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Biodisponibilité relative du chlordécone de l'andosol et du nitisol chez les animaux d'élevage monogastriques

Abstract : Chlordecone (CLD) is an organochlorine pesticide used in the French West Indies against black weevil Cosmopolites sordidus. This pesticide was banned in 1993, because of the toxicity and persistence of this compound in the environment. However, several studies indicated that the population is already exposed to chlordecone (contaminated blood and maternal milk, chlordecone transfer to the mother from the child, memory delay in child and risk to the prostate cancer) particularly by food ingestion. Since 2008, European Regulation °396/2005 is applied in French West Indies (maximal limit fixed at 10 and 20 µg chlordecone/kg of fresh weight in liver and egg and at 100 µg chlordecone /kg of fat in fat). Soils of banana crops previously treated by chlordecone (mainly andosols, nitisols, ferrisols) are still contaminated and are the major source of contamination of food products. Andosol contains allophane clay structure which allows a high microporosity with the formation of particle aggregates in a pattern repeated at different scales. chlordecone would be strongly trapped by this micropores structure and supposed to be strongly retained. Nitisol contains halloysite clayed structure composed to the clay layers superposition with a low porosity. Our hypothesis is that chlordécone is less retained by nitisol than by andosol. Monogastric animals reared outside (pig, poultry) may involuntary ingest soil. It has been shown that hen can ingest soil amounts corresponding to 25 % of the daily ration in the case of vegetation reduction and of nutritional imbalance. Soil ingestion by pig was less studied. In the frame of this research work, we determined andosol and nitisol capacities to retain chlordecone during the digestive process. The relative bioavailability of soil-bound chlordecone in monogastric farm animals (laying hen and juvenile swine) was established. The relative bioavailability determination consists to the slope comparison between the response (concentrations of chlordecone in animal matrices) obtained with increasing chlordecone doses via andosol or nitisol and the response obtained with the same chlordecone ingestion doses via a reference matrix (oil). Results showed that andosol and nitisol did not reduce the chlordecone bioavailability. Thus, relative bioavailability of soil-bound chlordecone was considered to be equal to 100% in laying hen and in juvenile swine. chlordecone was extracted during the digestive process and was absorbed by the monogastric animals. Thus, soil-bound chlordecone is directly assimilated by monogastric farm animals. Concentrations of chlordecone in animal products (liver, fat, egg) exceeded maximal limits for a chlordecone ingestion at least equal to 6.8 µg chlordecone/day/kg of body weight. Since 10% of agricultural soils are contaminated with at least 1 mg/kg, the ingestion of 17% of soil in the daily food ration will result in animal products not acceptable for human consumption. Therefore, it is important to characterize the risk livestock farming practices in order to limit the contamination of food products
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Cécile Bouveret. Biodisponibilité relative du chlordécone de l'andosol et du nitisol chez les animaux d'élevage monogastriques. Sciences agricoles. Université de Lorraine, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012LORR0253⟩. ⟨tel-01749456⟩

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