G. Agren, E. Bosatta, and A. H. Magill, Combining theory and experiment to understand effects of inorganic nitrogen on litter decomposition, Oecologia, vol.128, issue.3, pp.464-464, 2001.
DOI : 10.1007/s004420100764

G. I. Agren and E. Bosatta, Quality: A Bridge between Theory and Experiment in Soil Organic Matter Studies, Oikos, vol.76, issue.3, pp.522-528, 1996.
DOI : 10.2307/3546345

N. Akkal-corfini, T. Morvan, S. Menasseri-aubry, C. Bissuel-bélaygue, D. Poulain et al., Nitrogen mineralization, plant uptake and nitrate leaching following the incorporation of (15N)-labeled cauliflower crop residues (Brassica oleracea) into the soil: a 3-year lysimeter study, Plant and Soil, vol.192, issue.1-2, pp.17-26, 2009.
DOI : 10.1080/14620316.1999.11511169

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01460928

R. Amundson, A. T. Austin, E. A. Schuur, K. Yoo, V. Matzek et al., Global patterns of the isotopic composition of soil and plant nitrogen, Global Biogeochemical Cycles, vol.24, issue.1, 1031.
DOI : 10.1046/j.1365-3040.2001.00663.x

K. S. Andrianarisoa, B. Zeller, J. L. Dupouey, and E. Dambrine, Comparing indicators of N status of 50 beech stands (Fagus sylvatica L.) in northeastern France, Forest Ecology and Management, vol.257, issue.11, pp.2241-2253, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/j.foreco.2009.02.037

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00489796

E. Assman, The principles of forest yield study. Studies in the organic production, structure, increment and yield of forest stands, 1970.

S. A. Barber, Soil nutrient and bioavailability -A mecanistic approach, 1984.

M. Becker and T. Coplen, Use of deuterated water as a conservative artificial groundwater tracer, Hydrogeology Journal, vol.9, issue.5, 2001.
DOI : 10.1007/s100400100157

B. Berg, Litter decomposition and organic matter turnover in northern forest soils, Forest Ecology and Management, vol.133, issue.1-2, pp.13-22, 2000.
DOI : 10.1016/S0378-1127(99)00294-7

L. Bergstrom, H. Johnsson, and G. Torstensson, Simulation of soil nitrogen dynamics using the SOILN model, pp.181-188, 1991.
DOI : 10.1007/978-94-011-3434-7_5

N. Bernier and J. F. Ponge, Humus form dynamics during the sylvogenetic cycle in a mountain spruce forest, Soil Biology and Biochemistry, vol.26, issue.2, pp.183-220, 1994.
DOI : 10.1016/0038-0717(94)90161-9

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01618265

M. Bernoux, C. C. Cerri, C. Neill, and J. F. De-moraes, The use of stable carbon isotopes for estimating soil organic matter turnover rates, Geoderma, vol.82, issue.1-3, pp.43-58, 1998.
DOI : 10.1016/S0016-7061(97)00096-7

I. Knabner, Rapid transfer of 15N from labeled beech leaf litter to functional soil organic matter fractions in a Rendzic Leptosol, Soil Biology and Biochemistry, vol.58, pp.323-331, 2013.

D. Binkley, P. Sollins, and W. B. Mcgill, Natural Abundance of Nitrogen-15 as a Tool for Tracing Alder-Fixed Nitrogen1, Soil Science Society of America Journal, vol.49, issue.2, pp.444-447, 1985.
DOI : 10.2136/sssaj1985.03615995004900020034x

T. J. Blumfield, Z. Xu, N. J. Mathers, and P. G. Saffigna, Decomposition of Nitrogen-15 Labeled Hoop Pine Harvest Residues in Subtropical Australia, Soil Science Society of America Journal, vol.68, issue.5, pp.1751-1761, 2004.
DOI : 10.2136/sssaj2004.1751

R. E. Boerner, Foliar Nutrient Dynamics and Nutrient Use Efficiency of Four Deciduous Tree Species in Relation to Site Fertility, The Journal of Applied Ecology, vol.21, issue.3, pp.1029-1040, 1984.
DOI : 10.2307/2405065

G. M. Bonito, D. C. Coleman, B. L. Haines, and M. L. Cabrera, Can nitrogen budgets explain differences in soil nitrogen mineralization rates of forest stands along an elevation gradient? Forest Ecology and Management, pp.563-574, 2003.

M. Bonneau, Fertilisation des forêts dans les pays tempérés, 1995.

E. Bosatta and G. I. Agren, Theoretical analysis of decomposition of heterogeneous substrates, Soil Biology and Biochemistry, vol.17, issue.5, pp.601-610, 1985.
DOI : 10.1016/0038-0717(85)90035-5

E. Bosatta and G. I. Agren, Theoretical Analysis of Carbon and Nutrient Interactions in Soils under Energy-Limited Conditions, Soil Science Society of America Journal, vol.55, issue.3, pp.728-733, 1991.
DOI : 10.2136/sssaj1991.03615995005500030015x

E. Bosatta and G. I. Agren, Theoretical analyses of carbon and nutrient dynamics in soil profiles, Soil Biology and Biochemistry, vol.28, issue.10-11, 1996.
DOI : 10.1016/S0038-0717(96)00167-8

E. Bosatta and G. I. Agren, Exact solutions to the continuous-quality equation for soil organic matter turnover, Journal of Theoretical Biology, vol.224, issue.1, pp.97-105, 2003.
DOI : 10.1016/S0022-5193(03)00147-4

H. Bossel, treedyn3 forest simulation model, Ecological Modelling, vol.90, issue.3, pp.187-227, 1996.
DOI : 10.1016/0304-3800(95)00139-5

B. Bostrom, D. Comstedt, and A. Ekblad, Isotope fractionation and 13C enrichment in soil profiles during the decomposition of soil organic matter, Oecologia, vol.69, issue.1, pp.89-98, 2007.
DOI : 10.1016/B978-012088447-6/50008-8

M. C. Braakhekke, C. Beer, M. R. Hoosbeek, M. Reichstein, B. Kruijt et al., SOMPROF: A vertically explicit soil organic matter model, Ecological Modelling, vol.222, issue.10, 2011.
DOI : 10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2011.02.015

C. Brandstatter, K. Keiblinger, W. Wanek, and S. Zechmeister-boltenstern, A closeup study of early beech litter decomposition: potential drivers and microbial interactions on a changing substrate, Plant and Soil, vol.44, issue.1-2, pp.1-16, 2013.
DOI : 10.1016/j.ejsobi.2008.04.005

F. Barret, R. Antonioletti, C. Durr, G. Richard, N. Beaudoin et al., STICS -A generic model for the simulation of crops and their water and N balances. I. Theory and parameterization applied to wheat and corn, Agronomic, vol.18, pp.311-346, 1998.

