm, and X. Pi-sunyer, The metabolically obese, normal-weight individual revisited, Diabetes, vol.47, issue.5, pp.699-713, 1998.
DOI : 10.2337/diabetes.47.5.699

C. Ruggiero, A. Cherubini, and A. Ble, Uric acid and inflammatory markers, European Heart Journal, vol.15, issue.10, pp.1174-1181, 2006.
DOI : 10.1093/annonc/mdh931

M. Ryan, A. Wilson, and J. Slavin, Associations Between Liver Histology and Severity of the Metabolic Syndrome in Subjects With Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease, Diabetes Care, vol.28, issue.5, pp.1222-1224, 2005.
DOI : 10.2337/diacare.28.5.1222

V. Sanchez-margalet, C. Martin-romero, and J. Santos-alvarez, Role of leptin as an immunomodulator of blood mononuclear cells: mechanisms of action, Clinical and Experimental Immunology, vol.51, issue.1, pp.11-19, 2003.
DOI : 10.1016/S1471-4906(02)02188-9

P. Scarpace and Y. Zhang, Elevated leptin: consequence or cause of obesity? Front Biosci, pp.3531-3544, 2007.

P. Schreiner, J. Terry, and G. Evans, Sex-specific Associations of Magnetic Resonance Imaging-derived Intra-abdominal and Subcutaneous Fat Areas with Conventional Anthropometric Indices: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study, American Journal of Epidemiology, vol.144, issue.4, 1996.
DOI : 10.1093/oxfordjournals.aje.a008934

R. Schutte, H. Huisman, and A. Schutte, Leptin is independently associated with systolic blood pressure, pulse pressure and arterial compliance in hypertensive African women with increased adiposity: the POWIRS study, Journal of Human Hypertension, vol.47, issue.7, pp.535-541, 2005.
DOI : 10.1126/science.281.5383.1683

K. Segal, M. Van-loan, and P. Fitzgerald, Lean body mass estimation by bioelectrical ra S, Hakkinen AM et al. Fat accumulation in the liver is associated with defects in insulin suppression of glucose production and serum free fatty acids Y, Skrha J et al. Insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia: is hyperinsulinemia the cart or the horse? Diabetes Care, pp.262-268, 2008.

. Brussels, International Diabetes Federation, pp.15-71, 2003.

A. Scuteri, S. Sanna, and W. Chen, Genome-Wide Association Scan Shows Genetic Variants in the FTO Gene Are Associated with Obesity-Related Traits:e115. impedance analysis: a four-site cross-validation study, PLoS Genet. Am J Clin Nutr, vol.347, pp.7-14, 1988.

A. Seppala-lindroos, Fat Accumulation in the Liver Is Associated with Defects in Insulin Suppression of Glucose Production and Serum Free Fatty Acids Independent of Obesity in Normal Men, The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, vol.87, issue.7, pp.3023-3028, 2002.
DOI : 10.1210/jcem.87.7.8638

G. Siest, S. Visvikis, and B. Herbeth, Increased high density lipoprotein (HDL), defective hepatic catabolism of ApoA-I and ApoA-II, and decreased ApoA-I mRNA in ob/ob mice, Possible role of leptin in stimulatio Singer G, Granger DN. Inflammatory responses underlying the microvascular dysfunction associated with obesity and insulin resistanc

M. Sinha, J. Sturis, and J. Ohannesian, Ultradian Oscillations of Leptin Secretion in Humans, Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol.228, issue.3
DOI : 10.1006/bbrc.1996.1724

C. Sjostrom, M. Peltonen, and L. Sjostrom, Blood Pressure and Pulse Pressure during Long-Term Weight Loss in the Obese: The Swedish Obese Subjects (SOS) Intervention Study, Obesity Research, vol.9, issue.suppl, pp.188-195, 2001.
DOI : 10.1381/096089299765553070

J. Smith, A. Amri, M. Sniderman, and A. , Visfatin concentration in Asian Indians is correlated with high density lipoprotein cholesterol and apolipoprotein A1, Clinical Endocrinology, vol.14, issue.5, pp.667-672, 2006.
DOI : 10.1152/ajpendo.00090.2005

S. Smith, THE ENDOCRINOLOGY OF OBESITY, Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America, vol.25, issue.4, pp.921-942, 1996.
DOI : 10.1016/S0889-8529(05)70362-5

J. Vague, Sexual differentiation, a factor affecting the forms of obesity-340. -3beta, Presse Med J Biol Chem, vol.30281, pp.33912950-12958, 1947.

