. Ademe, Reconversion sites et friches urbaines pollues, 2014.

, àDpollutioàdesàsitesàetàsolsàpollus :àQuiàfaitààuoi ?

K. Adhikari and A. E. Hartemink, Linking soils to ecosystem services-A global review, Geoderma, vol.262, pp.101-111, 2016.

À. Ágeste, àUtilisatioàduàteitoieàL'aatifiialisatioàdesàteeeesàdeààà :àpouàdeuuàtieesà suuàdesà espaaesà agiolesà No.à.àMiisttteà deà l'agiultueà deà l'agoalientaire et de la forêt

G. J. Ahammed, M. Wang, Y. Zhou, X. Xia, W. Mao et al., The growth, photosynthesis and antioxidant defense responses of five vegetable crops to phenanthrene stress, Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf, vol.80, pp.132-139, 2012.

M. Ahel, Infiltration of Organic Pollutants into Groundwater: Field Studies in the Alluvial Aquifer of the Sava River, Bull Env. Contam Toxicol, vol.47, pp.586-593, 1991.

M. Alexander, Aging, bioavailability, and overestimation of risk from environmental pollutants, Environ. Sci. Technol, vol.34, pp.4259-4265, 2000.

M. Alexander, How toxic are toxic chemicals in soil?, Environ. Sci. Technol, vol.29, pp.2713-2717, 1995.

A. Allard, M. Remberger, and A. H. Neilson, The negative impact of aging on the loss of PAH components in a creosote-contaminated soil, Int. Biodeterior. Biodegrad, vol.46, pp.43-49, 2000.

E. Amézketa, Soil aggregate stability: a review, J. Sustain. Agric, vol.14, pp.83-151, 1999.

B. Antizar-ladislao, A. J. Beck, K. Spanova, J. Lopez-real, and N. J. Russell, The influence of different temperature programmes on the bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a coal-tar contaminated soil by in-vessel composting, J. Hazard. Mater, vol.144, pp.340-347, 2007.

B. Antizar-ladislao, J. Lopez-real, and A. J. Beck, Degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in an aged coal tar contaminated soil under in-vessel composting conditions, Environ. Pollut, vol.141, pp.459-468, 2006.

B. Antizar-ladislao, K. Spanova, A. J. Beck, and N. J. Russell, Microbial community structure changes during bioremediation of PAHs in an aged coal-tar contaminated soil by in-vessel composting, Int. Biodeterior. Biodegrad, vol.61, pp.357-364, 2008.

J. E. Aravena, M. Berli, T. A. Ghezzehei, and S. W. Tyler, Effects of Root-Induced Compaction on Rhizosphere Hydraulic Properties-X-ray Microtomography Imaging and Numerical Simulations, Environ. Sci. Technol, vol.45, pp.425-431, 2011.

R. W. Arnold, Chapter 3 Processes That Affect Soil Morphology, pp.31-39, 1990.
DOI : 10.1016/s0166-2481(08)70479-3

C. Biache, P. Faure, L. Mansuy-huault, A. Cébron, T. Beguiristain et al., Biodegradation of the organic matter in a coking plant soil and its main constituents, Org. Geochem, vol.56, pp.10-18, 2013.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01114804

C. Biache, T. Ghislain, P. Faure, and L. Mansuy-huault, Low temperature oxidation of a coking plant soil organic matter and its major constituents: An experimental approach to simulate a long term evolution, J. Hazard. Mater, vol.188, pp.221-230, 2011.

C. Biache, C. Lorgeoux, S. Andriatsihoarana, S. Colombano, and P. Faure, Effect of pre-heating on the chemical oxidation efficiency: Implications for the PAH availability measurement in contaminated soils, J. Hazard. Mater, vol.286, pp.55-63, 2015.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01159492

C. Biache, L. Mansuy-huault, P. Faure, C. Munier-lamy, and C. Leyval, Effects of thermal desorption on the composition of two coking plant soils: Impact on solvent extractable organic compounds and metal bioavailability, Environ. Pollut, vol.156, pp.671-677, 2008.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00467871

J. E. Birdwell and A. S. Engel, Characterization of dissolved organic matter in cave and spring waters using UV-Vis absorbance and fluorescence spectroscopy, Org. Geochem, vol.41, pp.270-280, 2010.

A. Bispo, M. .. Jourdain, and M. Jauzein, Toxicity and genotoxicity of industrial soils polluted by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), Org. Geochem, vol.30, pp.78-87, 1999.

C. Blanc, F. Lefevre, G. Boissard, M. Scamps, and B. Hazebrouk, Guide de réutilisation hors site desàteesàeeaesàeeàtehiueàoutieàetàdaasàdesàpojetsàd'aageeeetàNo.àB RGM/ RP-60013-FR), 2012.

W. E. Blum, Functions of Soil for Society and the Environment, Rev. Environ. Sci. Biotechnol, vol.4, pp.75-79, 2005.

G. Bodner, P. Scholl, and H. Kaul, Field Quantification of Wetting-Drying cycles to predict temporal changes of soil pore size distribution, Soil Tillage Res, vol.133, pp.1-9, 2013.

M. Bonnard, S. Devin, C. Leyval, J. Morel, and P. Vasseur, The influence of thermal desorption on genotoxicity of multipolluted soil, Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf, vol.73, pp.955-960, 2010.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01604459

W. Borken, E. A. Davidson, K. Savage, J. Gaudinski, and S. E. Trumbore, Drying and wetting effects on carbon dioxide release from organic horizons, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J, vol.67, pp.1888-1896, 2003.

M. H. Børresen, D. L. Barnes, and A. G. Rike, Repeated freeze-thaw cycles and their effects on mineralization of hexadecane and phenanthrene in cold climate soils, Cold Reg. Sci. Technol, vol.49, pp.215-225, 2007.

A. Bourceret, A. Cébron, E. Tisserant, P. Poupin, P. Bauda et al., The Bacterial and Fungal Diversity of an Aged PAH-and Heavy Metal-Contaminated Soil is Affected by Plant Cover and Edaphic Parameters, Microb. Ecol, 2015.

G. G. Briggs, R. H. Bromilow, A. A. Evans, and M. Williams, Relationships between lipophilicity and the distribution of non-ionised chemicals in barley shoots following uptake by the roots, Pestic. Sci, vol.14, pp.492-500, 1983.

E. K. Bünemann, B. Keller, D. Hoop, K. Jud, P. Boivin et al., Increased availability of phosphorus after drying and rewetting of a grassland soil: processes and plant use, Plant Soil, vol.370, pp.511-526, 2013.

E. K. Bünemann, B. Keller, D. Hoop, K. Jud, P. Boivin et al., Increased availability of phosphorus after drying and rewetting of a grassland soil: processes and plant use, Plant Soil, vol.370, pp.511-526, 2013.

R. Burt and E. B. Alexander, Soil development on moraines of Mendenhall Glacier, southeast Alaska. 2. Chemical transformations and soil micromorphology, Geoderma, vol.72, pp.19-36, 1996.

