C. Alberto, D. Vanderlan, and C. Maria, Antifungal amide from leaves of Piper hispidum, 1998.

R. N. Almeida, D. S. Navarro, and J. M. Barbosa-filho, Plant with centrai anal ges ic activ ity, 2001.

. American-psychiatric-association, Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, DC: American Psychiatric Association, 1994.
DOI : 10.1176/appi.books.9780890425596

Y. 2. Anseloni, V. Motta, G. Lima, and M. L. Brandao, Behavioral and pharmacological validation of the elevated plus maze constructed with transparent walls, Braz. J. Med. Biol. Res, vol.28, pp.597-601, 1995.

K. R. Bailey, M. N. Pavlova, A. D. Rohde, J. G. Hohmann, and J. N. Crawley, , 2007.

, Galanin receptor subtype 2 (GalR2) null mutant mice display an anxiogeniclike phenotype specific to the elevated plusmaze, Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav, vol.86, pp.8-20

C. M. Barrett and M. H. Rapaport, Anxiety disorders, Psychiatr Clin North Am Annu Drug Ther, vol.8, pp.181-206, 2000.

S. Baum, R. Hill, and H. Rommelspacher, Effect of kava extract and individual kavapyrones on neurotransmitter levels in the nucleus accumbens of rats, Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry, vol.22, issue.7, 1998.
DOI : 10.1016/S0278-5846(98)00062-1

C. Belzung, L. Pape, and G. , Comparison of different behavioral test situations used in psychopharmacology for measurement of anxiety, Physiology & Behavior, vol.56, issue.3, pp.623-631, 1994.
DOI : 10.1016/0031-9384(94)90311-5

S. Bent and R. Ko, Commonly used herbal medicines in the United States: a review, The American Journal of Medicine, vol.116, issue.7, p.478485, 2004.
DOI : 10.1016/j.amjmed.2003.10.036

M. Blumenthal, Herbal Medicines, AORN Journal, vol.70, issue.3, p.419423, 2000.
DOI : 10.1016/S0001-2092(06)62318-1

J. R. Boissier and P. Simon, Dissociation de deux composantes dans le compartment dinvestigation de la souris, Arch Int Pharmacodyn, vol.147, pp.372-380, 1964.

. J. Boissier and P. Simon, La reaction dexploration chez la souris, Therapies, vol.17, pp.1225-1257, 1962.

A. J. Bond, Drug-Induced Behavioural Disinhibition, CNS Drugs, vol.9, issue.1, pp.4-57, 1998.
DOI : 10.2165/00023210-199809010-00005

M. Bourin, A. J. Fiocco, and F. Clenet, How valuable are animal models in defining antidepressant activity?, Human Psychopharmacology: Clinical and Experimental, vol.93, issue.1, pp.9-21, 2001.
DOI : 10.1007/BF00187257

P. Brevoort, The booming US botanical market: a new overview, HerbalGram, vol.44, p.3346, 1998.

J. B. Calixto, Efficacy, safety, quality control, marketing and regulatory guidelines for herbal medicines (phytotherapeutic agents), Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, vol.12, issue.2, pp.179-189, 2000.
DOI : 10.1002/(SICI)1099-0801(199803/04)12:2<78::AID-BMC726>3.0.CO;2-U

J. Calixto, Twenty-five years of research on medicinal plants in Latin America, Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol.100, issue.1-2, pp.131-134, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jep.2005.06.004

G. Carlo, . Di, F. Bonelli, E. Ernst, and A. A. Izzo, St John's wort: Prozac from the plant kingdom, Trends in Pharmacological Sciences, vol.22, issue.6, pp.292-297, 2001.
DOI : 10.1016/S0165-6147(00)01716-8

R. P. Carlson, L. O-'neill-davis, J. Chang, and A. J. Lewis, Modulation of mouse ear edema by cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase inhibitors and other pharmacologic agents, Agents and Actions, vol.14, issue.Suppl 25, pp.197-204, 1985.
DOI : 10.1002/cpt1974165part2900

F. Cicero-bezena-felipe, Piplartine, an amide alkaloid from Piper tuberculatun, presents anxiolytic and anyidepressant effects in mice, Phytomedicine, vol.37, issue.14, p.605412, 2007.

F. Cicero-bezena-felipe, Piplartine, an amide alkaloid from Piper tuberculatum, presents anxiolytic and anyidepressant effects in mice, p.605412, 2007.

E. G. Clarke and M. L. Clarke, Veterinary Toxicology, p.268177, 1977.

C. M. Corns, Herbal remedies and clinical biochemistry, Annals of Clinical Biochemistry, vol.40, issue.5, pp.489-507, 2003.
DOI : 10.1258/000456303322326407

URL : http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1258/000456303322326407

F. J. Matos and J. W. Alencar, A simple and inexpensive steam generator for essential oils extraction, J. Chem. Ed, vol.53, issue.4, p.652, 1976.