A. G. Bruijn and K. Butterbach-bahl, Linking carbon and nitrogen mineralization with microbial responses to substrate availability ??? the DECONIT model, Plant and Soil, vol.11, issue.169, pp.271-290, 2010.
DOI : 10.1093/treephys/25.7.915

L. Caner, B. Zeller, E. Dambrine, J. F. Ponge, M. Chauvat et al., Origin of the nitrogen assimilated by soil fauna living in decomposing beech litter, Soil Biology and Biochemistry, vol.36, issue.11, pp.1861-1872, 2004.
DOI : 10.1016/j.soilbio.2004.05.007

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00258686

M. M. Carreiro, R. L. Sinsabaugh, D. A. Repert, and D. F. Parkhurst, MICROBIAL ENZYME SHIFTS EXPLAIN LITTER DECAY RESPONSES TO SIMULATED NITROGEN DEPOSITION, Ecology, vol.81, issue.9, pp.2359-2365, 2000.
DOI : 10.1007/BF00002772

S. Cesarz, A. Fender, F. Beyer, K. Valtanen, B. Pfeiffer et al., Roots from beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.) differentially affect soil microorganisms and carbon dynamics, Soil Biology and Biochemistry, vol.61, pp.23-32, 2013.
DOI : 10.1016/j.soilbio.2013.02.003

P. M. Chamberlain, N. P. Mcnamara, J. Chaplow, A. W. Stott, and H. I. Black, Translocation of surface litter carbon into soil by Collembola, Soil Biology and Biochemistry, vol.38, issue.9, pp.2655-2664, 2006.
DOI : 10.1016/j.soilbio.2006.03.021

M. Charru, I. Seynave, F. Morneau, and J. D. Bontemps, Recent changes in forest productivity: An analysis of national forest inventory data for common beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) in north-eastern France, Forest Ecology and Management, vol.260, issue.5, pp.864-874, 2010.
DOI : 10.1016/j.foreco.2010.06.005

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01195028

C. R. Chen and Z. H. Xu, Soil carbon and nitrogen pools and microbial properties in a 6-year-old slash pine plantation of subtropical Australia: impacts of harvest residue management, Forest Ecology and Management, vol.206, issue.1-3, pp.237-247, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/j.foreco.2004.11.005

L. Cheng and L. H. Fuchigami, Growth of young apple trees in relation to reserve nitrogen and carbohydrates, Tree Physiology, vol.22, issue.18, pp.1297-1303, 2002.
DOI : 10.1093/treephys/22.18.1297

C. C. Cleveland, A. R. Townsend, D. S. Schimel, H. Fisher, R. W. Howarth et al., ) fixation in natural ecosystems, Global Biogeochemical Cycles, vol.22, issue.2, pp.623-645, 1999.
DOI : 10.1016/0038-0717(90)90032-U

P. W. Clinton and D. J. Mead, Competition for nitrogen between Pinusradiata and pasture, 1994.

P. W. Clinton and D. J. Mead, Competition for nitrogen between Pinusradiata and pasture. I, 1994.

A. Clough and J. O. Skjemstad, Physical and chemical protection of soil organic carbon in three agricultural soils with different contents of calcium carbonate, Australian Journal of Soil Research, vol.38, issue.5, pp.1005-1016, 2000.
DOI : 10.1071/SR99102

H. N. Comins and R. E. Mcmurtrie, Long-Term Response of Nutrient-Limited Forests to CO"2 Enrichment; Equilibrium Behavior of Plant-Soil Models, Ecological Applications, vol.3, issue.4, pp.666-681, 1993.
DOI : 10.2307/1942099

J. E. Compton and R. D. Boone, Soil nitrogen transformations and the role of light fraction organic matter in forest soils, Soil Biology and Biochemistry, vol.34, issue.7, pp.933-943, 2002.
DOI : 10.1016/S0038-0717(02)00025-1

M. Corbeels, R. E. Mcmurtrie, D. A. Pepper, and A. M. Connell, A process-based model of nitrogen cycling in forest plantations, Ecological Modelling, vol.187, issue.4, pp.449-474, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2005.07.004

W. K. Cornwell, J. H. Cornelissen, K. Amatangelo, E. Dorrepaal, V. T. Eviner et al., Plant species traits are the predominant control on litter decomposition rates within biomes worldwide, Ecology Letters, vol.14, issue.10, pp.1065-1071, 2008.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1461-0248.2008.01219.x

M. M. Couteaux, P. Bottner, and B. Berg, Litter decomposition, climate and liter quality, Trends in Ecology & Evolution, vol.10, issue.2, pp.63-66, 1995.
DOI : 10.1016/S0169-5347(00)88978-8

L. Croisé, E. Ulrich, P. Duplat, and O. Jaquet, RENECOFOR -Deux approches indépendantes pour l'estimation de la cartographie des dépôts atmosphériques totaux hors couvert forestier sur le territoire français, 2002.

R. Annunzio, B. Zeller, M. Nicolas, J. F. Dhote, and L. Saint-andre, Decomposition of European beech (Fagus sylvatica) litter: Combining quality theory and 15N labelling experiments, Soil Biology and Biochemistry, vol.40, issue.2, pp.322-333, 2008.
DOI : 10.1016/j.soilbio.2007.08.011

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01195004

H. Mayer, M. Schloter, R. Pena, A. Polle, H. Rennenberg et al., Tree girdling provides insight on the role of labile carbon in nitrogen partitioning between soil microorganisms and adult European beech, Soil Biology and Biochemistry, vol.41, pp.1622-1631, 2009.

T. E. Dawson, S. Mambelli, A. H. Plamboeck, P. H. Templer, and K. P. Tu, Stable isotopes in plant ecology. Annual review ecological systems 33, pp.507-559, 2002.

J. De-dieu-nzila, J. Bouillet, J. Laclau, and J. Ranger, The effects of slash management on nutrient cycling and tree growth in Eucalyptus plantations in the Congo, Forest Ecology and Management, vol.171, issue.1-2, pp.209-221, 2002.
DOI : 10.1016/S0378-1127(02)00474-7

J. F. Dhôte, Modèles de la dynamique des peuplements forestiers: articulation entre les niveaux de l'arbre et du peuplement Application à la sylviculture des hêtraies, p.256, 1990.

J. F. Dhôte, Hypotheses about competition for light and water in even-aged common beech (Fagus silvatica L.), Forest Ecology and Management, vol.69, issue.1-3, pp.219-232, 1994.
DOI : 10.1016/0378-1127(94)90231-3

J. F. Dhôte, A model of even-aged beech stands productivity with process-based interpretations, Annales des Sciences Foresti??res, vol.53, issue.1, 1996.
DOI : 10.1051/forest:19960101

J. F. Dhôte, Compétition entre classes sociales chez le chêne sessile et le hêtre, pp.309-325, 1999.

J. Dighton, H. S. Helmisaari, M. Maghirang, S. Smith, K. Malcolm et al., Impacts of forest post thinning residues on soil chemistry, fauna and roots: Implications of residue removal in Finland, Applied Soil Ecology, vol.60, pp.16-22, 2012.
DOI : 10.1016/j.apsoil.2012.02.023

J. P. Dijkstra, G. J. Reinds, H. Kros, B. Berg, and W. De-vries, Modelling soil carbon sequestration of intensively monitored forest plots in Europe by three different approaches, Forest Ecology and Management, vol.258, issue.8, pp.1780-1793, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/j.foreco.2008.09.011

P. Dijkstra, C. M. Laviolette, J. S. Coyle, R. R. Doucett, E. Schwartz et al., N enrichment as an integrator of the effects of C and N on microbial metabolism and ecosystem function, Ecology Letters, vol.52, issue.4, pp.389-397, 2008.
DOI : 10.1016/j.tree.2006.04.002

N. Dorr, K. Kaiser, R. Mikutta, and G. Guggenberger, Slow response of soil organic matter to the reduction in atmospheric nitrogen deposition in a Norway spruce forest, Global Change Biology, vol.163, pp.2990-3003, 2010.
DOI : 10.1017/S0033822200003672

G. Landmann, Desaturation et enrichissement en azote des sols forestiers du nord-est de la France au cours des dernieres decennies, pp.391-402, 1998.