Q. Cai, C. Mo, Q. Wu, A. Katsoyiannis, and Q. Zeng, The status of soil contamination by semivolatile organic chemicals (SVOCs) in China: A review, Sci. Total Environ, vol.389, pp.209-224, 2008.

P. Capriel, T. Beck, H. Borchert, J. Gronholz, and G. Zachmann, Hydrophobicity of the organic matter in arable soils, Soil Biol. Biochem, vol.27, pp.1453-1458, 1995.
DOI : 10.1016/0038-0717(95)00068-p

G. Caria, D. Arrouays, E. Dubromel, C. Jolivet, C. Ratié et al., Black carbon estimation in French calcareous soils using chemo-thermal oxidation method: Black carbon estimation in soils, Soil Use Manag, 2011.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1475-2743.2011.00349.x

A. Cébron, P. Faure, C. Lorgeoux, S. Ouvrard, and C. Leyval, Experimental increase in availability of a PAH complex organic contamination from an aged contaminated soil: Consequences on biodegradation, Environ. Pollut, vol.177, pp.98-105, 2013.

A. Cébron, M. Norini, T. Beguiristain, and C. Leyval, Real-Time PCR quantification of PAH-ring hydroxylating dioxygenase (PAH-RHD?) genes from Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria in soil and sediment samples, J. Microbiol. Methods, vol.73, pp.148-159, 2008.

C. E. Cerniglia, Biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, Biodegradation, vol.3, pp.351-368, 1992.

C. Cheng, J. Lehmann, and M. H. Engelhard, Natural oxidation of black carbon in soils: Changes in molecular form and surface charge along a climosequence, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, vol.72, pp.1598-1610, 2008.

W. Chen, L. Tong, X. Zheng, and M. Li, Influencing Factors of BTEX Volatilization, pp.1-5, 2010.
DOI : 10.1109/icbbe.2010.5516007

A. T. Chow, K. K. Tanji, S. Gao, and R. A. Dahlgren, Temperature, water content and wet-dry cycle effects on DOC production and carbon mineralization in agricultural peat soils, Soil Biol. Biochem, vol.38, pp.477-488, 2006.
DOI : 10.1016/j.soilbio.2005.06.005

N. Chung and M. Alexander, Effect of soil properties on bioavailability and extractability of phenanthrene and atrazine sequestered in soil, Chemosphere, vol.48, pp.109-115, 2002.

S. O. Chung and R. Horton, Soil Heat and Water Flow with a Partial Surface Mulch, Water Resour. Res, vol.23, pp.2175-2186, 1987.
DOI : 10.1029/wr023i012p02175

F. Clanché and O. Rascol, Le découpage en unités urbaines de 2010. INSEE, département de la Démographie, 2010.

Y. Copard, P. Amiotte-suchet, and C. Di-giovanni, Storage and release of fossil organic carbon related to weathering of sedimentary rocks, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett, vol.258, pp.345-357, 2007.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/insu-00149932

S. C. Corgié, E. J. Joner, and C. Leyval, Rhizospheric degradation of phenanthrene is a function of proximity to roots, Plant Soil, vol.257, pp.143-150, 2003.

G. Cornelissen, P. C. Van-noort, J. R. Parsons, and H. A. Govers, Temperature dependence of slow adsorption and desorption kinetics of organic compounds in sediments, Environ. Sci. Technol, vol.31, pp.454-460, 1997.

G. Cornelissen, P. Van-noort, and H. A. Govers, Desorption kinetics of chlorobenzenes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and polychlorinated biphenyls: Sediment extraction with Tenax® and effects of contact time and solute hydrophobicity, Environ. Toxicol. Chem, vol.16, pp.1351-1357, 1997.

S. Cornu, A. Besnault, and A. Bermond, Soil podzolization induced by reforestation as shown by sequential and kinetic extractions of Fe and Al, Eur. J. Soil Sci, vol.59, pp.222-232, 2008.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1365-2389.2007.00973.x

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01192072

S. Cornu, D. Montagne, F. Hubert, P. Barré, and L. Caner, Evidence of short-term clay evolution in soils under human impact, Comptes Rendus Geosci, vol.344, pp.747-757, 2012.
DOI : 10.1016/j.crte.2012.09.005

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01001351

S. Cornu, D. Montagne, and P. M. Vasconcelos, Dating constituent formation in soils to determine rates of soil processes: A review, Geoderma, vol.153, pp.293-303, 2009.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01192299

À. Á. Costaatii, The Soils of Italy, pp.19-37

À. &. Cousss, P. Bataillaad, C. Bla, R. Dagois, P. Faue et al., à Pojetà REITERRE :à Réutilisation intégrée des terres excavées. Compréhension des phénomènes de mise en solution des contaminants et préservation de la ressource en eau

. Crown, Crown copyright, 2005.

C. Cuypers, R. Clemens, T. Grotenhuis, and W. Rulkens, Prediction of Petroleum Hydrocarbon Bioavailability in Contaminated Soils and Sediments. Soil Sediment Contam, vol.10, pp.459-482, 2001.

C. Cuypers, T. Grotenhuis, J. Joziasse, and W. Rulkens, Rapid Persulfate Oxidation Predicts PAH Bioavailability in Soils and Sediments, Env. Sci Technol, vol.34, pp.2057-2063, 2000.

C. Cuypers, T. Pancras, T. Grotenhuis, and W. Rulkens, The estimation of PAH bioavailability in contaminated sediments using hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin and Triton X-100 extraction techniques, Chemosphere, vol.46, pp.1235-1245, 2002.

À. ??aa?aao and ). , àIIflueeeeàofàtheàioaaaessileàffaatioàofàpollià aromatic hydrocarbons on the ecotoxicity of historically contaminated soils, J. Hazard. Mater, vol.254, issue.255, pp.116-124

E. A. Davidson, Soil Water Content and the Ratio of Nitrous Oxide to Nitric Oxide Emitted from Soil, Biogeochem. Glob. Change, pp.369-386, 1993.

T. E. Dawson, Hydraulic lift and water use by plants: implications for water balance, performance and plant-plant interactions, Oecologia, vol.95, pp.565-574, 1993.

C. R. De-kimpe and J. Morel, Urban Soil Managment: a Growing Concern, Soil Sci, vol.165, pp.31-40, 2000.

T. H. Deluca, D. R. Keeney, and G. W. Mccarty, Effect of freeze-thaw events on mineralization of soil nitrogen, Biol. Fertil. Soils, vol.14, pp.116-120, 1992.

K. Denef, J. Six, H. Bossuyt, S. D. Frey, E. T. Elliott et al., Influence of drywet cycles on the interrelationship between aggregate, particulate organic matter, and microbial community dynamics, Soil Biol. Biochem, vol.33, pp.1599-1611, 2001.

S. Derenne and T. T. Nguyen-tu, Characterizing the molecular structure of organic matter from natural environments: An analytical challenge, Comptes Rendus Geosci, vol.346, pp.53-63, 2014.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01194914

S. Derenne and K. Quénéa, Analytical pyrolysis as a tool to probe soil organic matter, J. Anal. Appl. Pyrolysis, vol.111, pp.108-120, 2015.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01093412

J. T. Dibble and R. Bartha, Effect of environmental parameters on the biodegradation of oil sludge, Appl. Environ. Microbiol, vol.37, pp.729-739, 1979.

