Composés polyioniques contraints bioactifs libres et supportés : accès à de nouveaux matériaux antibactériens

Abstract : Development of new materials with antibacterial properties is a major concern in medical and environmental world. It’s for that reason that, Merrifield and Wang commercial polymers were modified by grafting polycationic calixarenic sub-units inspired by laboratory work and designed to interact with negatively charged bacterial surface. Those calixarenes were modified on the lower part, in a controlled manner, by the incorporation of a functional spacer group leading to a targeted grafting of the polymer. We have, at first, evaluated several kinds of functionalities introduced on the calixarene, giving us the opportunity to graft them on the polymeric support. Like this, a reductive amination was chosen to anchor the Wang-benzaldehyde resin, whereas a pyridinium anchoring point was pointed out as a very good candidate for the grafting of calixarenes. The validation of this pyridinium anchoring point was checked by incorporation of a fluorescent probe (pyrene) and characterized by solid state fluorescence, by infrared spectroscopy, those two lasts analysis were applied for all the other grafted polymers grafted after that. Through a capture-release study in aqueous media of two carboxylic antibiotics (quinolone and ß–lactame kind), the pyridinium polymer model, without calixarène, showed his interest faced to Cholestyramine (Questran®) or Amberlite IRA-400, as an anion exchange resin and leading to depoluting/decontamination applications. Before antibacterial studies of thoses new materials, we wanted to find a way to quantify the material capacity to catch/hold bacteria. Capillary electrophoresis, rapid and sensitive analytical method, appeared as a perfect solution. Using E. coli model, synthesized polycationic resins were evaluated as sequestering agent in aqueous media. Results obtained prove the efficiency of some of them; capture was finally confirmed by confocal fluorescent microscopy. The number of bacteria fixed by material surface could be visually evaluated
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Frédéric Lemée. Composés polyioniques contraints bioactifs libres et supportés : accès à de nouveaux matériaux antibactériens. Autre. Université de Lorraine, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015LORR0047⟩. ⟨tel-01751598⟩

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