J. Dyckmans, H. Flessa, A. Polle, and F. Beese, N in Beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) during Leafing, Plant Biology, vol.17, issue.1, pp.113-120, 2000.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1399-3054.1996.tb00678.x

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00883884

J. Dyckmans and H. Flessa, Influence of tree internal N status on uptake and translocation of C and N in beech: a dual 13C and 15N labeling approach, Tree Physiology, vol.21, issue.6, pp.395-401, 2001.
DOI : 10.1093/treephys/21.6.395

J. Dyckmans and H. Flessa, Influence of tree internal nitrogen reserves on the response of beech (Fagus sylvatica) trees to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration, Tree Physiology, vol.22, issue.1, pp.41-49, 2002.
DOI : 10.1093/treephys/22.1.41

N. Eickenscheidt and R. Brumme, Contribution of 15N-labelled leaf litter to N turnover, nitrous oxide emissions and N sequestration in a beech forest during eleven years, Plant and Soil, vol.21, issue.6, pp.67-77, 2013.
DOI : 10.1093/treephys/21.2-3.153

E. Zein, R. Breda, N. Gerant, D. Zeller, B. Maillard et al., Nitrogen sources for current-year shoot growth in 50-year-old sessile oak trees: an in situ 15N labeling approach, Tree Physiology, vol.24, issue.8, pp.1390-1400, 2011.
DOI : 10.1093/treephys/24.8.911

E. Zein, R. Maillard, P. Breda, N. Marchand, J. Montpied et al., Seasonal changes of C and N non-structural compounds in the stem sapwood of adult sessile oak and beech trees, Tree Physiology, 2011.

S. Elhani, B. F. Lema, B. Zeller, C. Brechet, J. Guehl et al., Inter-annual mobility of nitrogen between beech rings: a labelling experiment, Annals of Forest Science, vol.60, issue.6, pp.503-508, 2003.
DOI : 10.1051/forest:2003043

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00883723

D. Epron, M. Bahn, D. Derrien, F. A. Lattanzi, J. Pumpanen et al., Pulse-labelling trees to study carbon allocation dynamics: a review of methods, current knowledge and future prospects, Tree Physiology, vol.137, issue.2, pp.776-798
DOI : 10.1046/j.1469-8137.1997.00809.x

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01268334

T. Fahey, J. Yavitt, R. Sherman, P. Groffman, M. Fisk et al., Transport of Carbon and Nitrogen Between Litter and Soil Organic Matter in a Northern Hardwood Forest, Ecosystems, vol.81, issue.7, pp.326-340, 2011.
DOI : 10.1890/0012-9658(2000)081[1858:MIATRO]2.0.CO;2

N. Fanin, N. Fromin, B. Buatois, and S. Hättenschwiler, An experimental test of the hypothesis of non-homeostatic consumer stoichiometry in a plant litter-microbe system, Ecology Letters, vol.61, issue.6, pp.764-772, 2013.
DOI : 10.2136/sssaj1997.03615995006100020015x

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01604136

2. Fao, Situation des forêts du monde 2012

M. Ferretti, A. Marchetto, S. Arisci, F. Bussotti, M. Calderisi et al., On the tracks of Nitrogen deposition effects on temperate forests at their southern European range - an observational study from Italy, Global Change Biology, vol.128, issue.Suppl. 1, 2014.
DOI : 10.1007/BF00009399

M. J. Fisher, I. M. Rao, M. A. Ayarza, C. E. Lascano, J. I. Sanz et al., Carbon storage by introduced deep-rooted grasses in the South American savannas, Nature, vol.371, issue.6494, pp.236-238, 1994.
DOI : 10.1038/371236a0

S. Fontaine and S. Barot, Size and functional diversity of microbe populations control plant persistence and long-term soil carbon accumulation, Ecology Letters, vol.25, issue.10, pp.1075-1087, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/0038-0717(93)90058-J

S. Fontaine, S. Barot, P. Barre, N. Bdioui, B. Mary et al., Stability of organic carbon in deep soil layers controlled by fresh carbon supply, Nature, vol.19, issue.7167, pp.277-210, 2007.
DOI : 10.1017/S0033822200003672

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/bioemco-00176100

M. Fotelli, M. Rienks, H. Rennenberg, and A. Gessler, Climate and forest management affect 15 N-uptake, N balance and biomass of European beech seedlings, Trees - Structure and Function, vol.18, issue.2, pp.157-166, 2004.
DOI : 10.1007/s00468-003-0289-4

U. Franko, B. Oelschlagel, and S. Schenk, Simulation of temperature-, water- and nitrogen dynamics using the model CANDY, Ecological Modelling, vol.81, issue.1-3, pp.213-222, 1995.
DOI : 10.1016/0304-3800(94)00172-E

J. N. Galloway, F. J. Dentener, D. G. Capone, E. W. Boyer, R. W. Howarth et al., Nitrogen Cycles: Past, Present, and Future, Biogeochemistry, vol.46, issue.58, pp.153-226, 2004.
DOI : 10.1007/978-1-4615-2812-8_14

F. Ganry and Y. Dommergues, Arbres fixateurs d'azote: champ ouvert pour la recherche, 1995.

S. C. Garkoti and S. P. Singh, Variation in net primary productivity and biomass of forests in the high mountains of Central Himalaya, Journal of Vegetation Science, vol.1, issue.1, pp.23-28, 1995.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1469-8137.1987.tb04687.x

A. Genet, H. Wernsdorfer, M. Jonard, H. Pretzsch, M. Rauch et al., Ontogeny partly explains the apparent heterogeneity of published biomass equations for Fagus sylvatica in central Europe, Forest Ecology and Management, vol.261, issue.7, pp.1188-1202, 2011.
DOI : 10.1016/j.foreco.2010.12.034

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01018994

S. Gerber, L. O. Hedin, M. Oppenheimer, S. W. Pacala, and E. Shevliakova, Nitrogen cycling and feedbacks in a global dynamic land model, Global Biogeochemical Cycles, vol.14, issue.8, 2010.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2008.01625.x

A. Gessler, M. Rienks, and H. Rennenberg, NH3 and NO2 fluxes between beech trees and the atmosphere - correlation with climatic and physiological parameters, New Phytologist, vol.147, issue.3, pp.539-560, 2000.
DOI : 10.1046/j.1469-8137.2000.00712.x

A. Gessler, M. Rienks, and H. Rennenberg, Stomatal uptake and cuticular adsorption contribute to dry deposition of NH3 and NO2 to needles of adult spruce (Picea abies) trees, New Phytologist, vol.115, issue.2, pp.179-194, 2002.
DOI : 10.1016/S1352-2310(97)00275-6

A. Gessler, C. Keitel, M. Nahm, and H. Rennenberg, Water Shortage Affects the Water and Nitrogen Balance in Central European Beech Forests, Plant Biology, vol.6, pp.289-298, 2004.