L. Duan, R. Naidu, Y. Liu, T. Palanisami, Z. Dong et al., Effect of ageing on benzo, 2015.

X. Duan, L. Xu, J. Song, J. Jiao, M. Liu et al., Effects of benzo[a]pyrene on growth, the antioxidant system, and DNA damage in earthworms (Eisenia fetida) in 2 different soil types under laboratory conditions, Env. Toxicol Chem, vol.34, pp.283-290, 2015.

P. Duchaufour, Pédologie 1. Pédogénèse et Classification, Masson, 1983.

J. Dupuy, Fonctionnement des végétaux supérieurs en présence de polluants organiques et les conséquences sur la rhizodégradation, 2014.

J. Dupuy, P. Leglize, Q. Vincent, I. Zelko, C. Mustin et al., Effect and localization of phenanthrene in maize roots, Chemosphere, vol.149, pp.130-136, 2016.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01595411

J. Dupuy, S. Ouvrard, P. Leglize, and T. Sterckeman, Morphological and physiological responses of maize (Zea mays) exposed to sand contaminated by phenanthrene, Chemosphere, vol.124, pp.110-115, 2015.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01132255

A. Enell, F. Reichenberg, G. Ewald, and P. Warfvinge, Desorption kinetics studies on PAHcontaminated soil under varying temperatures, Chemosphere, vol.61, pp.1529-1538, 2005.

A. Enell, F. Reichenberg, P. Warfvinge, and G. Ewald, A column method for determination of leaching of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from aged contaminated soil, Chemosphere, vol.54, pp.707-715, 2004.

M. Eriksson, J. O. Ka, and W. W. Mohn, Effects of low temperature and freeze-thaw cycles on hydrocarbon biodegradation in Arctic tundra soil, Appl. Environ. Microbiol, vol.67, pp.5107-5112, 2001.

M. Eriksson, E. Sodersten, Z. Yu, G. Dalhammar, and W. W. Mohn, Degradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons at Low Temperature under Aerobic and Nitrate-Reducing Conditions in Enrichment Cultures from Northern Soils, Appl. Environ. Microbiol, vol.69, pp.275-284, 2003.

A. Eschenbach, R. Wienberg, and B. Marho, Fate and Stability of Nonextractable Residues of [14C]PAH in Contaminated Soils under Environmental Stress Conditions, Env. Sci Technol, vol.32, pp.2585-2590, 1998.

K. Eusterhues, C. Rumpel, M. Kleber, and I. Kögel-knabner, Stabilisation of soil organic matter by interactions with minerals as revealed by mineral dissolution and oxidative degradation, Org. Geochem, vol.34, pp.1591-1600, 2003.

P. Faure, L. Schlepp, V. Burkle-vitzthum, and M. Elie, Low temperature air oxidation of n-alkanes in the presence of Na-smectite?, Fuel, vol.82, pp.1751-1762, 2003.

N. Fierer and J. P. Schimel, Effects of drying-rewetting frequency on soil carbon and nitrogen transformations, Soil Biol. Biochem, vol.34, pp.777-787, 2002.

J. Fismes, C. Schwartz, C. Perrin-ganier, J. L. Morel, A. Charissou et al., Risk of contamination for edible vegetables growing on soils polluted by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons 24, pp.827-836, 2004.

, Guidelines for soil description, 2006.

C. D. Foy, R. L. Chaney, and M. C. White, The Physiology of Metal Toxicity in Plants, Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol, vol.29, pp.511-566, 1978.

S. Gan, E. V. Lau, and H. K. Ng, Remediation of soils contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), J. Hazard. Mater, vol.172, pp.532-549, 2009.

Y. Gao, L. Ren, W. Ling, S. Gong, B. Sun et al., Desorption of phenanthrene and pyrene in soils by root exudates, Bioresour. Technol, vol.101, pp.1159-1165, 2010.

C. Geng, C. Haudin, Y. Zhang, G. Lashermes, S. Houot et al., Modeling the release of organic contaminants during compost decomposition in soil, Chemosphere, vol.119, pp.423-431, 2015.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01192497

T. Ghislain, P. Faure, and R. Michels, Detection and Monitoring of PAH and Oxy-PAHs by High Resolution Mass Spectrometry: Comparison of ESI, APCI and APPI Source Detection, J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom, vol.23, pp.530-536, 2012.

, Gisà"ol,à.à"""thseàsuàl''tatàdesàsolsàeeàFFaae.àGGoupeeeetàd'itttàssieetifiueàsuuàlesàsolsà, p.24

C. Gordon, C. Cooper, C. A. Senior, H. Banks, J. M. Gregory et al., The simulation of SST, sea ice extents and ocean heat transports in a version of the Hadley Centre coupled model without flux adjustments, Clim. Dyn, vol.16, pp.147-168, 2000.

S. V. Goryachkin and V. O. Targulian, Climate-Induced Changes of the Boreal and Subpolar Soils, pp.191-209, 1990.

S. J. Grayston, S. Wang, C. D. Campbell, and A. C. Edwards, Seletive influence of plant species on microbial diverty in the rhizosphere, Soil Biol. Biochem, vol.30, pp.369-378, 1998.

A. Greinert, The heterogeneity of urban soils in the light of their properties, J. Soils Sediments, vol.15, pp.1725-1737, 2015.

F. Haeseler, D. Blanchet, V. Druelle, P. Werner, and J. Vandecasteele, Analytical characterization of contaminated soils from former manufactured gas plants, Environ. Sci. Technol, vol.33, 1999.

O. Hanser, Etude du rôle de la matière organique fossile dans les sols de friches industrielles sur le transfert des contaminants organiques et métalliques, 2015.

O. Hanser, C. Biache, M. Boulangé, S. Parant, C. Lorgeoux et al., Evolution of dissolved organic matter during abiotic oxidation of coal tar-comparison with contaminated soils under natural attenuation, Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res, vol.22, pp.1431-1443, 2014.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01249370

A. K. Haritash and C. P. Kaushik, Biodegradation aspects of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs): A review, J. Hazard. Mater, vol.169, pp.1-15, 2009.

J. Harmsen, Measuring Bioavailability: From a Scientific Approach to Standard Methods, J. Environ. Qual, vol.36, pp.1420-1428, 2007.

P. B. Hatzinger and M. Alexander, Effect of aging of chemicals in soil on their biodegradability and extractability 537-545, 1995.

P. Henner, M. Schiavon, V. Druelle, and E. Lichtfouse, Phytotoxicity of ancient gaswork soils. Effect of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on plant germination, Org. Geochem, vol.30, pp.963-969, 1999.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00262284

P. Henner, M. Schiavon, J. Morel, and E. Lichtfouse, Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) occurrence and remediation methods, 1997.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00193277

K. Hentschel, W. Borken, and E. Matzner, Leaching losses of inorganic N and DOC following repeated drying and wetting of a spruce forest soil, Plant Soil, vol.300, pp.21-34, 2007.

