Effects of copper on calcium metabolism and detoxification mechanisms in freshwater bivalve species of "Anodonta"

Abstract : Copper (Cu) belongs to the major metals causing environmental contamination in European fresh water ecosystems. Filter feeding bivalves have a high bioaccumulation potential for heavy metals as Cu, which at high concentration can cause serious metabolic, physiological impairments. The objectives of this thesis are to acquire knowledge about toxic effects and detoxification mechanisms of Cu in Anodonta cygnea and Anodonta anatina, two mussels species widely distributed in continental waters. Because calcium (Ca) plays a fundamental role in numerous biological processes, Cu effect was studied first on cellular calcium transport which is known to be disturbed by Cu in molluscs. In a second step, investigations have been carried out on Cu detoxification mechanisms by thiol compounds known to be involved in homeostasis of essential trace metals and in metals cell detoxification. Cu inhibited plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase (PMCA) activities upon 4 days of exposure was obtained. Total recovery was observed at day 7 in kidneys and gills under exposure to environmental Cu concentration but not at higher level of exposure. PMCA inhibition may entail disturbance of osmo-regulations and calcium renal re-uptake in mussels and lead to continuous under-supply of Ca. Recovery of the enzyme function suggests that metal-detoxification is induced. Our results showed the presence of a cysteine-rich peptide different from glutathione, detected in the digestive gland and the gills from controls and Cu exposed bivalves. This peptide, observed in absence of metal exposure in both organs, increased significantly in gills after Cu exposure suggesting its implication in Cu detoxification mechanisms
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Olivier Santini. Effects of copper on calcium metabolism and detoxification mechanisms in freshwater bivalve species of "Anodonta". Biochemistry, Molecular Biology. Université de Lorraine, 2012. English. ⟨NNT : 2012LORR0397⟩. ⟨tel-01749959⟩

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