F. Wagner, M. Humbert, J. Muller, and C. , Esling Optimization of Positivity Method in Quantitative Texture Analysis [15] F.E.Mellab Contribution à l'étude des textures de déformation des alliages hexagonaux. Thèse de I, Thèse de I'université de Metz, pp.479-4831030, 1949.
DOI : 10.1209/0295-5075/11/5/016

I. J. Heizmann, A. Vadon, and J. Schlatter, Bessière Texture Analysis of Thin Films and Surface Layers by Low Incidence Angle X-Ray Diffraction, Adv. in X-Ray Anal, Z.Lianlg, J.Xu, F.Wang Proceedings of ICOTOM, vol.3220, issue.6, pp.285-287, 1981.
DOI : 10.1007/978-1-4757-9110-5_37

F. Wagner and M. , Humbert Texture Analysis of Incomplete Pole Figures in Low Symmetrie Cases, Textures and Microstructures, lgBT . [22] H.Kiessig Ann. Phys. [5], pp.5-129769, 1931.
DOI : 10.1155/tsm.7.115

URL : http://doi.org/10.1155/tsm.7.115

, [24] H.E.Gôbel Surface and Thin Film Characterization by X-Ray Structural Techniques, 1231A. Segmiiller Thin Solid Films ECS Symposium on Analytical Techniques for Semiconductor Materials and process Characterization, pp.287-29429, 1949.

, Nicolet Diffusion Barriers in thin films, Thin Solid Films Sundgren Review paper: Structure and properties of TiN coatings, Thin Solid FilmsWittmer Barrier layers, principles and application in microelectronicsHo General Aspect of Barrier Layers for VLSI Application: I Concepts, Thin Solid Films General Aspect of Barrier Layers for VLSI Application: II Practices, Thin Solid FilmsNicolet Diffusion phenomena in thin films and microelectronic materialsWittmer The use of titanium based contact barrier layers in Silicon Technology, Powder Diffraction File, Joint Committee on Powder Diffraction Standards. International Centre for Diffraction Data, pp.2-442733, 1978.

Q. Shi, I. Wang, B. J. Raaijmakers, S. Burrow, S. Suthar et al., Kim Reactively sputtered TiN as a diffusion barrier between Cu and SiTowner The deposition and film properties of reactively sputtered Titanium Nitride, J. Appl. Phys. Thin Solid Films, issue.8, pp.68-105176, 1988.

J. M. Poitevin and G. Lempérière, Influence of substrate bias on the composition, structure and electrical properties of reactively d.c.-sputtered TiN films, Thin Solid Films, vol.97, issue.1, p.69, 1982.
DOI : 10.1016/0040-6090(82)90418-7

I. F. Mayadas and M. , Shatzkes Electrical-Resistivity model for polycristalline films, Phys. Review, vol.81, issue.4\, 1970.

J. W. U2l, de Vries Resistivity of thin Au filmsPoitevin Pulvérisation réactive diode continue polarisée. Effets de la polarisation et de la pression d'azote sur la décharge et les propriétés de couches résistives de Ti et TiN, Thèse d'état de I'université de Nantes, pp.1945-1952, 1985.

V. Valvoda, R. Cerny, R. Kuzel, J. R. , L. .. Dobiasova et al., X-Ray analysis of heat treated TiN films, Thin Solid FilmsWittmer Interfacial reactions between Al and transition metal nitride and carbide films [17] J.Hems Barrier Layers: The advantage of titanium nitride, Semiconductor Int., p.100, Nov. 1990. ll8l J.A.Thornton The microstructure of sputter deposited coatings [19] D.Pramanik, V.Jain Barrier metal for ULSI: Processing and Reliability, Solid State Tech Karlson Mechanism of reactive sputtering of TiN and TiC, Part I, II & III, Thin Solid Films, Il4lG.Zorn H.Joswig Observation of annealing effects in TiAEiN diffusion barriers, Proc. of the lst European Powder Diffraction Conference, Miinchen, I 99 1. [15] l22lH.Wendt, J.Willer TiAEiN-Barrierentwicklung auf der Applied Materials ENDURA 5500, SIEMENS Bericht. [23] N.Circelli, G.Queirolo A stable TiN Reactive Sputtering Deposition Process. [24] U.Helmersson, J.E.Sundgren, J.E.Greene Microstructure evolution in TiN films reactively sputter deposited on multiphase substrates Thèse d'état de I'université de Nantes. 1985. [26] L.Combadière Pulvérisation cathodique Thèse de I'université de Limoges, pp.2-11, 1982.

I. G. Lemperière and J. M. , Poitevin Influence of the nitrogen partial pressure on the properties of DC sputtered Titanium nitride films, Thin Solid Films, lII, pp.339-349

D. R. Marx and R. G. , Murphy Sputtering Targets: Challenges for the 1990s, Solid State Technology, S11, 29] P.Kûcher Clustertools, ein neues Anlagenkonzept ftir die Schichtherstellung in der Mikroelektronik, Vakuum in der Praxis, p.239, 1977.