D. M. Hershfield, The frequency of freeze-thaw cycles, J. Appl. Meteorol, vol.13, pp.348-354, 1974.

Y. He, J. Xu, C. Tang, and Y. Wu, Facilitation of pentachlorophenol degradation in the rhizosphere of ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), Soil Biol. Biochem, vol.37, pp.2017-2024, 2005.

N. S. Jangorzo, F. Watteau, and C. Schwartz, Evolution of the pore structure of constructed Technosols during early pedogenesis quantified by image analysis, Geoderma, vol.207, pp.180-192, 2013.

H. Jenny, Factors of soil formation: a system of quantitative pedology, 1941.

T. C. Johns, J. M. Gregory, W. J. Ingram, C. E. Johnson, A. Jones et al., Anthropogenic climate change for 1860 to 2100 simulated with the HadCM3 model under updated emissions scenarios, Clim. Dyn, vol.20, pp.583-612, 2003.

D. Joly, T. Brossard, H. Cardot, J. Cavailles, M. Hilal et al., Les types de climats en France, une construction spatiale. Cybergeo Eur, J. Geogr. En Ligne Cartographie, 2010.

E. J. Joner, D. Hirmann, O. H. Szolar, D. Todorovic, C. Leyval et al., Priming effects on PAH degradation and ecotoxicity during a phytoremediation experiment, Environ. Pollut, vol.128, pp.429-435, 2004.

O. A. Jones, D. J. Spurgeon, C. Svendsen, and J. L. Griffin, A metabolomics based approach to assessing the toxicity of the polyaromatic hydrocarbon pyrene to the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus, Chemosphere, vol.71, pp.601-609, 2008.

M. T. Jonker and A. A. Koelmans, Extraction of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons from Soot and Sediment: Solvent Evaluation and Implications for Sorption Mechanism, Environ. Sci. Technol, vol.36, pp.4107-4113, 2002.

K. Kalbitz, J. Schmerwitz, D. Schwesig, and E. Matzner, Biodegradation of soil-derived dissolved organic matter as related to its properties, Geoderma, vol.113, pp.365-373, 2003.

E. Kandeler and E. Murer, Aggregate stability and soil microbial processes in a soil with different cultivation, 1993.

J. W. Kelsey and M. Alexander, Declining bioavailability and inappropriate estimation of risk of persistent compounds, Environ. Toxicol. Chem, vol.16, pp.582-585, 1997.

J. W. Kelsey, B. D. Kottler, and M. Alexander, Selective chemical extractants to predict bioavailability of soil-aged organic chemicals, Environ. Sci. Technol, vol.31, pp.214-217, 1996.

W. D. Kemper and R. C. Rosenau, Aggregate stability and size distribution, Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 1. Physical and Mineralogical Methods. Klute, A, pp.425-442, 1986.

B. Khadka, T. M. Munir, and M. Strack, Effect of environmental factors on production and bioavailability of dissolved organic carbon from substrates available in a constructed and reference fens in the Athabasca oil sands development region, Ecol. Eng, vol.84, pp.596-606, 2015.

M. I. Khan, S. A. Cheema, C. Shen, C. Zhang, X. Tang et al., Assessment of phenanthrene bioavailability in aged and unaged soils by mild extraction, Environement Monit. Assess, vol.184, pp.549-559, 2012.

T. J. Kinney, C. A. Masiello, B. Dugan, W. C. Hockaday, M. R. Dean et al., Hydrologic properties of biochars produced at different temperatures, Biomass Bioenergy, vol.41, pp.34-43, 2012.

H. T. Koponen, T. Jaakkola, M. M. Keinänen-toivola, S. Kaipainen, J. Tuomainen et al., Microbial communities, biomass, and activities in soils as affected by freeze thaw cycles, Soil Biol. Biochem, vol.38, pp.1861-1871, 2006.

B. D. Kottler, J. C. White, and J. W. Kelsey, Influence of soil moisture on the sequestration of organic compounds in soil, Chemosphere, vol.42, pp.893-898, 2001.

W. H. Kruskal and W. A. Wallis, Use of Ranks in One-Criterion Variance Analysis, J. Am. Stat. Assoc, vol.47, pp.583-621, 1952.

À. Kuueeo, àRootàesposeà iàPisuàsatiuàaadà)eaà mays under fluoranthene stress: Morphological and anatomical traits, Chemosphere, vol.90, pp.665-673

S. H. Kvaernø and L. Øygarden, The influence of freeze-thaw cycles and soil moisture on aggregate stability of three soils in Norway, CATENA, vol.67, pp.175-182, 2006.

S. Laha, B. Tansel, and A. Ussawarujikulchai, Surfactant-soil interactions during surfactantamended remediation of contaminated soils by hydrophobic organic compounds: A review, J. Environ. Manage, vol.90, pp.95-100, 2009.

R. Lal, Soil management in the developing countries, Soil Sci, vol.165, pp.57-72, 2000.

P. Lavelle, T. Decaëns, M. Aubert, S. Barot, M. Blouin et al., Soil invertebrates and ecosystem services, Eur. J. Soil Biol, vol.42, 2006.

S. Lee, W. Lee, C. Lee, and J. Kim, Degradation of phenanthrene and pyrene in rhizosphere of grasses and legumes, J. Hazard. Mater, vol.153, pp.892-898, 2008.

G. H. Lefevre, R. M. Hozalski, and P. J. Novak, Root Exudate Enhanced Contaminant Desorption: An Abiotic Contribution to the Rhizosphere Effect, Env. Sci Technol, vol.47, pp.11545-11553, 2013.

S. Leguédois, G. Séré, A. Auclerc, J. Cortet, H. Huot et al., Modelling pedogenesis of Technosols, Geoderma, vol.262, pp.199-212, 2016.

G. A. Lehrsch, Freeze-thaw cycles increase near-surface aggregate stability, Soil Sci, vol.163, pp.63-70, 1998.

G. A. Lehrsch and P. M. Jolley, Temporal changes in wet aggregate stability, Trans. ASAE, vol.35, pp.493-498, 1992.

G. A. Lehrsch, R. E. Sojka, D. L. Carter, and P. M. Jolley, Freezing effects on aggregate stability affected by texture, mineralogy, and organic matter, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J, vol.55, pp.1401-1406, 1991.
DOI : 10.2136/sssaj1991.03615995005500050033x

L. Lei, R. Bagchi, A. P. Khodadoust, M. T. Suidan, and H. H. Tabak, Bioavailability prediction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in field-contaminated sediment by mild extractions, J. Environ. Eng, vol.132, pp.384-391, 2006.

B. Lennartz and X. Louchart, Effect of drying on the desorption of diuron and terbuthylazine from natural soils, Environ. Pollut, vol.146, pp.180-187, 2007.

J. H. Li, Y. Gao, S. C. Wu, K. C. Cheung, X. R. Wang et al., Physiological and Biochemical Responses of Rice ( Oryza Sativa L.) to Phenanthrene and Pyrene, Int. J. Phytoremediation, vol.10, pp.106-118, 2008.

