Caractérisation des îlots de chaleur urbain par zonage climatique et mesures mobiles : cas de Nancy

Abstract : Urban environment impacts significantly the climate observed within and around cities. In this context, city centers frequently present higher air temperatures than those measured in the rural areas nearby. This phenomenon called urban heat island impacts major issues such as public health, urban comfort and energy demand. This Ph.D. thesis proposes to characterize the urban heat island phenomenon based on the combination of a climatic zoning and high spatial density mobile measurements performed within the urban canopy layer. This study is divided into three steps. A climate classification ("Local Climate Zones" (LCZ)) is first applied to the conurbation of Nancy, France. This climatic zoning is used in order to perform mobile measurements thanks to an instrumented vehicle. These measurements target to observe the climatic patterns of the LCZ built in this conurbation. The combination of meteorological database and LCZ classification scheme allows to characterize the urban climate behavior and to compare the thermal behavior of different neighbourhood types. This approach provides a theoretical framework for the development of a diagnosis model based on urban and climatic indicators. It also brings outlooks regarding the building of a decision-support tool that aims to supply information about urban heat island adapted to the urban planners needs
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François Leconte. Caractérisation des îlots de chaleur urbain par zonage climatique et mesures mobiles : cas de Nancy. Sciences de la Terre. Université de Lorraine, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014LORR0255⟩. ⟨tel-01751281⟩

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