. Leptin, body composition and liver steatosis in non-diabetic moderate drinkers with normal transaminase levels. Eur J Pre-B-cell colony-enhancing factor regulates NAD+-dependent protein deacetylase activity and promotes vascular smooth muscle cell maturation, Circ Res

H. Van, V. Reynisdottir, S. Eriksson, and P. , Leptin secretion from subcutaneous and visceral

J. Vandesompele, D. Preter, K. Pattyn, and F. , Accurate normalization of real-time quantitative lipids, and inflammation, J Clin Endocrinol Metab

P. Verdecchia, G. Schillaci, and G. Reboldi, Relation Between Serum Uric Acid and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease in Essential Hypertension : The PIUMA Study, Hypertension, vol.36, issue.6, pp.1072-1078, 2000.
DOI : 10.1161/01.HYP.36.6.1072

M. Visser, L. Bouter, and G. Mcquillan, Elevated C-Reactive Protein Levels in Overweight and Obese Adults, JAMA, vol.282, issue.22, pp.2131-2135, 1999.
DOI : 10.1001/jama.282.22.2131

S. Visvikis-siest and J. Marteau, Genetic variants predisposing to cardiovascular disease, Current Opinion in Lipidology, vol.17, issue.2, pp.139-151, 2006.
DOI : 10.1097/01.mol.0000217895.67444.de

S. Visvikis-siest and G. Siest, The STANISLAS Cohort: a 10-year follow-up of supposed healthy families. Gene-environment interactions, reference values and evaluation of biomarkers in prevention of cardiovascular diseases, Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, vol.55, issue.6, pp.733-747, 2008.
DOI : 10.1080/15287390490514895

M. Wahle, R. Neumann, and F. Moritz, -Adrenergic Receptors Mediate the Differential Effects of Catecholamines on Cytokine Production of PBMC, Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research, vol.25, issue.7, pp.384-394, 2005.
DOI : 10.1089/jir.2005.25.384

P. Wang, E. Mariman, and J. Renes, The secretory function of adipocytes in the physiology of white adipose tissue, Journal of Cellular Physiology, vol.372, issue.1, pp.3-13, 2008.
DOI : 10.1172/JCI200319451

A. Valerio, V. Ghisi, and M. Dossena, Leptin Increases Axonal Growth Cone Size in Developing Mouse Cortical Neurons by Convergent Signals Inactivating Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3??, Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol.58, issue.18, pp.283-290, 2005.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1471-4159.2004.02422.x

V. Varma, A. Yao-borengasser, and N. Rasouli, Human visfatin expression: relationship to insulin sensitivity, intramyocellular 1 Visvikis-Siest S. Five-year alterations in BMI are associated with clustering of changes in cardiovascular risk factors in a gender-dependant way: the Stanislas study, Int J Obes, vol.32, pp.1279-88, 2008.

A. Samara, B. Herbeth, F. Fumeron, H. Berrahmoune, and G. Siest, Visvikis-Siest S. Sexdependent associations of serum leptin with variables related to Metabolic Syndrome in the Stanislas Cohort Study, Accepté avec modifications à Obes Res

S. Visvikis-siest, A. Samara, D. Meyre, B. Herbeth, and P. Froguel, Significant relationships between FTO variants and 5-year BMI changes in children and adolescents of the Stanislas Cohort, response, 2008.