I. and B. A. Movchan, A.V.Demchishin Phys. metals Metallogr, vol.28, p.83, 1969.

J. E. Yehoda and R. Messier-applic, Surf. Sci, pp.590-595, 1984.

L. A. Mcclaine and C. P. , Coppel Equilibrium studies of refractory nitrides, 1965.

J. Musil, S. , and 1. , Kadlec Reactive sputtering of TiN films at large substrate to target distancesWindow Electrical transport, optical properties, and structure of TiN films synthesized by lowenergy ion assisted deposition, Vacuum J. Apll. Phys, vol.4035, issue.64, pp.435-4225, 1988.

H. Michel, P. Jacquot, R. Fillit, and M. , Gantois Analyse de la texture de couches minces de titane et de nitrure de titane obtenues par P.V.D.,Iae vide -Les couches minces, 4I X-Ray characterization of TiNx films with CaF2-type structure, Thin Solid Films, pp.65277-282, 1986.

N. Fuj-imura, N. Nishida, T. Ito, and Y. , Nakayama Effect of texture in the titanium layer on solid state reactions for AVTilSi and AyTiNAEi/Si systems Effect of an increase in the nitrogen content of the working gas on the microstructure of reactive sputtered TiN thin films, Mat. Sci. and Eng. J. of Mat. Sci.: Materials in elecfronics, vol.108, issue.3, pp.153-157, 1971.

I. , C. V. Cooper, and R. A. , Wagner The deposition and microstructure of broad beam, ion sputtered TiN coatings, Thin Solid Films, pp.293-302, 1990.

, Analysenmitteilung 89/ I 08

, Analysenmitteilung, vol.90, issue.135

, Analysenmitteilung 9ll I I I l3l

]. K. Anoun, H. Michel, and M. , Gantois 12è Congrès Mondial des Traitements de Surface, Interfinish, vol.88, 1988.

J. Musil, S. Kadlec, J. Vyskocil, and V. , Poulek Reactive deposition of hard coatings, Surface and coatings Technology, vol.39140, pp.301-314, 1989.

, [47] V.Valvoda Glory and Misery of the structure analysis of thin polycristalline films, Analysenmitteilu ng 9 | | I22l I 09 t48l P.S.Rickerby Internal stress and adherence of TiN coatings, pp.49-79, 1986.

R. Glang, R. A. Holmwood, and R. L. , Rosenfeld Determination of stress in films on single crystalline silicon substrates, The Review of Scientific Instruments, pp.7-10, 1964.

R. Wiedemann, H. Oettel, and G. , Hôtzsch Macroscopic and microscopic residual stresses in nitride hard coatings, European Conference on Residual stresses, 1992.

H. Behnken and V. , Hauk Berechnung der rôntgenographischen Spannungsfaktoren texturierter Werkstoffe - Vergleich mit experimentellen Ergebnissen, l52lL. De Buyser, P. Van Houtte, E.Aernoudt X-ray measurement of residual stresses in textured thin coatings, Proceedings ICOTOM9, pp.151-158, 1991.

K. Van-acker, L. De-buyser, J. P. Celis, and P. , Van Houtte Characterisation of thin Nickel Electrocoatings by means of the low incidence beam angle diffraction method, Mândl Eigenschaften von TiN und TiW als Diffusionsbarrieren fûr die hochintegrierte Mikroelektronik Thèse de I'université de Regensburg, pp.15629267-288, 1949.

M. K. Hibbs, B. O. Johanson, J. E. Sundgren, and U. , Helmerson Thin Solid Films, vol.122, pp.15-129, 1984.

, Analysenmitteilu ng 92, 741470.

, microcaractérisation des solides", méthode d'observation et d'analyse, CRAM, CNRS, p.534, 1989.

C. Caprile, G. Specchiulli, D. , and F. , The Al-1 per cent Si/TiN/Ti interconnection scheme: Electromigration and reliability extrapolations, Quality and Reliability Engineering International, vol.172, issue.4, pp.275-279, 1991.
DOI : 10.1002/qre.4680070413

, Proc. Cambridge Phil. Soc, p.100, 1938.

J. Y. Laval, M. H. Pinet-berger, and C. , Canabel Journal de Physique, issue.49, 1988.

, progam which leads to a rough estimate of the 'critical' thickness can be very likely improved in order to answer the question of optimal measurement conditions for any kind of polycristalline thin film

R. V. Valvoda, Glory and Misery of the Structure Analysis of Thin Polycrystalline Films, Materials Science Forum, vol.79, issue.82, pp.79-82503, 1991.
DOI : 10.4028/www.scientific.net/MSF.79-82.503

W. C. Marra, P. Eisenber-;-er, and A. Y. , J.Appl. Phys, vol.5069279, p.19

H. Kiessig, Ann. Phys, vol.10, pp.769-788, 1931.

J. I. Heizman, A. Vadon, J. B. Schlatter, and . Adv, , p.85

M. Dahms and H. J. Bunge, The iterative series-expansion method for quantitative texture analysis. I. General outline, Journal of Applied Crystallography, vol.22, issue.5, p.439, 1989.
DOI : 10.1107/S0021889889005261

M. Dahms and H. J. Bunge, Textures and Microstructures, vol.10, issue.21, 1988.

M. Wagner and . Dahms, Advances and Applications of Quantitative Texture Analysis

J. Bungè and C. Esling-ed, , p.101, 1991.

J. Liang, F. Xu, and . Wang, Proceedings of ICOTOM 6 in Tokyo

F. Wagner and M. Humbert, , pp.1-5

B. Moreau, , 1993.