W. Ling, Y. Zeng, Y. Gao, H. Dang, and X. Zhu, Availability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in aging soils, J. Soils Sediments, vol.10, pp.799-807, 2010.

W. Ling, Y. Zeng, Y. Gao, H. Dang, and X. Zhu, Availability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in aging soils, J. Soils Sediments, vol.10, pp.799-807, 2010.

H. Liste and M. Alexander, Butanol extraction to predict bioavailability of PAHs in soil, Chemosphere, vol.46, pp.1011-1017, 2002.

Z. Li, L. Wu, H. Zhang, Y. Luo, and P. Christie, Effects of soil drying and wetting-drying cycles on the availability of heavy metals and their relationship to dissolved organic matter, J. Soils Sediments, vol.15, pp.1510-1519, 2015.

E. J. Lundquist, L. E. Jackson, and K. M. Scow, Wet-dry cycles affect dissolved organic carbon in two California agricultural soils, Soil Biol. Biochem, vol.31, issue.99, pp.17-23, 1999.
DOI : 10.1016/s0038-0717(99)00017-6

S. Lundstedt, B. A. Bandowe, W. Wilcke, E. Boll, J. H. Christensen et al., First intercomparison study on the analysis of oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (oxyPAHs) and nitrogen heterocyclic polycyclic aromatic compounds (N-PACs) in contaminated soil, TrAC Trends Anal. Chem, vol.57, pp.83-92, 2014.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01077098

R. G. Luthy, D. A. Dzombak, C. A. Peters, S. B. Roy, A. Ramaswami et al., Remediating tar-contaminated soils at manufactured gas plant sites 28, pp.266-276, 1994.
DOI : 10.1021/es00055a002

J. M. Lynch and J. M. Whipps, Substrate flow in the rhizosphere, Substrate Flow in the Rhizosphere, 1991.

B. Ma, Y. He, H. Chen, J. Xu, and Z. Rengel, Dissipation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the rhizosphere: Synthesis through meta-analysis, Environ. Pollut, vol.158, pp.855-861, 2010.

J. Macaire, J. Bernard, C. Di-giovanni, F. Hinschberger, N. Limondin-lozouet et al., Quantification and regulation of organic and mineral sedimentation in a late-Holocene floodplain as a result of climatic and human impacts (Taligny marsh, pp.647-660, 2006.

N. Mahmoudi, G. F. Slater, and A. L. Juhasz, Assessing Limitations for PAH Biodegradation in LongTerm Contaminated Soils Using Bioaccessibility Assays, Water. Air. Soil Pollut, vol.224, 2013.
DOI : 10.1007/s11270-012-1411-2

R. M. Malcolm, The uniqueness of humic substances in each of soil, stream and marine environments, vol.232, pp.19-30, 1990.

B. Maliszewska-kordybach and B. Smreczak, Changes of Soil Microbial Properties in the Course of Pah Dissipation in Soils Artificially Contaminated with These Compounds, Polycycl. Aromat. Compd, vol.23, pp.1-21, 2003.

L. Ma, J. Zhang, L. Han, W. Li, L. Xu et al., The effects of aging time on the fraction distribution and bioavailability of PAH, Chemosphere, vol.86, pp.1072-1078, 2012.

V. B. Maninlal and M. Alexander, Factors affecting the microbial dergadation of phenanthrene in soil, Appl. Environ. Microbiol, vol.35, pp.401-405, 1991.

M. Mari and D. Wheeler, In search of pollution havens? Dirty industries in the world economy, 1960 to 1995, J. Environ. Dev, vol.7, pp.215-247, 1998.

A. Mcbratney and D. Field, Securing our soil, Soil Sci. Plant Nutr, vol.61, pp.587-591, 2015.

D. M. Mcknight, E. W. Boyer, P. K. Westerhoff, P. T. Doran, T. Kulbe et al., Spectrofluorometric characterization of dissolved organic matter for indication of precursor organic material and aromaticity, Limnol. Oceanogr, vol.46, pp.38-48, 2001.

A. J. Mcmichael, R. E. Woodruff, and S. Hales, Climate change and human health: present and future risks, The Lancet, vol.367, pp.859-869, 2006.

A. Mezzano and S. Huelmo, Occurrences of technosols in Montevideo city, 2011.

M. Monsérié, F. Watteau, G. Villemin, S. Ouvrard, and J. Morel, Technosol genesis: identification of organo-mineral associations in a young Technosol derived from coking plant waste materials, J. Soils Sediments, vol.9, pp.537-546, 2009.

T. R. Moore, M. John, R. F. Kimble, B. A. Follett, and . Stewart, Dissolved organic carbon: SOurces, Sinks, and Fluxes and role in the soil carbon cycle, Advances in Soil Science. Rattan Lal, 1998.

J. Morel and A. B. Heinrich, SUITMA-soils in urban, industrial, traffic, mining and military areas: ááà itedissipliaaaà okigà goupà ofà theà IIteatioalà UUioà ofà "oilà ""ieeeeeà IU"""à dedicated to soils strongly modified by human activities, J. Soils Sediments, vol.8, pp.206-207, 2008.

J. L. Morel, C. Schwartz, L. Florentin, and C. De-kimpe, Urban Soil, Reference Module in Earth Systems and Environmental Sciences, pp.202-208, 2005.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01486413

A. Mrozik, Z. Piotrowska-seget, and S. Labuzek, Bacterial degradation and bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, Pol. J. Environ. Stud, vol.12, pp.15-25, 2003.

C. W. Mueller, S. Schlund, J. Prietzel, I. Kögel-knabner, and M. Gutsch, Soil Aggregate Destruction by Ultrasonication Increases Soil Organic Matter Mineralization and Mobility, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J, vol.76, pp.1634-1643, 2012.
DOI : 10.2136/sssaj2011.0186

C. N. Mulligan and R. N. Yong, Natural attenuation of contaminated soils, Environ. Int, vol.30, pp.587-601, 2004.
DOI : 10.1016/j.envint.2003.11.001

K. R. Murphy, C. A. Stedmon, T. D. Waite, and G. M. Ruiz, Distinguishing between terrestrial and autochthonous organic matter sources in marine environments using fluorescence spectroscopy, Mar. Chem, vol.108, pp.40-58, 2008.
DOI : 10.1016/j.marchem.2007.10.003

K. Nam and M. Alexander, Relationship between biodegradation rate and percentage of a compound that becomes sequestered in soil, Soil Biol. Biochem, pp.226-227, 2001.

K. Nam and M. Alexander, Role of nanoporosity and hydrophobicity in sequestration and bioavailability: Tests with model solids, Environ. Sci. Technol, vol.32, pp.71-74, 1998.

K. Nam, N. Chung, and M. Alexander, Relationship between Organic Matter Content of Soil and the Sequestration of Phenanthrene, Environ. Sci. Technol, vol.32, pp.3785-3788, 1998.

K. Nam, J. Y. Kim, and D. I. Oh, Effect of soil aggregation on the biodegradation of phenanthrene aged in soil, Environ. Pollut, vol.121, pp.147-151, 2003.

