Effets des nanoparticules de dioxyde de titane sur les bactéries : de la cellule à la communauté

Abstract : Nanoparticles have either natural or anthropogenic origin. By technological change, man produces increasing amounts of nanoparticles likely to end in the environment. To prevent inherent risks to human health or environment from these releases, it is necessary to characterize the best potential effects of nanoparticles and to identify the mechanisms governing their interactions with exposed organisms. In this context, the first objective of this work was to highlight the mechanisms governing interactions between nanoparticles and bacteria and document the influence of these interactions on toxicity and genotoxicity of NPs for bacteria. The second objective was to determine how this toxicity and genotoxicity could impact bacteria at community level. Results showed that electrostatic attractive interaction between bacteria and TiO2-NPs conditioned adsorption of nanoparticles on bacterial surfaces and led to the detection of toxicity modulated by electrolytes in solution. In addition, the biophysical determinants of bacterial interphase, particularly the length of LPS and protein type flush with the outer membrane surface, are key parameters in adverse potential of NPs for microorganisms. Taking into account these interactions, we highlighted the mutagenic potential of TiO2-NPs. Toxic and genotoxic effect was found, leading to study the effects on bacterial communities. It has been demonstrated that TiO2-NPs altered the composition, structure and prevalence of planktonic and sessile communities of an aquatic natural freshwater. These studies highlight the potential impact of TiO2-NPs on bacteria in a risk assessment context and suggest that nanoparticles may impact microbial communities and could present a risk to the ecosystem functioning
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Stéphane Jomini. Effets des nanoparticules de dioxyde de titane sur les bactéries : de la cellule à la communauté. Sciences agricoles. Université de Lorraine, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014LORR0098⟩. ⟨tel-01750816⟩

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