Gestion du parasitisme gastro-intestinal des petits ruminants en zone tropicale humide

Abstract : Most of the sheep and goats are reared in tropical and subtropical countries. Gastrointestinal nematode parasites (GIN), which are transmitted through the pastures, are among the main causes of production losses for small ruminant farmers. Since the 1940's the pharmaceutical industry has provided very efficient anthelmintics which allowed easy to run and profitable worm control. Unfortunately the systematic use of anthelmintics has resulted, within few years, in an increasing number of anthelmintic resistant (AR) nematode strains. As example, a survey in Guadeloupe (F. W. I.) revealed that all goat farms have to face at least resistances to benzimidazoles, and most of them must deal with resistances to 2 or 3 drug families. We are building up integrated systems to manage GIN infection, by seeking to slow down the spreading of AR strains of GIN and to reduce anthelmintic dependency. Firstly we propose targeted selective treatment methods (or any method allowing the survival of untreated GIN in refugia) and secondly a panel of methods to reinforce host defences (mainly through nutrition and genetic improvement) and to decrease the probability of host-parasite encounter through grazing man-agement, association of herbivore species with different specific parasites, use of plant secondary metabolites with anthelmintic properties... The choice of methods to be combined must be based on their feasibility in terms of human and material resources, compatibility with the farming system and effi-ciency. Future developments would address the evaluation of interactions between components of GIN integrated systems of management, in order to optimize the farmer choices
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Maurice Mahieu. Gestion du parasitisme gastro-intestinal des petits ruminants en zone tropicale humide. Sciences agricoles. Université de Lorraine, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014LORR0230⟩. ⟨tel-01751239⟩

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