M. C. Ncibi, B. Mahjoub, and R. Gourdon, Effects of aging on the extractability of naphthalene and phenanthrene from Mediterranean soils, J. Hazard. Mater, vol.146, pp.378-384, 2007.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02054360

T. Nehls, S. Rokia, B. Mekiffer, C. Schwartz, and G. Wessolek, Contribution of bricks to urban soil properties, J. Soils Sediments, vol.13, pp.575-584, 2013.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01486391

P. D. Noyes, M. K. Mcelwee, H. D. Miller, B. W. Clark, L. A. Van-tiem et al., The toxicology of climate change: Environmental contaminants in a warming world, Environ. Int, vol.35, pp.971-986, 2009.

T. Oppelt, Hazardous waste destruction, Env. Sci Technol, vol.20, pp.312-318, 1986.
DOI : 10.1021/es00146a001

S. Ouvrard, C. Barnier, P. Bauda, T. Beguiristain, C. Biache et al., In situ assessment of phytotechnologies for multicontaminated soil management, Int. J. Phytoremediation, vol.13, 2011.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01486337

S. Ouvrard, E. Chenot, J. Masfaraud, and C. Schwartz, Long-term assessment of natural atteeuatio :àstatistialà appoaahàoà soilàithà agedàPáHà otaiatio.à Biodegadatioà, pp.539-548, 2013.

S. Ouvrard, P. Leglize, and J. L. Morel, PAH Phytoremediation: Rhizodegradation or Rhizoattenuation?, Int. J. Phytoremediation, vol.16, pp.46-61, 2014.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01486367

S. Paissé, M. Goñi-urriza, T. Stadler, H. Budzinski, and R. Duran, Ring-hydroxylating dioxygenase (RHD) expression in a microbial community during the early response to oil pollution, FEMS Microbiol. Ecol, vol.80, pp.77-86, 2012.

P. Panagos, M. Van-liedekerke, Y. Yigini, and L. Montanarella, Contaminated Sites in Europe: Review of the Current Situation Based on Data Collected through a European Network, J. Environ. Public Health, pp.1-11, 2013.

B. Pan, B. Xing, S. Tao, W. Liu, X. Lin et al., Effect of physical forms of soil organic matter on phenanthrene sorption, Chemosphere, vol.68, pp.1262-1269, 2007.

A. Papadopoulos, G. I. Paton, B. J. Reid, and K. T. Semple, Prediction of PAH biodegradation in field contaminated soils using a cyclodextrin extraction technique, Org. Contam, vol.9, pp.516-522, 2007.

J. A. Patz, D. Campbell-lendrum, T. Holloway, and J. A. Foley, Impact of regional climate change on human health, Nature, vol.438, pp.310-317, 2005.

M. C. Peel, B. L. Finlayson, and T. A. Mcmahon, Updated world map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification, Hydrol Earth Syst Sci, vol.11, pp.1633-1633, 2007.

. Peeeot, àRaatiittàdesàhdoaaauesàaaoatiuesàpolliuesàdaasàueàteeàdeàokeie :à iflueeeeà deà laà paatitioà desà otaaiaatsà età deà l'introduction de matière organique fraîche

A. Pernot, S. Ouvrard, P. Léglize, and P. Faure, Protective role of fine silts for PAH in a former industrial soil, Environ. Pollut, vol.179, pp.81-87, 2013.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01119519

A. Pernot, S. Ouvrard, P. Leglize, F. Watteau, D. Derrien et al., Impact of fresh organic matter incorporation on PAH fate in a contaminated industrial soil, Sci. Total Environ, pp.345-352, 2014.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01132256

M. Pesaro, G. Nicollier, J. Zeyer, and F. Widmer, Impact of Soil Drying-Rewetting Stress on Microbial Communities and Activities and on Degradation of Two Crop Protection Products, 2004.

, Appl. Environ. Microbiol, vol.70, pp.2577-2587

J. J. Pignatello and B. Xing, Mechanisms of slow sorption of organic chemicals to natural particles, Environ. Sci. Technol, vol.30, pp.1-11, 1996.

G. Rajaram and D. C. Erbach, Effect of wetting and drying on soil physical properties, J. Terramechanics, vol.36, pp.39-49, 1999.

C. Rasmussen, R. J. Southard, and W. R. Horwath, Modeling energy inputs to predict pedogenic environments using regional environmental databases, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J, vol.69, pp.1266-1274, 2005.

C. Rasmussen and N. J. Tabor, Applying a quantitative pedogenic energy model across a range of environmental gradients, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J, vol.71, pp.1719-1729, 2007.

. R-core-team, R: a Language and Environment for Statistical Computing, 2013.

F. Rees, M. O. Simonnot, and J. L. Morel, Short-term effects of biochar on soil heavy metal mobility are controlled by intra-particle diffusion and soil pH increase: Heavy metal mobility in biochar-amended soils, Eur. J. Soil Sci, vol.65, pp.149-161, 2014.

J. Rezek, C. In-der-wiesche, M. Mackova, F. Zadrazil, and T. Macek, The effect of ryegrass (Lolium perenne) on decrease of PAH content in long term contaminated soil, Chemosphere, vol.70, pp.1603-1608, 2008.

L. A. Richards, Capillary conduction of liquids through porous mediums, J. Appl. Phys, vol.1, pp.318-333, 1931.

J. A. Roberts, W. L. Daniels, J. A. Burger, and J. C. Bell, Early stages of mine soil genesis in a southwest Virginia spoil lithosequence, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J, vol.52, pp.716-723, 1988.

S. Rokia, Contribution à laàodlisatioàduàpoessusàd'aggatioàetàduàttaasfeetàd''leetsà nutritifs dans des Technosols construits à partir de déchets, 2014.

S. Rokia, G. Séré, C. Schwartz, M. Deeb, F. Fournier et al., Modelling agronomic properties of Technosols constructed with urban wastes. Waste Manag, 2014.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02173875

F. Rubel and M. Kottek, Observed and projected climate shifts 1901-2100 depicted by world maps of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification, Meteorol. Z, vol.19, pp.135-141, 2010.

C. Rumpel, Location and chemical composition of stabilized organic carbon in topsoil and subsoil horizons of two acid forest soils, Soil Biol. Biochem, vol.36, pp.177-190, 2004.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/bioemco-00169650

C. Rumpel and I. Kögel-knabner, Deep soil organic matter-a key but poorly understood component of terrestrial C cycle, Plant Soil, vol.338, pp.143-158, 2011.

C. Rumpel, I. Kögel-knabner, and F. Bruhn, Vertical distribution, age, and chemical composition of organic carbon in two forest soils of different pedogenesis, Org. Geochem, vol.33, pp.1131-1142, 2002.

E. C. Runge, Soil Development Sequences and Energy Models, Soil Sci, vol.115, pp.183-193, 1973.

C. Saison, Dissipation des hydrocarbures aromatiques polycycliques dans les sols à pollution multiple, 2001.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-01750338

C. Saison, C. Perrin-ganier, M. Schiavon, and J. Morel, Effect of cropping and tillage on the dissipation of PAH contamination in soil, Environ. Pollut, vol.130, pp.275-285, 2004.

