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Contribution à la modélisation microclimatique des situations hivernales en milieu urbain

Abstract : In winter maintenance, forecasting the infrastructure surface status is mandatory, to allow anticipation, better coordination and efficiency of services. The majority of countries have forecast models of the infrastructure surface temperature and especially roads one (RST). The complexity of these decision tools is growing, to best serve the users and managers. The urban microclimate influences the surface energy balance according to various processes: radiative, aerodynamic and hydrologic. However, other anthropogenic physical processes influence this RST, such as traffic. Studies have been carried out in the past about the traffic heat input in the town heat balance. These were conducted on the summer periods and associated urban heat islands. However, in case of traffic in adverse winter conditions, these energy contributions were marginally integrated into the modeling of the road surface parameters. The absence of this traffic's contribution in the surface energy balance modeling explains, to a given limit, the imperfect forecasting of road surface status. The literature identifies several studies conducted to identify and to quantify these effects of traffic. They have insufficiently or not treated the loss or gain on energy caused by circulating vehicles on the surface energy balance, or on modeling the RST. In this study, two approaches have been proposed to parameterize the traffic in the Town Energy Balance (TEB) numerical model, this first one being overall and the second one detailed. Their comparative analysis indicates that the second significantly improved the results of the RST modeling. The traffic heat inputs increased RST by 2 to 4°C, results being then closer to experimental measurements (average difference of 0.5 to 1°C). It is the result of the cumulative effect of the various traffic physical processes, and varies according to its parameters (density, vehicle velocity, fluidity, etc.). A sensitivity analysis was conducted to assess the physical processes responsible for the improvement of the RST. The results indicate that the turbulent effect, the radiative heat flux and flux density due to tires friction represent the greatest contribution to RST increase. Nevertheless the energy contribution of each of these processes depends both traffic parameters and weather conditions. This study also presented a preliminary analysis of the influence of a water layer over the surface on the RST. The latter decreases as a function of the thickness of the water layer. Anthropogenic factors such as traffic and the addition of de-icing products into the water layer present on the surface are described and discussed, and a parameterization proposed as a perspective
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Aderrahmen Khalifa. Contribution à la modélisation microclimatique des situations hivernales en milieu urbain. Autre [cond-mat.other]. Université de Lorraine, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015LORR0295⟩. ⟨tel-01754589⟩

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