H. L. Gholz, D. A. Wedin, S. M. Smitherman, M. E. Harmon, and W. J. Parton, Long-term dynamics of pine and hardwood litter in contrasting environments: toward a global model of decomposition, Global Change Biology, vol.62, issue.7, pp.751-765, 2000.
DOI : 10.2307/1936687

J. Gignoux, J. House, D. Hall, D. Masse, H. B. Nacro et al., Design and test of a generic cohort model of soil organic matter decomposition: the SOMKO model, Global Ecology and Biogeography, vol.27, issue.6, pp.639-660, 2001.
DOI : 10.1007/BF01051122

H. Goransson, H. Wallander, M. Ingerslev, and U. Rosengren, Estimating the relative nutrient uptake from different soil depths in Quercus robur, Fagus sylvatica and Picea abies, Plant and Soil, vol.139, issue.1-2, pp.87-97, 2006.
DOI : 10.1007/978-3-662-04188-8

H. Goransson, M. Ingerslev, and H. Wallander, The vertical distribution of N and K uptake in relation to root distribution and root uptake capacity in mature Quercus robur, Fagus sylvatica and Picea abies stands, Plant and Soil, vol.160, issue.1-2, pp.129-137, 2008.
DOI : 10.1007/978-94-015-9888-0

W. S. Gordon and R. B. Jackson, NUTRIENT CONCENTRATIONS IN FINE ROOTS, Ecology, vol.81, issue.1, pp.275-280, 2000.
DOI : 10.2307/1942492

N. Gruber and J. N. Galloway, An Earth-system perspective of the global nitrogen cycle, Nature, vol.310, issue.7176, pp.293-296, 2008.
DOI : 10.1038/nature06592

C. Guo, M. Dannenmann, R. Gasche, B. Zeller, H. Papen et al., Preferential use of root litter compared to leaf litter by beech seedlings and soil microorganisms, Plant and Soil, vol.21, issue.5810, pp.1-16, 2012.
DOI : 10.1093/treephys/21.2-3.153

C. Guo, J. Simon, R. Gasche, P. S. Naumann, C. Bimuller et al., Minor contribution of leaf litter to N nutrition of beech (Fagus sylvatica) seedlings in a mountainous beech forest of Southern Germany, Plant and Soil, vol.21, issue.1-2, pp.1-12, 2013.
DOI : 10.1093/treephys/21.2-3.153

F. Hagedorn, S. Maurer, J. B. Bucher, and R. T. Siegwolf, Immobilization, stabilization and remobilization of nitrogen in forest soils at elevated CO2: a 15N and 13C tracer study, Global Change Biology, vol.8, issue.10, pp.1816-1827, 2005.
DOI : 10.1046/j.1365-2486.2002.00527.x

L. L. Handley and C. M. Scrimgeour, Terrestrial Plant Ecology and 15N Natural Abundance: The Present Limits to Interpretation for Uncultivated Systems with Original Data from a Scottish Old Field, Advances in ecological research, vol.27, pp.133-199, 1997.
DOI : 10.1016/S0065-2504(08)60008-2

S. C. Hart, G. E. Nason, D. D. Myrold, and D. A. Perry, Dynamics of Gross Nitrogen Transformations in an Old-Growth Forest: The Carbon Connection, Ecology, vol.75, issue.4, pp.880-891, 1994.
DOI : 10.2307/1939413

P. Hatton, M. Kleber, B. Zeller, C. Moni, A. Plante et al., Transfer of litter-derived N to soil mineral???organic associations: Evidence from decadal 15N tracer experiments, Organic Geochemistry, vol.42, issue.12, 2012.
DOI : 10.1016/j.orggeochem.2011.05.002

H. Helmisaari, K. Makkonen, S. Kellomaki, E. Valtonen, and E. Malkonen, Below- and above-ground biomass, production and nitrogen use in Scots pine stands in eastern Finland, Forest Ecology and Management, vol.165, issue.1-3, pp.317-326, 2002.
DOI : 10.1016/S0378-1127(01)00648-X

K. Hergoualc-'h, J. Harmand, P. Cannavo, U. Skiba, R. Oliver et al., The utility of process-based models for simulating N2O emissions from soils: A case study based on Costa Rican coffee plantations, Soil Biology and Biochemistry, vol.41, issue.11, pp.2343-2355, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/j.soilbio.2009.08.023

E. A. Hobbie, S. A. Macko, H. Shugart, and H. , Patterns in N dynamics and N isotopes during primary succession in Glacier Bay, Alaska, Chemical Geology, vol.152, issue.1-2, pp.3-11, 1998.
DOI : 10.1016/S0009-2541(98)00092-8

E. A. Hobbie and R. A. Werner, plants: a review and synthesis, New Phytologist, vol.11, issue.2, pp.371-385, 2004.
DOI : 10.1021/jf970794+

P. Hogberg, L. Hagbom, H. Schinkel, M. Hogberg, C. Johannisson et al., 15N abundance of surface soils, roots and mycorrhizas in profiles of European forest soils, Oecologia, vol.18, issue.169, pp.207-214, 1996.
DOI : 10.1007/BF00477222

P. Hogberg, Tansley Review No. 95. 15N natural abundance in soil-plant systems, New Phytologist, vol.137, issue.2, pp.179-203, 1997.
DOI : 10.1046/j.1469-8137.1997.00808.x

B. A. Hungate, J. S. Dukes, M. R. Shaw, Y. Luo, and C. B. Field, ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCE: Nitrogen and Climate Change, Science, vol.302, issue.5650, pp.1512-1513, 2003.
DOI : 10.1126/science.1091390

N. Ignatova and E. Dambrine, L. Karst) stands, Annals of Forest Science, vol.57, issue.2, pp.113-120, 2000.
DOI : 10.1051/forest:2000163

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00021541

C. M. Iversen, Digging deeper: fine-root responses to rising atmospheric CO2 concentration in forested ecosystems, New Phytologist, vol.13, issue.2, pp.346-357, 2010.
DOI : 10.1093/treephys/28.8.1231

B. Jabiol, A. Brêthes, J. F. Ponge, F. Toutain, and J. J. Brun, L'humus sous toutes ses formes, p.63, 1995.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00508410

B. Jabiol, A. Höltermann, J. C. Gégout, J. F. Ponge, and A. Brêthes, Typologie des formes d'humus peu actives: validation par des critères macro-et micromorphologiques, pp.133-154, 2000.

