Caractérisation des îlots de chaleur urbain par zonage climatique et mesures mobiles : Cas de Nancy.

Abstract : The IPCC fourth assessment report indicates that European cities will be affected by climate changes throughout the 21st century, including heat waves growing more frequent and more intense. The urban heat island (UHI), which is the positive air temperature difference between the city center and the rural areas nearby, can strengthen the negative impact of heat waves in terms of thermal urban comfort, public health and cooling demand of buildings. In order to tackle the issue of climate change adaptation, qualitative information is already available for urban planners. However, most of the existing numerical models require skills and knowledge in urban climatology in order to use them and to analyze their output. Therefore, it is necessary to define new approaches and to produce information in order to evaluate quantitatively the climatic impact of different urban planning proposals. This thesis targeted to study the development possibilities of a climate assessment model designed for urban planning purpose. This work aimed to characterize the UHI phenomenon using high spatial resolution mobile measurements in the urban canopy, performed in the conurbation of Nancy. In order to spatially organize the urban climate analysis, a climatic classification (“Local Climate Zone”, “LCZ”) has been applied. The objective of this scheme is to build homogeneous zones in terms of climatic behavior and urban properties. Within a sample of thirteen zones, seven urban indicators – related to urban morphology and land use – have been calculated. These indicators helped to draw connections between urban areas and LCZ types from the classification. Several mobile measurements campaigns have been performed in the summertime using an instrumented vehicle, in order to observe the climatic patterns of LCZ. The individual analysis has shown homogeneous temperatures within each zone, while the comparison between the zones has highlighted that there are significant air temperature differences during the nighttime. The study of the daily temperature cycle has shown that LCZ behave similarly in the morning and the beginning of the afternoon, and demonstrate a two-phases cooling period during the night. In order to compare the nighttime cooling dynamic over several days, a climatic indicator has been created and correlated with the calculated urban indicators. The combination of LCZ classification and mobile measurements has allowed a detailed analysis of the UHI at various spatial scales. This simplified approach can provide quantitative data, and therefore can be used to develop a new decision-support tool adapted to the urban planners needs.
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François Leconte. Caractérisation des îlots de chaleur urbain par zonage climatique et mesures mobiles : Cas de Nancy.. Climatologie. Université de Lorraine, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014LORR0255⟩. ⟨tel-01751281v2⟩

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