Richesse et diversité des assemblages de champignons et d'oomycètes de hêtraies, en relation avec des facteurs climatiques et édaphiques : de la parcelle au continent

Abstract : Forest soils are heterogeneous habitats full of microorganisms. In particular, the filamentous eukaryotes (fungi and oomycetes) exhibit a huge diversity and play essential functions in the dynamic and sustainable growth of the forest ecosystem. However, their diversity and their distribution are poorly known; thus, so are the structuring factors of these microbial communities. The main goals were: (i) use a high-throughput pyrosequencing to study soil microbial communities at a broad geographical scale, and particularly to validate its use for the study of soil forest pathogenic oomycete communities, (ii) study the diversity and structure of fungal and pathogenic oomycetes communities at several spatial scales, (iii) identify possible climatic and edaphic variables structuring these communities and (iv) estimate the possible response of these microbial communities to climatic variation. A pilot study was undertaken at the stand scale. Then, two additional studies were carried out along environmental gradients at the regional and continental scales. The use of the pyrosequencing technique was found appropriate for the fungal communities, but difficulties arose in studying the pathogenic oomycete community. At the stand scale, results suggested the soil to be a valuable substitute for the roots to access the ectomycorrhizal richness and composition using pyrosequencing. The results along the broad scale gradients suggested that fungal richness may not be affected by climate warming but that the composition would be. Moreover, our work indicated that soil pH is a major factor explaining fungal community composition. The main conclusions are still to be confirmed and deeper knowledge of the response of different fungal phylum, or family, would be required. The detection and thus the diversity estimation of the pathogenic oomycetes in forest soil remains a current challenge
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Aurore Coince. Richesse et diversité des assemblages de champignons et d'oomycètes de hêtraies, en relation avec des facteurs climatiques et édaphiques : de la parcelle au continent. Sciences agricoles. Université de Lorraine, 2013. Français. ⟨NNT : 2013LORR0177⟩. ⟨tel-01750354⟩

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