M. Jacob, K. Viedenz, A. Polle, and F. M. Thomas, Leaf litter decomposition in temperate deciduous forest stands with a decreasing fraction of beech (Fagus sylvatica), Oecologia, vol.23, issue.4, pp.1083-1094, 2010.
DOI : 10.1051/forest/2010005

M. H. Jeuffroy and S. Recous, Azodyn: a simple model simulating the date of nitrogen deficiency for decision support in wheat fertilization, European Journal of Agronomy, vol.10, issue.2, pp.129-144, 1999.
DOI : 10.1016/S1161-0301(98)00059-8

W. Jingguo and L. R. Bakken, Competition for nitrogen during decomposition of plant residues in soil: Effect of spatial placement of N-rich and N-poor plant residues, Soil Biology and Biochemistry, vol.29, issue.2, pp.153-162, 1997.
DOI : 10.1016/S0038-0717(96)00291-X

D. W. Johnson, Nitrogen Retention in Forest Soils, Journal of Environment Quality, vol.21, issue.1, pp.1-12, 1992.
DOI : 10.2134/jeq1992.00472425002100010001x

. France, Détection et quantification à partir des données mesurées sur le réseau, pp.1-52

D. L. Jones, J. R. Healey, V. B. Willett, J. F. Farrar, and A. Hodge, Dissolved organic nitrogen uptake by plants???an important N uptake pathway?, Soil Biology and Biochemistry, vol.37, issue.3, pp.413-423, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/j.soilbio.2004.08.008

J. H. Jussy, M. Colin-belgrand, É. Dambrine, J. Ranger, B. Zeller et al., N deposition, N transformation and N leaching in acid forest soils, Biogeochemistry, vol.69, issue.2, pp.241-262, 2004.
DOI : 10.1023/B:BIOG.0000031050.13663.82

K. Kaiser, K. Eusterhues, C. Rumpel, G. Guggenberger, and I. Kögel-knabner, Stabilization of organic matter by soil minerals ??? investigations of density and particle-size fractions from two acid forest soils, Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, vol.165, issue.4, pp.451-459, 2002.
DOI : 10.1002/1522-2624(200208)165:4<451::AID-JPLN451>3.0.CO;2-B

A. Kammer and F. Hagedorn, Mineralisation, leaching and stabilisation of <sup>13</sup>C-labelled leaf and twig litter in a beech forest soil, Biogeosciences, vol.8, issue.8, pp.2195-2208, 2011.
DOI : 10.5194/bg-8-2195-2011

F. Kennedy and R. Pitman, Factors affecting the nitrogen status of soils and ground flora in Beech woodlands, Forest Ecology and Management, vol.198, issue.1-3, pp.1-14, 2004.
DOI : 10.1016/j.foreco.2004.02.065

P. Koeniger, C. Leibundgut, T. Link, and J. D. Marshall, Stable isotopes applied as water tracers in column and field studies, Organic Geochemistry, vol.41, issue.1, pp.31-40, 2010.
DOI : 10.1016/j.orggeochem.2009.07.006

A. Korsaeth, L. Molstad, and L. R. Bakken, Modelling the competition for nitrogen between plants and microflora as a function of soil heterogeneity, Soil Biology and Biochemistry, vol.33, issue.2, pp.215-226, 2001.
DOI : 10.1016/S0038-0717(00)00132-2

K. Kreutzer, K. Butterbach-bahl, H. Rennenberg, and H. Papen, The complete nitrogen cycle of an N-saturated spruce forest ecosystem, Plant Biology, vol.385, issue.5, pp.643-649, 2009.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1438-8677.2009.00236.x

K. Lajtha and M. Klein, The effect of varying nitrogen and phosphorus availability on nutrient use by Larrea tridentata, a desert evergreen shrub, Oecologia, vol.119, issue.3, pp.348-353, 1988.
DOI : 10.1007/BF00376936

L. Goff, N. Ottorini, and J. , L.) stand in North-East France, Annals of Forest Science, vol.58, issue.1, pp.1-13, 2001.
DOI : 10.1051/forest:2001104

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/halshs-00943089

L. Moguedec, G. Dhôte, and J. , Fagac??es: a tree-centered growth and yield model for sessile oak (Quercus petraea L.) and common beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), Annals of Forest Science, vol.35, issue.2, pp.257-269, 2012.
DOI : 10.1139/x05-070

F. Lebourgeois and B. Jabiol, Enracinements compar??s du Ch??ne sessile, du Ch??ne p??doncul?? et du H??tre. R??flexions sur l'aut??cologie des essences., Revue Foresti??re Fran??aise, issue.1, pp.17-42, 2002.
DOI : 10.4267/2042/4898

F. Lebourgeois, N. Breda, E. Ulrich, and A. Granier, Climate-tree-growth relationships of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) in the French Permanent Plot Network (RENECOFOR), Trees, vol.47, issue.5, pp.385-401, 2005.
DOI : 10.4267/2042/4930

S. Leitner, W. Wanek, B. Wild, I. Haemmerle, L. Kohl et al., Influence of litter chemistry and stoichiometry on glucan depolymerization during decomposition of beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) litter, Soil Biology and Biochemistry, vol.50, pp.174-187, 2012.
DOI : 10.1016/j.soilbio.2012.03.012

C. S. Li, Modeling trace gas emissions from agricultural ecosystems, Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems, vol.58, pp.259-276, 2000.
DOI : 10.1007/978-94-010-0898-3_20

B. L. Lin, A. Sakoda, R. Shibasaki, N. Goto, and M. Suzuki, Modelling a global biogeochemical nitrogen cycle in terrestrial ecosystems, Ecological Modelling, vol.135, issue.1, pp.89-110, 2000.
DOI : 10.1016/S0304-3800(00)00372-0

F. Mangenot, Les litières forestières -Signification écologique et pédologique. Revue forestière française 32, pp.339-355, 1980.

S. Manzoni and A. Porporato, Soil carbon and nitrogen mineralization: Theory and models across scales, Soil Biology and Biochemistry, vol.41, issue.7, pp.1355-1379, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/j.soilbio.2009.02.031

S. Manzoni, G. Pineiro, R. B. Jackson, E. G. Jobbagy, J. H. Kim et al., Analytical models of soil and litter decomposition: Solutions for mass loss and time-dependent decay rates, Soil Biology and Biochemistry, vol.50, pp.66-76, 2012.
DOI : 10.1016/j.soilbio.2012.02.029

V. Marc and M. Robinson, Application of the deuterium tracing method for the estimation of tree sap flow and stand transpiration of a beech forest (Fagus silvatica L.) in a mountainous Mediterranean region, Journal of Hydrology, vol.285, issue.1-4, pp.248-259, 2004.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2003.09.001

A. Mariotti, D. Pierre, J. C. Vedy, S. Bruckert, and J. Guillemot, The abundance of natural nitrogen 15 in the organic matter of soils along an altitudinal gradient, 1980.