S. Visvikis-siest, J. Marteau, A. Samara, H. Berrahmoune, B. Marie et al., Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs): a possible model for studying cardiovascular biology systems, Clinical Chemical Laboratory Medicine, vol.32, issue.9, pp.1154-68, 2007.
DOI : 10.2337/diabetes.53.7.1857

A. Samara, B. Marie, and M. Pfister, Leptin expression in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMCs) is related with blood pressure variability, Clinica Chimica Acta, vol.395, issue.1-2, pp.47-50, 2008.
DOI : 10.1016/j.cca.2008.04.028

A. Samara, M. Pfister, and B. Marie, Visfatin, low-grade inflammation and body mass index (BMI), Clinical Endocrinology, vol.282, issue.4, pp.568-574, 2008.
DOI : 10.4049/jimmunol.178.3.1748

A. Publications-7, G. Siest, E. Jeannesson, J. Marteau, A. Samara et al., Visvikis-Siest S. Transcription factors and drug metabolizing enzymes genes expression in lymphocytes from human healthy subjects, Drug Metab Disp, vol.36, pp.182-191, 2008.

G. Siest, J. Marteau, S. Maumus, H. Berrahmoune, E. Jeannesson et al., Pharmacogenomics and cardiovascular drugs: Need for integrated biological system with phenotypes and proteomic markers, European Journal of Pharmacology, vol.527, issue.1-3, pp.1-22, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/j.ejphar.2005.10.011

G. Siest, J. Marteau, S. Maumus, H. Berrahmoune, E. Jeannesson et al., Pharmacog??nomique et pharmacoprot??omique, Annales Pharmaceutiques Fran??aises, vol.65, issue.3, pp.203-213, 2007.
DOI : 10.1016/S0003-4509(07)90037-1

J. Despres and I. Lemieux, Abdominal obesity and metabolic syndrome, Nature, vol.322, issue.Suppl. 4, pp.881-887, 2006.
DOI : 10.1056/NEJM199005243222101

R. Rector, J. Thyfault, Y. Wei, and J. Ibdah, Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and the metabolic syndrome: An update, World Journal of Gastroenterology, vol.14, issue.2, pp.185-192, 2008.
DOI : 10.3748/wjg.14.185

P. Franks, S. Brage, J. Luan, U. Ekelund, M. Rahman et al., Leptin Predicts a Worsening of the Features of the Metabolic Syndrome Independently of Obesity, Obesity Research, vol.21, issue.346, pp.1476-1484, 2005.
DOI : 10.1056/NEJMoa012437

S. Abdullah, A. Khera, D. Leonard, S. Das, R. Canham et al., Sex differences in the association between leptin and CRP: Results from the Dallas Heart Study, Atherosclerosis, vol.195, issue.2, 2006.
DOI : 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2006.10.022

M. Rutter, J. Meigs, L. Sullivan, D. Agostino, R. Sr et al., C-Reactive Protein, the Metabolic Syndrome, and Prediction of Cardiovascular Events in the Framingham Offspring Study, Circulation, vol.110, issue.4, pp.380-385, 2004.
DOI : 10.1161/01.CIR.0000136581.59584.0E

G. Engstrom, L. Stavenow, B. Hedblad, P. Lind, P. Tyden et al., Inflammation-Sensitive Plasma Proteins and Incidence of Myocardial Infarction in Men With Low Cardiovascular Risk, Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, vol.23, issue.12, pp.2247-2251, 2003.
DOI : 10.1161/01.ATV.0000102924.11767.8D

A. Onat, H. Uyarel, G. Hergenc, A. Karabulut, S. Albayrak et al., Serum Uric Acid Is a Determinant of Metabolic Syndrome in a Population-Based Study, American Journal of Hypertension, vol.19, issue.10, pp.1055-1062, 2006.
DOI : 10.1016/j.amjhyper.2006.02.014

G. Siest, S. Visvikis, B. Herbeth, R. Gueguen, M. Vincent-viry et al., Objectives, Design and Recruitment of a Familial and Longitudinal Cohort for Studying Gene-Environment Interactions in the Field of Cardiovascular Risk: The Stanislas Cohort, Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, vol.35, issue.1, pp.35-42, 1998.
DOI : 10.1016/0009-8981(91)90106-M

E. Lecomte, B. Herbeth, V. Nicaud, R. Rakotovao, Y. Artur et al., Segregation analysis of fat mass and fat-free mass with age- and sex-dependent effects: The Stanislas family study, Genetic Epidemiology, vol.19, issue.1, pp.51-62, 1997.
DOI : 10.1002/gepi.1370090603

