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Traitement de la matière active d’accumulateurs Ni-Cd en fin de vie par couplage électrolixiviation/électrodéposition

Abstract : This thesis focuses on the development of a protocol for selective extraction of metals from spent Ni-Cd batteries. Conventionally, hydrometallurgical processes applied to this type of solids involve several steps, the main ones being the leaching and the metal recovery by electrolysis. The method used consists in coupling Electroleaching to Electrodeposition operation (denoted E/E) within the same cell. The technique is based on the leaching of the active material of Ni-Cd batteries by protons generated at the anode: the cations (Co2+, Ni2+ and Cd2+) released by leaching migrate to the cathode where the cadmium is selectively reduced. We studied the possibility of metals recovery, but also tried to understand the phenomena occurring in the cell during the E/E experiments. Initially, it was preferred to manually dismantle batteries due to the complexity of industrial waste crushed. The active matter of Ni-Cd has been characterized. Its average composition is as follows: Cd(OH)2: 45.3%, Cd0: 0.02%, Ni(OH)2: 30.0%, Ni0: 12.9%, NiOOH: 0.9%, Co(OH)2: 2.4%. In view of these different mineralogical forms, this solid can be considered a model for the waste treatment. Before considering the E/E treatment, chemical leaching of the active matter by H2SO4 was first studied. Modelling of the tests carried out showed that the kinetics of Cd(OH)2 dissolution is governed by mass transfer of protons and the dissolution of Ni(OH)2 and Co(OH)2 by the surface chemical reaction. Under these conditions of soft leaching, metal nickel is not oxidized and is found in the solid residue, with carbon. We had to demonstrate the cadmium electrowinning selectivity, for separation from Co2+ and Ni2+ species, with a current efficiency up to 99% at a current density of 350 A.m-2. The kinetic study of the E/E showed that electroleaching is mainly governed by H+ generation at the anode. Besides, the overall process is largerly controlled by cations transport from the anode to the cathode side: this transport phenomenon had also been modeled. The E/E applied to the electrode materials for 5 h 30 allows the leaching of 97% of the cadmium initially present. The residual solid is composed by 82% of nickel, mainly in the metallic form, 4% of cadmium, 0.5% of cobalt and 3% carbon. The deposition of cadmium is obtained with a purity greater than 97% and a current efficiency greater than 74% at a current density of 350 A.m-2. The feasibility of the E/E coupling applied to the spent Ni-Cd batteries treatment has been demonstrated despite the complexity of the matrix. The first tests to apply this treatment to industrial samples (Cd(OH)2: 36.1% Ni(OH)2: 24.1% Ni0: 16.6% NiOOH: 5.5% Co(OH)2: 2.4% and Fe: 1% by weight) confirm the results obtained with the electrode material from the manual dismantling
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Submitted on : Thursday, March 29, 2018 - 1:12:56 PM
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Claire Hazotte. Traitement de la matière active d’accumulateurs Ni-Cd en fin de vie par couplage électrolixiviation/électrodéposition. Alimentation et Nutrition. Université de Lorraine, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014LORR0238⟩. ⟨tel-01751248⟩



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