D. G. Mayer and D. G. Butler, Statistical validation, Ecological Modelling, vol.68, issue.1-2, pp.21-32, 1993.
DOI : 10.1016/0304-3800(93)90105-2

D. C. Mckinley, J. C. Romero, B. A. Hungate, B. G. Drake, and J. P. Megonigal, ?, Global Change Biology, vol.13, issue.8, pp.2035-2048, 2009.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1469-8137.2006.01886.x

I. C. Meier, C. Leuschner, and D. Hertel, Nutrient return with leaf litter fall in Fagus sylvatica forests across a soil fertility gradient, Plant Ecology, vol.140, issue.1, pp.99-112, 2005.
DOI : 10.1007/978-3-642-57219-7_9

A. Merino, M. A. Balboa, R. Soalleiro, R. Gonzalez, and J. G. , Nutrient exports under different harvesting regimes in fast-growing forest plantations in southern Europe, Forest Ecology and Management, vol.207, issue.3, pp.325-339, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/j.foreco.2004.10.074

P. Millard and M. F. Proe, Nitrogen uptake, partitioning and internal cycling in Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr. as influenced by nitrogen supply, New Phytologist, vol.23, issue.1, pp.113-119, 1993.
DOI : 10.1016/0378-1127(79)90048-3

P. Millard, Ecophysiology of the internal cycling of nitrogen for tree growth, Zeitschrift f??r Pflanzenern??hrung und Bodenkunde, vol.178, issue.169, pp.1-10, 1996.
DOI : 10.1007/BF00391854

P. Millard, A. Hester, R. Wendler, and G. Baillie, Interspecific defoliation responses of trees depend on sites of winter nitrogen storage, Functional Ecology, vol.71, issue.4, pp.535-543, 2001.
DOI : 10.1046/j.1469-8137.1999.00496.x

P. Millard and G. Grelet, Nitrogen storage and remobilization by trees: ecophysiological relevance in a changing world, Tree Physiology, vol.126, issue.1, pp.1083-1095, 2010.
DOI : 10.1104/pp.126.1.342

J. Millett, P. Millard, A. J. Hester, and A. J. Mcdonald, Do competition and herbivory alter the internal nitrogen dynamics of birch saplings?, New Phytologist, vol.109, issue.2, pp.413-422, 2005.
DOI : 10.1093/treephys/9.1-2.185

K. Mokany, R. J. Raison, and A. S. Prokushkin, Critical analysis of root : shoot ratios in terrestrial biomes, Global Change Biology, vol.10, issue.1, pp.84-96, 2006.
DOI : 10.1007/BF00017088

M. M. Mortland and A. R. Wolcott, Sorption of Inorganic Nitrogen Compounds by Soil Materials, Soil Nitrogen, pp.150-197, 1965.

C. Mueller, N. Bruggemann, K. Pritsch, G. Stoelken, S. Gayler et al., Initial differentiation of vertical soil organic matter distribution and composition under juvenile beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) trees, Plant and Soil, vol.123, issue.1-2, pp.111-123, 2009.
DOI : 10.1007/s10021-006-9010-y

G. R. Munoz, J. M. Powell, and K. A. Kelling, Nitrogen Budget and Soil N Dynamics after Multiple Applications of Unlabeled or Nitrogen-Enriched Dairy Manure, Soil Science Society of America Journal, vol.67, issue.3, pp.817-825, 2003.
DOI : 10.2136/sssaj2003.0817

P. Nacry, E. O. Bouguyon, and A. Gojon, Nitrogen acquisition by roots: physiological and developmental mechanisms ensuring plant adaptation to a fluctuating resource, Plant and Soil, vol.17, issue.8, pp.1-29, 2013.
DOI : 10.1046/j.1365-313X.1999.00396.x

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00921012

K. J. Nadelhoffer and B. Fry, Controls on Natural Nitrogen-15 and Carbon-13 Abundances in Forest Soil Organic Matter, Soil Science Society of America Journal, vol.52, issue.6, pp.1633-1640, 1988.
DOI : 10.2136/sssaj1988.03615995005200060024x

K. J. Nadelhoffer, B. A. Emmett, P. Gundersen, O. J. Kjonaas, C. J. Koopmans et al., Nitrogen deposition makes a minor contribution to carbon sequestration in temperate forests, Nature, vol.102, issue.6723, pp.145-148, 1999.
DOI : 10.1016/S0269-7491(98)80060-2

K. J. Nadelhoffer, B. P. Colman, W. S. Currie, A. Magill, and J. D. Aber, Decadal-scale fates of 15N tracers added to oak and pine stands under ambient and elevated N inputs at the Harvard Forest (USA) Forest Ecology and Management, pp.89-107, 2004.

J. S. Olson, Energy Storage and the Balance of Producers and Decomposers in Ecological Systems, Ecology, vol.44, issue.2, pp.322-331, 1963.
DOI : 10.2307/1932179

R. L. Parfitt, G. J. Salt, and S. Saggar, Post-harvest residue decomposition and nitrogen dynamics in Pinus radiata plantations of different N status, Forest Ecology and Management, vol.154, issue.1-2, pp.55-67, 2001.
DOI : 10.1016/S0378-1127(00)00619-8

W. J. Parton, D. S. Schimel, C. V. Cole, and D. S. Ojima, Analysis of Factors Controlling Soil Organic Matter Levels in Great Plains Grasslands1, Soil Science Society of America Journal, vol.51, issue.5, pp.1173-1179, 1987.
DOI : 10.2136/sssaj1987.03615995005100050015x

M. Peaucelle, Time trends in forest litterfall production and relationships with environmental changes: An explanatory approach on data collected from 1995 to 2007 in the RENECOFOR monitoring network, p.pp, 2011.

R. Pena, J. Tejedor, B. Zeller, M. Dannenmann, and A. Polle, Interspecific temporal and spatial differences in the acquisition of litter-derived nitrogen by ectomycorrhizal fungal assemblages, New Phytologist, vol.21, issue.2, pp.520-528, 2013.
DOI : 10.1093/treephys/21.2-3.153

N. Picard, L. Saint-andre, and M. Henry, Manuel de construction d'équations allométriques pour l'estimation du volume et la biomasse des arbres: de la mesure de terrain à la prédiction, p.pp, 2012.

J. Ponge, Plant???soil feedbacks mediated by humus forms: A review, Soil Biology and Biochemistry, vol.57, pp.1048-1060, 2013.
DOI : 10.1016/j.soilbio.2012.07.019

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00785571

J. O. Ponge and R. Chevalier, Humus Index as an indicator of forest stand and soil properties, Forest Ecology and Management, vol.233, issue.1, 2006.
DOI : 10.1016/j.foreco.2006.06.022

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00495387

J. F. Ponge and L. Delhaye, The heterogeneity of humus profiles and earthworm communities in a virgin beech forest, Biology and Fertility of Soils, vol.93, issue.1, pp.24-32, 1995.
DOI : 10.1007/978-3-642-75211-7

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00505505

J. F. Ponge, P. Arpin, F. Sondag, and F. Delecour, Soil fauna and site assessment in beech stands of the Belgian Ardennes, Canadian Journal of Forest Research, vol.32, issue.12, pp.2053-2064, 1997.
DOI : 10.1051/forest/19700102

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00505482

J. F. Ponge, Humus forms in terrestrial ecosystems: a framework to biodiversity, Soil Biology and Biochemistry, vol.35, issue.7, pp.935-945, 2003.
DOI : 10.1016/S0038-0717(03)00149-4

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00498465

K. Pörtl, S. Zechmeister-boltenstern, W. Wanek, P. Ambus, and T. Berger, Natural 15N abundance of soil N pools and N2O reflect the nitrogen dynamics of forest soils, Plant and Soil, vol.34, issue.1-2, pp.79-94, 2007.
DOI : 10.1007/978-3-642-75168-4

D. Powlson, P. Smith, J. Smith, K. Coleman, and D. S. Jenkinson, RothC-26.3 -A Model for the turnover of carbon in soil, Evaluation of Soil Organic Matter Models, pp.237-246, 1996.