R. Salvatteci, D. Gutiérrez, D. Field, A. Sifeddine, L. Ortlieb et al., The response of the Peruvian Upwelling Ecosystem to centennial-scale global change during the last two millennia, Clim. Past, vol.10, pp.715-731, 2014.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01858977

M. G. Schaap, F. J. Leij, and M. T. Van-genuchten, ROSETTA: a computer program for estimating soil hydraulic parameters with hierarchical pedotransfer functions, J. Hydrol, vol.251, pp.163-176, 2001.

H. W. Scharpenseel, M. Schomaker, and A. Ayoub, Soils on a warmer earth, 1990.

A. Schmitt, B. Glaser, W. Borken, and E. Matzner, Repeated freeze-thaw cycles changed organic matter quality in a temperate forest soil, J. Plant Nutr. Soil Sci, vol.171, pp.707-718, 2008.

K. T. Semple, A. W. Morriss, and G. I. Paton, Bioavailability of hydrophobic organic contaminants in soils: fundamental concepts and techniques for analysis, Eur. J. Soil Sci, vol.54, pp.809-818, 2003.

G. Séré, C. Schwartz, S. Ouvrard, J. Renat, F. Watteau et al., Early pedogenic evolution of constructed Technosols, J. Soils Sediments, vol.10, pp.1246-1254, 2010.

D. R. Shelton, A. M. Sadeghi, J. S. Karns, and C. J. Hapeman, Effect Of Wetting And Drying Of Soil On Sorption And Biodegradation Of Atrazine, Weed Sci, vol.43, pp.298-305, 1995.

D. T. Simj, M. G. Rikken, E. Rorije, T. P. Traas, M. S. Mclachlan et al., Transport, Accumulation and Transformation Processes, pp.73-158, 2007.

À. ?i?ek, .. J. , and .. T. , àGäädeeäs,àá.,à.àReieeàaadàopaaisoàofàodelsà for describing non-equilibrium and preferential flow and transport in the vadose zone, J. Hydrol, vol.272, pp.14-35

À. J. ?i?ek, M. Sejna, H. Saito, M. Sakai, and M. T. Van-genuchten, The HYDRUS-1D software package for simulating the one-dimensional movement of water, heat and multiple solutes in variably-saturated medi, 2009.

M. J. Singer, R. J. Southard, D. N. Warrington, and P. Janitzky, Stability of Synthetic Sand-Clay Aggregates after Wetting and Drying Cycles, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J, vol.56, pp.1843-1848, 1992.

M. J. Smith, T. H. Flowers, H. J. Duncan, and J. Alder, Effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on germination and subsequent growth of grasses and legumes in freshly contaminated soil and soil with aged PAHs residues, Environ. Pollut, vol.141, pp.519-525, 2006.

, Soil taxonomy: a basic system of soil classification for making and interpreting soil surveys, 1999.

Y. Song, F. Wang, X. Yang, C. Liu, F. O. Kengara et al., Chemical extraction to assess the bioavailability of chlorobenzenes in soil with different aging periods, J. Soils Sediments, vol.11, pp.1345-1354, 2011.

M. Sophocleous, Analysis of water and heat flow in unsaturated-saturated porous media, Water Resour. Res, vol.15, pp.1195-1206, 1979.

M. Stenrød, J. Perceval, P. Benoit, M. Almvik, R. I. Bolli et al., Cold climatic conditions: Effects on bioavailability and leaching of the mobile pesticide metribuzin in a silt loam soil in Norway, Cold Reg. Sci. Technol, vol.53, pp.4-15, 2008.

S. Thiele-bruhn and G. W. Brümmer, Kinetics of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) Degradation in Long-term Polluted Soils during Bioremediation, Plant Soil, vol.275, pp.31-42, 2005.

K. U. Totsche, S. Jann, and I. Kögel-knabner, Single Event-Driven Export of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Suspended Matter from Coal Tar-Contaminated Soil, Vadose Zone J, vol.6, p.233, 2007.

S. J. Traina, J. Novak, and N. E. Smeck, An Ultraviolet Absorbance Method of Estimating the Percent Aromatic Carbon Content of Humic Acids, J. Environ. Qual, vol.19, p.151, 1990.

U. S. Epa, Use of monitored natural attenuation at superfund, RCRA corrective action, and underground storage tank sites, 1999.

M. Usman, P. Faure, C. Ruby, and K. Hanna, Remediation of PAH-contaminated soils by magnetite catalyzed Fenton-like oxidation, Appl. Catal. B Environ, pp.10-17, 2012.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00878582

M. Usman, P. Faure, C. Ruby, and K. Hanna, Application of magnetite-activated persulfate oxidation for the degradation of PAHs in contaminated soils, Chemosphere, vol.87, pp.234-240, 2012.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00878576

W. H. Utomo and A. R. Dexter, Changes in soil aggregate water stability induced by wetting and drying cycles in non-saturated soil, J. Soil Sci, vol.33, pp.623-637, 1982.

L. Uzarowicz, Technogenic Soils Developed on Mine Spoils Containing Iron Sulfides in Select Abandoned Industrial Sites: Environmental Hazards and Reclamation Possibilities, Pol. J. Environ. Stud, vol.20, pp.771-782, 2011.

J. C. Van-dam, J. M. Hendrickx, H. C. Van-ommen, M. H. Bannink, M. T. Van-genuchten et al., Water and solute movement in a coarse-textured water-repellent field soil, J. Hydrol, vol.120, pp.359-379, 1990.

M. T. Van-genuchten, A Closed-form Equation for Predicting the Hydraulic Conductivity of Unsaturated Soils, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J, p.44, 1980.

G. Y. Varallyay, Chapitre 4 Influence of climatic change on soil moisture regime, texture, structure and erosion, 1990.

E. Villanneau, C. Perry-giraud, N. Saby, C. Jolivet, F. Marot et al.,

L. E. Vogel, D. Makowski, P. Garnier, L. Vieublé-gonod, Y. Coquet et al., Modeling the effect of soil meso-and macropores topology on the biodegradation of a soluble carbon substrate, Adv. Water Resour, vol.83, pp.123-136, 2015.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/insu-01170155

M. Von-lützow and I. Kögel-knabner, Temperature sensitivity of soil organic matter decomposition-what do we know?, Biol. Fertil. Soils, vol.46, pp.1-15, 2009.

S. Wagner, S. R. Cattle, and T. Scholten, Soil-aggregate formation as influenced by clay content and organic-matter amendment, J. Plant Nutr. Soil Sci, vol.170, pp.173-180, 2007.

K. J. Waldron, J. C. Rutherford, D. Ford, and N. J. Robinson, Metalloproteins and metal sensing, Nature, vol.460, pp.823-830, 2009.

T. S. Walker, Root Exudation and Rhizosphere Biology, PLANT Physiol, vol.132, pp.44-51, 2003.

E. Wang, R. M. Cruse, X. Chen, and A. Daigh, Effects of moisture condition and freeze/thaw cycles on surface soil aggregate size distribution and stability, Can J Soil Sci, vol.92, pp.529-536, 2012.

