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Étude des mécanismes moléculaires régulant l'expression de la protéine TAT du virus de l'immunodéficience humaine, au niveau de la production de ses ARN messagers et de leur traduction

Abstract : HIV-1 Tat protein is essential for viral replication. It allows the transcription of full-length viral RNAs, and due to its apoptotic properties it contributes to the AIDS disease. Hence, it is important to study the mechanisms regulating its production. Alternative splicing of the HIV-1 RNA, in particular, the use of acceptor sites A3 and A7 is required for tat mRNA production. Splicing at site A3 is highly regulated by cis-acting elements contained in a stem-loop structure SLS3A3, located downstream from site A3. By purifying RNP complexes formed in nuclear extract on a segment of the viral RNA containing site A3 followed by mass spectrometry analysis, we were able to highlight the binding of a new inhibitory protein, DAZAP1. Based on a set of ancient laboratory data and new results that I obtained, we have shown that SRSF7 protein, probably in synergy with SRSF1, limits the binding of DAZAP1 and splicing activation at site A3. We also showed that the viral protein Tat exerts a negative feedback control on tat mRNA production by restricting splicing activation of site A3 by SRSF7. The apical part of the stem-loop structure SLS3A3 (B motif) is highly conserved among HIV-1 strains. E Guittet team determined its 3D structure by NMR. The conformation of this apical loop is characteristic of stem-loop structures recognized by dsRBD proteins (double-stranded RNA binding domain). I was able to confirm this hypothesis by purifying RNP complexes formed by the B motif in nuclear extract. Thus, we have shown that the RNA dependent protein kinase (PKR), which plays in humans a major role in response to viral infection, is a partner of the B motif. By using chemical probes specific of the 2D structure of RNAs, I showed that the stem-loop structure SLS3A3 that contains the initiation codon of Tat is present in tat1 mRNA. We then developed a system to study the mechanisms regulating the initiation of translation of Tat protein. By using a bicistronic construct, I was able to confirm the existence of IRES activity in the 5?UTRtat1 region of tat1 mRNA, and define two segments that contain this activity. Preliminary results obtained with a bicistronic construct allowed us to begin testing the effect of different SR and hnRNP proteins on the activity of the IRES
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https://hal.univ-lorraine.fr/tel-01749636
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Submitted on : Thursday, March 29, 2018 - 12:21:50 PM
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  • HAL Id : tel-01749636, version 1

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Georges Khoury. Étude des mécanismes moléculaires régulant l'expression de la protéine TAT du virus de l'immunodéficience humaine, au niveau de la production de ses ARN messagers et de leur traduction. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université de Lorraine, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012LORR0251⟩. ⟨tel-01749636⟩

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