D. S. Powlson, P. Smith, J. Smith, and W. B. Mcgill, Review and Classification of Ten Soil Organic Matter (SOM) Models, Evaluation of Soil Organic Matter Models, pp.111-132, 1996.

H. J. Praag, S. Sougnez-remy, F. Weissen, and G. Carletti, Root turnover in a beech and a spruce stand of the Belgian Ardennes, Plant and Soil, vol.12, issue.1???2, pp.87-103, 1988.
DOI : 10.1007/978-3-642-67282-8

C. Prescott, Litter decomposition: what controls it and how can we alter it to sequester more carbon in forest soils?, Biogeochemistry, vol.311, issue.1-3, pp.133-149, 2010.
DOI : 10.1023/B:BIOG.0000049341.37579.86

C. E. Prescott, Do rates of litter decomposition tell us anything we really need to know? Forest Ecology and Management, pp.66-74, 2005.

G. Puri and M. R. Ashman, Microbial immobilization of 15N-labelled ammonium and nitrate in a temperate woodland soil, Soil Biology and Biochemistry, vol.31, issue.6, pp.929-931, 1999.
DOI : 10.1016/S0038-0717(98)00172-2

J. Ranger and M. Turpault, Input???output nutrient budgets as a diagnostic tool for sustainable forest management, Forest Ecology and Management, vol.122, issue.1-2, pp.139-154, 1999.
DOI : 10.1016/S0378-1127(99)00038-9

D. P. Rasse, B. Longdoz, and R. Ceulemans, TRAP: a modelling approach to below-ground carbon allocation in temperate forests, Plant and Soil, vol.229, issue.2, pp.281-293, 2001.
DOI : 10.1023/A:1004832119820

E. B. Rastetter, G. I. Agren, and G. R. Shaver, Responses of N-Limited Ecosystems to Increased CO 2 : A Balanced-Nutrition, Coupled-Element-Cycles Model, Ecological Applications, vol.7, issue.2, pp.444-460, 1997.
DOI : 10.2307/2269511

P. B. Reich, D. F. Grigal, J. D. Aber, and S. T. Gower, NITROGEN MINERALIZATION AND PRODUCTIVITY IN 50 HARDWOOD AND CONIFER STANDS ON DIVERSE SOILS, Ecology, vol.78, issue.2, pp.335-347, 1997.
DOI : 10.2307/1940888

P. B. Reich, S. E. Hobbie, T. Lee, D. S. Ellsworth, J. B. West et al., Nitrogen limitation constrains sustainability of ecosystem response to CO2, Nature, vol.304, issue.7086, pp.922-925, 2006.
DOI : 10.1126/science.1095549

P. B. Reich and S. E. Hobbie, Decade-long term soil N constraint on the CO2 fertlization of plant biomass, Nature Climate Change, 2012.

H. Rennenberg, M. Dannenmann, A. Gessler, J. Kreuzwieser, J. Simon et al., Nitrogen balance in forest soils: nutritional limitation of plants under climate change stresses, Plant Biology, vol.123, pp.4-23, 2009.
DOI : 10.1002/jpln.200320322

H. Rennenberg and S. Schmidt, Perennial lifestyle--an adaptation to nutrient limitation?, Tree Physiology, vol.30, issue.9, pp.1047-1049, 2010.
DOI : 10.1093/treephys/tpq018

D. A. Rennie, E. A. Paul, and L. E. Johns, Natural nitogen-15 abundance of soil and plant samples, 1976.

C. Rolff and G. I. Agren, Predicting effects of different harvesting intensities with a model of nitrogen limited forest growth, Ecological Modelling, vol.118, issue.2-3, pp.193-211, 1999.
DOI : 10.1016/S0304-3800(99)00043-5

L. Saint-andre, Intégration de cycles biogéochimiques dans les modèles de croissance à base dendrométrique. Concepts, forces et limites de l'approche, 2013.

M. Sanaullah, A. Chabbi, J. Leifeld, G. Bardoux, D. Billou et al., Decomposition and stabilization of root litter in top- and subsoil horizons: what is the difference?, Plant and Soil, vol.40, issue.1-2, pp.127-141, 2011.
DOI : 10.1007/s11104-010-0554-4

D. S. Schimel, W. J. Parton, T. G. Kittel, D. S. Ojima, and C. V. Cole, Grassland biogeochemistry: Links to atmospheric processes, Climatic Change, vol.26, issue.5, pp.13-25, 1990.
DOI : 10.1029/GM029p0130

J. P. Schimel and J. Bennett, NITROGEN MINERALIZATION: CHALLENGES OF A CHANGING PARADIGM, Ecology, vol.85, issue.3, pp.591-602, 2004.
DOI : 10.1007/BF01814901

B. H. Schmidt, K. Kalbitz, S. Braun, R. Fuß, W. H. Mcdowell et al., Microbial immobilization and mineralization of dissolved organic nitrogen from forest floors, Soil Biology and Biochemistry, vol.43, issue.8, pp.1742-1745, 2011.
DOI : 10.1016/j.soilbio.2011.04.021

H. R. Schulten and M. Schnitzer, The chemistry of soil organic nitrogen: a review, Biology and Fertility of Soils, vol.26, issue.1, pp.1-15, 1998.
DOI : 10.1007/s003740050335

E. Schulze, T. Persson, A. Rudebeck, J. H. Jussy, M. Colin-belgrand et al., Soil nitrogen turnover -mineralisation, nitrification and denitrification in European forest soils, Carbon and Nitrogen Cycling in European Forest Ecosystems, 2000.

I. Seynave, J. Gégout, J. Hervé, and J. Dhôte, L.) limited by its potential height growth?, Journal of Biogeography, vol.39, issue.10, pp.1851-1862, 2008.
DOI : 10.1046/j.1365-2699.2003.00921.x

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01195029

G. Shukla, A. Varma, S. Allison, M. Weintraub, T. Gartner et al., Evolutionary- Economic Principles as Regulators of Soil Enzyme Production and Ecosystem Function, Soil Enzymology, pp.229-243, 2011.

U. Franko, S. Frolking, D. S. Jenkinson, L. S. Jensen, R. H. Kelly et al., A comparison of the performance of nine soil organic matter models using datasets from seven long-term experiments, Geoderma, vol.81, pp.153-225, 1997.

