Optimisation de nanoparticules multifonctionnelles pour une amélioration de l'efficacité photodynamique, de la sélectivité tumorale et de la détection par IRM

Abstract : Photodynamic therapy (PDT) involves molecules called photosensitizers (PS), molecular oxygen and light. PS are non-cytotoxic in the dark but produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) when they are excited with light of an appropriate wavelength in the presence of oxygen. ROS include oxygen radicals and singlet oxygen (1O2), which is the main form of ROS formed during PDT processes. In the presence of living tissue, 1O2 leads to cell death by apoptosis or necrosis. To improve photodynamic efficiency, a strategy developed by scientists consists in improving the selectivity of the treatment. The treatment of primary malignant brain tumors, including glioblastoma multiforme (GBM or astrocytoma level IV) which is the most aggressive form, remains a challenge. When it is possible, surgery is performed by removing the central volume of the tumor, while infiltrating peripheral zone is treated by additional treatments. Despite advances in neurosurgery and radiotherapy, the life expectancy at 5 years after the tumor detection does not exceed 10 %. PDT appears as an alternative treatment. In preliminary study a photosensitizer (chlorin) coupled to a peptide (ATWLPPR) through an Ahx linker (aminohexanoic acid) has been designed. The peptide is a specific ligand of neuropilin-1 receptor (NRP-1). NRP-1 is a co-receptor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) overexpressed in neovessels and which promotes the formation of new vessels during the development of solid tumors. This targeted photosensitizer presented a peptidic stability in vivo and in vitro with good pharmacokinetic and biodistribution. Its anti-tumor and anti-vascular efficiencies have been proven. However, the ATWLPPR peptide showed degradation in the reticuloendothelial system (RES) and a reduced affinity for NRP-1 compared with peptide alone. To solve these problems, a new strategy using multifunctional nanoparticles has been developed in this thesis. The nanoparticles consist of a core of gadolinium oxide (Gd2O3) for MRI contrast, coated with a layer of biocompatible polysiloxane wherein the photosensitizer is covalenty grafted. The nanoparticle surface is functionalized by chelating agents (DOTA, DTPA) via free amine functions of the polysiloxane layer. ATWLPPR peptides are grafted on chelating agents, which allows specific targeting of NRP-1. Nanoparticles allow a MRI visualization, a PDT effect and an active targeting of the tumor neovasculature. With the aim to obtain an optimal PDT effect, an enhancement of contrast in MRI imaging and a high selectivity for endothelial cells, an experimental design has been developed. Each batch of the experimental design was synthesized with various chemical compositions of the core, the size of the polysiloxane layer, the number of photosensitizers, the number and the type of peptides and the type of surfactant. Once the synthesis and purification of these nanoparticles done, each batch was characterized to ensure the conservation of the photophysical properties, in particular the formation of the singlet oxygen. Biological studies on tumor cell type MDA- MB-231 and U87 were carried out, especially their cytototoxicity and phototoxicity
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Aymeric Seve. Optimisation de nanoparticules multifonctionnelles pour une amélioration de l'efficacité photodynamique, de la sélectivité tumorale et de la détection par IRM. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université de Lorraine, 2013. Français. ⟨NNT : 2013LORR0174⟩. ⟨tel-01750423⟩

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