Conséquences d’une carence en donneurs de méthyles sur la différenciation neuronale et la plasticité : influence d’une supplémentation périnatale sur le développement cérébral

Abstract : Folate and vitamin B12 are essential for proper cerebral development. They act as methyl donors in the one-carbon metabolism and influence epigenetic mechanisms. Low dietary intakes of folate and vitamin B12 are frequent in pregnant women, and deficiency constitutes a risk factor for various neurological and developmental disorders. In several countries, public health policies recommend periconceptional supplementation with folic acid. Gestational deficiency in rats was associated with growth retardation, brain suture defects and atrophy of cerebral layers with long-term brain disabilities. The microRNA let-7a, miR-34a and miR-124a are regulated by methylation and required for brain development. Their expression was augmented in deficiency condition. Protein levels of their targets Trim 71, Dll1/Notch and Stat3, respectively, were decreased in the brains of deprived fetuses, as well as glutamate receptors AMPAR1/2 and NMDAR1/2 in 21d-old rats. Perinatal folate supplementation (3 mg/kg/d) restored the levels of microRNA and their downstream targets, with reduction of structural and functional defects. Silencing by siRNA improved the phenotype of deprived cells, and neurite outgrowth. The data outline the potential role of let-7a, miR-34a, miR-124a and their signaling pathways in developmental defects related to methyl donor deficiency, and support the likely usefulness of perinatal folate supplementation in at risk women
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Andrea Geoffroy. Conséquences d’une carence en donneurs de méthyles sur la différenciation neuronale et la plasticité : influence d’une supplémentation périnatale sur le développement cérébral. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université de Lorraine, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015LORR0088⟩. ⟨tel-01751783⟩

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