Réponse de Brassicacées hyperaccumulatrices à la disponibilité du nickel des sols ultramafiques

Abstract : Metal hyperaccumulator plants developed specific mechanisms to extract available metals from the soil and consequently accumulate them in aerial parts. The agronomic use of these plants for the decontamination of metal polluted soils is under study worlwide. This work was undertaken to better elucidate the chemical and physiological mechanisms that influence Ni accumulation by hyperaccumulators in response of Ni availability in soils. To answer these questions we undertook two approaches. Firstly, a site study to determine the natural functioning of the ultramafic soil-Ni hyperaccumulators system. Secondly, a lab-scale set of experiments that were designed to study the weathering of three ultramafic Ni-minerals (chrysotile, smectite, goethite) in the rhizosphere of three Ni-hyperaccumulating species naturally growing on European serpentine soils (Leptoplax emarginata, Alyssum murale et Thlaspi caerulescens). Results showed that, in ultramafic soils, phytoavailable Ni derives from the weathering of primary nickeliferous ferromagnesian silicates. Hyperaccumulators show a different behaviour depending of Ni availability in the environment of the culture. In environments showing high available Ni, hyperaccumulators accumulate Ni proportionally to Ni availability. In this way, they can significantly reduce the initially available fraction of Ni but do not seem to enhance the weathering of unavailable Ni forms. Contrarily, in environments with extremely low Ni availability, hyperaccumulators may strongly enhance the dissolution of nickeliferous silicate minerals and so favour Ni solubilisation. If so, hyperaccumulators absorb the majority of Ni solubilised. These results are of considerable interest for the elaboration of a crop model designed for the optimisation of the phytoextraction concept and high scale application
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Vanessa Chardot. Réponse de Brassicacées hyperaccumulatrices à la disponibilité du nickel des sols ultramafiques. Autre. Institut National Polytechnique de Lorraine, 2007. Français. ⟨NNT : 2007INPL045N⟩. ⟨tel-01752952⟩

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