H. Staaf, Release of plant nutrients from decomposing leaf litter in a South Swedish beech forest, Ecography, vol.10, issue.2, pp.129-136, 1980.
DOI : 10.1002/jpln.19661130208

G. Stoelken, K. Pritsch, J. Simon, C. W. Mueller, T. E. Grams et al., ) stimulates nitrogen mobilization from leaf litter and nitrogen accumulation in the soil, Plant Biosystems - An International Journal Dealing with all Aspects of Plant Biology, vol.21, issue.3, pp.537-546, 2010.
DOI : 10.1007/PL00008860

R. Tateno and H. Takeda, Nitrogen uptake and nitrogen use efficiency above and below ground along a topographic gradient of soil nitrogen availability, Oecologia, vol.16, issue.3, pp.793-804, 2010.
DOI : 10.1007/BF00002772

A. Tietema, B. A. Emmett, P. Gundersen, O. J. Kjonaas, and C. J. Koopmans, The fate of 15N-labelled nitrogen deposition in coniferous forest ecosystems, Forest Ecology and Management, vol.101, issue.1-3, pp.19-27, 1998.
DOI : 10.1016/S0378-1127(97)00123-0

A. Tiktak and H. J. Van-grinsven, Review of sixteen forest-soil-atmosphere models, Ecological Modelling, vol.83, issue.1-2, pp.35-53, 1995.
DOI : 10.1016/0304-3800(95)00081-6

G. Tonon, C. Ciavatta, D. Solimando, P. Gioacchini, and M. Tagliavini, Fate of 15N derived from soil decomposition of abscised leaves and pruning wood from apple, 2007.

F. Toutain, Les humus forestiers, structures et modes de fonctionnement. Revue forestière française, pp.449-477, 1981.

J. Trap, Relations morphologie-cycle de l'N au sein de l'épisolum humifère en futaie régulière de hêtre, p.222, 2010.

J. Trap, F. Bureau, M. Akpa-vinceslas, T. Decaens, and M. Aubert, Changes in humus forms and soil N pathways along a 130-year-old pure beech forest chronosequence, Annals of Forest Science, vol.37, issue.2, pp.595-606, 2011.
DOI : 10.1016/j.soilbio.2004.07.041

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00930797

J. Trap, S. Hattenschwiler, I. Gattin, and M. Aubert, Forest ageing: An unexpected driver of beech leaf litter quality variability in European forests with strong consequences on soil processes, Forest Ecology and Management, vol.302, pp.338-345, 2013.
DOI : 10.1016/j.foreco.2013.03.011

K. Treseder, T. Balser, M. Bradford, E. Brodie, E. Dubinsky et al., Integrating microbial ecology into ecosystem models: challenges and priorities, Biogeochemistry, vol.219, issue.1-3, pp.7-18, 2012.
DOI : 10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2008.07.014

M. Unkovich, J. Pate, A. Mcneill, D. J. Gibbs, and G. Stewart, What do d15N signatures tell us about nitrogen relations in natural ecosystems?, Stable Isotope Techniques in the Study of Biological Processes and Functioning of Ecosystems, pp.91-101, 2001.

D. Vallano and J. Sparks, Foliar ??15N is affected by foliar nitrogen uptake, soil nitrogen, and mycorrhizae along a nitrogen deposition gradient, Oecologia, vol.159, issue.22, pp.47-58, 2013.
DOI : 10.1016/j.envpol.2010.11.011

G. Van-der-heijden, Apport du multi-traçage isotopique (26Mg, 44Ca et 2H) à la connaissance des flux d'éléments minéraux dans les écosystèmes forestiers, 2013.

H. Vervaet, P. Boeckx, V. Unamuno, O. Van-cleemput, and G. Hofman, Can delta 15N profiles in forest soils predict NO3-loss and net N mineralization rates?, Biology and Fertility of Soils, vol.36, pp.143-150, 2002.

P. Vitousek, Nutrient Cycling and Nutrient Use Efficiency, The American Naturalist, vol.119, issue.4, pp.553-572, 1982.
DOI : 10.1086/283931

P. Vitousek, K. Cassman, C. Cleveland, T. Crews, C. Field et al., Towards an ecological understanding of biological nitrogen fixation, pp.1-45, 2002.
DOI : 10.1007/978-94-017-3405-9_1

A. Wall, Effect of removal of logging residue on nutrient leaching and nutrient pools in the soil after clearcutting in a Norway spruce stand, Forest Ecology and Management, vol.256, issue.6, pp.1372-1383, 2008.
DOI : 10.1016/j.foreco.2008.06.044

P. Wallman, M. G. Svensson, H. Sverdrup, and S. Belyazid, ForSAFE???an integrated process-oriented forest model for long-term sustainability assessments, Forest Ecology and Management, vol.207, issue.1-2, pp.19-36, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/j.foreco.2004.10.016

Y. Yasumura, K. Hikosaka, K. Matsui, and T. Hirose, Leaf-level nitrogen-use efficiency of canopy and understorey species in a beech forest, Functional Ecology, vol.1, issue.6, pp.826-834, 2002.
DOI : 10.1086/283931

M. Zapater, C. Hossann, N. Breda, C. Brã©chet, D. Bonal et al., Evidence of hydraulic lift in a young beech and oak mixed forest using 18O soil water labelling, Trees, vol.49, issue.11, pp.885-894, 2011.
DOI : 10.1016/0016-7037(85)90207-8

B. Zeller, Contribution à l'étude de la décomposition d'une litière de hêtre, la libération de l'azote, sa minéralisation et son prélèvement par le hêtre (Fagus sylvatica L.) dans une hêtraie de montagne du bassin versant du Strengbach (Haut-Rhin), 1998.

B. Zeller, M. Colin-belgrand, E. Dambrine, and F. Martin, N]urea spray, Annales des Sciences Foresti??res, vol.55, issue.3, pp.375-383, 1998.
DOI : 10.1051/forest:19980308

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00883208

B. Zeller, M. Colin-belgrand, E. Dambrine, F. Martin, and P. Bottner, Decomposition of 15N-labelled beech litter and fate of nitrogen derived from litter in a beech forest, Oecologia, vol.123, issue.4, pp.550-559, 2000.
DOI : 10.1007/PL00008860

B. Zeller, M. Colin-belgrand, E. Dambrine, and F. Martin, Fate of nitrogen released from 15N-labeled litter in European beech forests, Tree Physiology, vol.21, issue.2-3, pp.153-162, 2001.
DOI : 10.1093/treephys/21.2-3.153

B. Zeller and E. Dambrine, Coarse particulate organic matter is the primary source of mineral N in the topsoil of three beech forests, Soil Biology and Biochemistry, vol.43, issue.3, pp.542-550, 2011.
DOI : 10.1016/j.soilbio.2010.11.019

B. Jabiol, J. Brêthes, J. Ponge, F. Toutain, and A. Brun, L'humus sous toutes ses formes, p.63, 1995.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00508410

P. J. Hatton, Séquestration du carbone et de l'azote des feuilles de hêtre dans les associations organo-minérales : Approches macroscopiques, nanométriques et moléculaires, p.pp, 2012.

J. Ponge, Humus forms in terrestrial ecosystems: a framework to biodiversity, Soil Biology and Biochemistry, vol.35, issue.7, pp.935-945, 2003.
DOI : 10.1016/S0038-0717(03)00149-4

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00498465

B. Zeller, M. Colin-belgrand, E. Dambrine, and F. Martin, N]urea spray, Annales des Sciences Foresti??res, vol.55, issue.3, pp.375-383, 1998.
DOI : 10.1051/forest:19980308

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00883208