P. Schreiner, J. Terry, G. Evans, W. Hinson, J. Crouse et al., Sex-specific Associations of Magnetic Resonance Imaging-derived Intra-abdominal and Subcutaneous Fat Areas with Conventional Anthropometric Indices: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study, American Journal of Epidemiology, vol.144, issue.4, pp.335-345, 1996.
DOI : 10.1093/oxfordjournals.aje.a008934

K. Liu, Y. Chan, J. Chan, W. Chan, and W. Kong, Mesenteric fat thickness as an independent determinant of fatty liver, International Journal of Obesity, vol.12, issue.Suppl 3, pp.787-793, 2006.
DOI : 10.1038/oby.2004.285

S. Valtuena, F. Numeroso, D. Ardigo, M. Pedrazzoni, L. Franzini et al., Relationship between leptin, insulin, body composition and liver steatosis in non-diabetic moderate drinkers with normal transaminase levels, European Journal of Endocrinology, vol.51, issue.1, pp.283-290, 2005.
DOI : 10.2337/diabetes.51.1.144

N. Barzilai, J. Wang, D. Massilon, P. Vuguin, M. Hawkins et al., Leptin selectively decreases visceral adiposity and enhances insulin action., Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol.100, issue.12, pp.3105-3110, 1997.
DOI : 10.1172/JCI119865

URL : http://www.jci.org/articles/view/119865/files/pdf

R. 1. Dina, C. Meyre, D. Gallina, S. Durand, E. Korner et al., Variation in FTO contributes to childhood obesity and severe adult obesity, Nature Genetics, vol.165, issue.6, pp.724-726, 2007.
DOI : 10.1073/pnas.0400782101

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00173651

T. Frayling, N. Timpson, M. Weedon, E. Zeggini, and R. Freathy, A Common Variant in the FTO Gene Is Associated with Body Mass Index and Predisposes to Childhood and Adult Obesity, Science, vol.316, issue.5826, pp.889-894, 2007.
DOI : 10.1126/science.1141634

A. Scuteri, S. Sanna, W. Chen, M. Uda, and G. Albai, Genome-Wide Association Scan Shows Genetic Variants in the FTO Gene Are Associated with Obesity-Related Traits, PLoS Genetics, vol.16, issue.7, p.115, 2007.
DOI : 10.1371/journal.pgen.0030115.st005

A. Samara, B. Marie, and P. Michèle, Leptin expression in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMCs) is related with blood pressure variability, Clinica Chimica Acta, vol.395, issue.1-2, pp.47-50, 2008.
DOI : 10.1016/j.cca.2008.04.028

. La-leptine-est-une-adipokine-initialement-considérée-comme, une molécule exclusivement associée à l'obésité. L'avancement des connaissances a mis en évidence des rôles multiples dans d'autres mécanismes physio-pathologiques et particulièrement ceux de l'inflammation. La présente étude a voulu démontrer la présence de l'ARNm de la leptine dans les globules blancs mononucléaires (PBMCs), et quantifier l

. Les-taux-d, expression de la leptine ont été significativement associés d'une façon négative avec la pression artérielle systolique (PAS) et diastolique (PAD) (p=0.03, p=0.003 respectivement) Une analyse de régression multiple a montré que les taux d'ARNm de la leptine pouvaient expliquer 11% de la variation de la PAS (p=0.007) et de la variation de la PAD (p=0.003). Ces pourcentages n'ont pas été altérés après l'introduction de l

. Dans, nous décrivons pour la première fois l'expression de la leptine dans les PBMCs humains de sujets supposés sains. Les associations trouvées avec la pression artérielle

A. Samara, M. Pfister, and B. Marie, Sophie Visvikis-Siest Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) in press La visfatine est une adipokine ayant des rôles dans les mécanismes inflammatoires mais son implication dans l'inflammation associée à l'adiposité/obésité n'a pas été encore étudiée. Nous avons ciblé l'étude des relations de la visfatine avec les marqueurs d'inflammation et l, IMC) dans les globules blancs mononucléaires (PBMCs), un type de cellules lié aux mécanismes inflammatoires