M. Wehrer and K. U. Totsche, Difference in PAH release processes from tar-oil contaminated soil materials with similar contamination history, Chem. Erde-Geochem, vol.69, pp.109-124, 2009.

J. L. Weishaar, G. R. Aiken, B. A. Bergamaschi, M. S. Fram, R. Fujii et al., Evaluation of Specific Ultraviolet Absorbance as an Indicator of the Chemical Composition and Reactivity of Dissolved Organic Carbon, Environ. Sci. Technol, vol.37, pp.4702-4708, 2003.

J. C. White, J. W. Kelsey, P. B. Hatzinger, and M. Alexander, Factors affecting sequestration and bioavailability of phenanthrene in soils, Environ. Toxicol. Chem, vol.16, pp.2040-2045, 1997.

J. C. White, A. Quiñones-rivera, and M. Alexander, Effect of wetting and drying on the bioavailability of organic compounds sequestered in soil, Environ. Toxicol. Chem, vol.17, pp.2378-2382, 1998.

A. F. Wick, N. W. Haus, B. F. Sukkariyah, K. C. Haering, and W. L. Daniels, Remediation of PAHContaminated Soils and Sediments: A Literature Review, Environmental Soil Science, 2011.

J. Wieczorek, S. Sienkiewicz, M. Pietrzak, and Z. Wieczorek, Uptake and phytotoxicity of anthracene and benzo[k]fluoranthene applied to the leaves of celery plants (Apium graveolens var. secalinum L.), Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf, vol.115, pp.19-25, 2015.

E. L. Wipfler and S. Van-der-zee, A set of constitutive relationships accounting for residual NAPL in the unsaturated zone, J. Contam. Hydrol, vol.50, pp.53-77, 2001.

, Methods of assessing risk to health from exposure to hazards released from waste landfills. Presented at the WHO Regional Office for Europe, Lots, Poland. World Meteorological Organization, 2005. Climate and land degradation, 2000.

W. Xia, Y. He, F. Z. Xu, and J. Xu, Dynamics of Dissolved Organic Carbon in Rhizosphere of Different Rice, Functions of Natural Organic Matter in Changing Environment, pp.701-704, 2013.

B. Xing and J. J. Pignatello, Dual-mode sorption of low-polarity compounds in glassy poly (vinyl chloride) and soil organic matter, Environ. Sci. Technol, vol.31, pp.792-799, 1997.

E. Yergeau and G. A. Kowalchuk, Responses of Antarctic soil microbial communities and associated functions to temperature and freeze-thaw cycle frequency, Environ. Microbiol, vol.10, pp.2223-2235, 2008.

X. Yin, X. Liang, G. Xu, and X. Zhan, Effect of phenanthrene uptake on membrane potential in roots of soybean, wheat and carrot, Environ. Exp. Bot, vol.99, pp.53-58, 2014.

X. Yu, Y. Zou, M. Jiang, X. Lu, and G. Wang, Response of soil constituents to freeze-thaw cycles in wetland soil solution, Soil Biol. Biochem, vol.43, pp.1308-1320, 2011.

C. Zammit, F. Chêne, D. Rambourg, D. Legendre, C. Kluijver et al., Validation et diffusion de la donnée géologique, 2011.

Q. Zhao, P. Li, F. Stagnitti, J. Ye, D. Dong et al., Effects of aging and freeze-thawing on extractability of pyrene in soil, Chemosphere, vol.76, pp.447-452, 2009.

Q. Zhao, B. Xing, P. Tai, H. Li, L. Song et al., Effect of freeze-thawing cycles on soil aging behavior of individually spiked phenanthrene and pyrene at different concentrations, Sci. Total Environ, vol.444, pp.311-319, 2013.

Q. Zhao, B. Xing, P. Tai, K. Yang, H. Li et al., Effect of freeze-thawing cycles on aging behavior of phenanthrene, pyrene and their mixture in soil, Sci. Total Environ, pp.246-252, 2013.

Y. Zhu, S. Zhang, H. Huang, and B. Wen, Effects of maize root exudates and organic acids on the desorption of phenanthrene from soils, J. Environ. Sci, vol.21, pp.920-926, 2009.

A. Zsolnay, E. Baigar, M. Jimenez, B. Steinweg, and F. Saccomandi, Differenciating with Fluorescence Spectroscopy the sources of dissolved organic matter in soils subjected to drying, Chemosphere, vol.38, pp.45-50, 1999.

, Protocole de mesure des teneurs en HAP totaux des terres des bacs lysimétriques

. Ouvrard, Le protocole de quantification des teneurs totales des 16 HAP des terres des bacs lysimétriques est différent du protocole défini en Chapitre II afin de correspondre aux méthodes utilisées au début de la mise en place du dispositif, 2009.

, Extraction des HAP totaux

L. , Les cellules ASE sont remplies de la manière suivante : 1 filtre en fibre de verre de 27mm, un filtre en fibre de verre de 21 mm, 1 g de sulfate de sodium (Na 2 SO 4 ) peeeettaatà deà pigeà l'eauà siduellee,à à gà deà Florisil® (permettant de capter les macromolécules indésirablesà età à gà d'hatilloà deà solà seà età oà à àµ, vol.350

, Laà thodeà d'eettaatioà seà faità aaeeà uà laageà aaatoe/dihloothaaeà /à /) à une température de 100 °C

, Les extraits organiques sont ensuite légèrement évaposà sousà fluà d'azoteà à l'aideà d'uà Calipeeà Lifesciences Turbovap® LV puis réunis daasàuàolueà fialàdeààlàd'aaatoittile. La solution est ensuite transférée dans un flacon de 22ml en verre et muni de bouchons en PTFE (polytétrafluoroéthylène)

. Cébron, Dosage des HAP totaux Lesà teeuusà desà à HáPà sotà oteuesà à l'aideà d'ueà ligeà HPLC (High Pressure Liquid Chromatography) uipeàd'une photodiode de détection (Varian). La séparation est effectuée sur une colonne Pursuit 3PAH (Varian) suivant un gradient eau/acétonitrile, 2013.

, Effets des changements structuraux sur le statut de la matière organique

X. Tableau, Matrice de corrélation de Pearson entre les taux de variation des teneur en COD, en HAP « disponibles » et des proportions des quatre fractions granulodensimétriques pour la modalité gel/dégel (a)

, humectation/dessiccation (b) et pour les deux modalités combinées (c) ??

?. ??, taux de variations des quatre fractions granulométriques > 1000 µm ; 1000-200 µm

, Fluorescence 3D-interprétation des spectres de fluorescence

, Figure XI-16 : Variation du pourcentage d'aromaticité en fonction de l'indice de fluorescence des terres après vieillissement

X. Figure, Schématisation de la détermination de l'effet significatif des facteurs sols et traitements (e.g. séquence climatique) au cours d'une ANOVA deux facteurs selon trois cas : effet gouverné par la nature du sol