J. Crawley and F. K. Goodwin, Preliminary report of a simple animal behavior model for the anxiolytic effects of benzodiazepines, Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, vol.13, issue.2, pp.67-170, 1980.
DOI : 10.1016/0091-3057(80)90067-2

J. N. Crawley, Neuropharmacologic specificity of a simple animal model for the behavioral actions of benzodiazepines, Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, vol.15, issue.5, pp.695-704, 1981.
DOI : 10.1016/0091-3057(81)90007-1

R. M. Dahlgren, A revised system of classification of the angiosperms, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, vol.119, issue.Supplement 1, 1980.
DOI : 10.1007/BF01377490

J. Linn, Soc, vol.80, issue.2, pp.91-124

A. Danelutte, J. Lago, and M. Young, Antifungal flavanones and prenylated hydroquinones from Piper crassinervium Kunth, 2003.

G. R. Dawson and M. D. Tricklebank, Use of the elevated plus maze in the search for novel anxiolytic agents, Trends in Pharmacological Sciences, vol.16, issue.2, pp.33-36, 1995.
DOI : 10.1016/S0165-6147(00)88973-7

D. Miranda, F. G. Vilar, J. C. Alves, I. A. Cavalcanti, and S. C. Antoniolli, Antinociceptive and antiedematogenic properties and acute toxicity of Tabebuia avellendae lor. Ex griseb. irurer bark aqueous extract, BMC Pharmacology, vol.1, issue.1, p.6, 2001.
DOI : 10.1186/1471-2210-1-6

M. J. Detke, M. Rickels, and I. Lucki, Active behavior in the rat forced swim test differentially produced by serotonergic and noradrenergic antidepressants, 1995.

, Psychopharmacology, vol.2, pp.66-73

D. Dong and 5. L. Pan, GC-MS analysis of Piper laetispicum and Piper nigrum, 2007.

, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica, pp.32-647

E. Elisabetsky, T. A. Amador, R. R. Albuquerque, D. S. Nunes, and A. C. Carvalho, Analgesic activity of Psychotria colorala, 1995.

, Alkaloids. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol.48, issue.7, pp.7-83

F. W. Moulds and J. Malani, Kava: herbal panacea or liver poison?, Med. J. Aust, vol.178, 2003.

J. Fang, J. Xie, Y. C. Shao, and F. G. Qian, Chemical constituents in root and stem of Piper laetispicum, Chinese Traditional and Herbal Drugs, vol.38, pp.1289-1292, 2007.

J. Fang, J. Xie, Y. C. Shao, and F. G. Qian, Chemical constituents in root and stem of Piper laetispicum, Chinese Traditional and Herbal Drugs, vol.38, pp.1289-1292, 2007.

N. R. Farnsworth, Screening plants for new medicines, 1989.

P. I. Biodiversity and . Washington, , pp.83-97

B. Fernandez-puntero, Iglesias Peinado I, Villar del Fresno AM. Anti-inflammatory and anti-ulcer activity of Teucrium boxifulium, J, pp.93-101, 1997.

B. Fernandez-puntero, Iglesias Peinado I, Villar del Fresno AM. Anti-inflammatory and anti-ulcer activity of Teucrium boxifulium, J, vol.55, pp.93-101, 1997.

S. E. File, New strategies in the search for anxiolytics, 1990.

E. M. Frz-;-tlzotti, C. V. Santos, H. M. Rodrigues, R. H. Mourâo, and M. R. Andrade,

. Antoniolli, Anti-inflammatory analgesic activity and acute toxicity of S id a c o rdifu l i a L. (Malva-branca), Journal of Ethnopharmacolo gy, vol.7, pp.2-27, 2000.

S. Fùrst, Transmitters involved in antinociception in the spinal cord, Brain Research Bulletin, vol.48, issue.2, p.12941, 1999.
DOI : 10.1016/S0361-9230(98)00159-2

E. Galati, M. Mondello, D. Aquino, A. Miceli, N. Sanogo et al.,

, Effects of Teucrium divaricatum Heldr. ssp. Divaricatum decoction on experimental ulcer in rats, J Ethnopharm acol, vol.7, issue.2, pp.337-379, 2000.

E. Galati, M. Mondello, D. Aquino, A. Miceli, N. Sanogo et al.,

, Effects of Teucrium divaricatum Heldr. ssp. Divaricatum decoction on experimental ulcer in rats, J Ethnopharmacol

R. M. Gene, L. Segura, T. Adzet, E. Marin, and J. Lnglesias, Heterotheca inuloides: Anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect, Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol.60, issue.2, pp.157-162, 1998.
DOI : 10.1016/S0378-8741(97)00155-4

X. Geng, H. R. Lv, Y. Q. Guo, and D. X. Chen, Pharmacognostic identification of Piper laetispicum, a Dai medicinal plant, Journal of Chinese Medicinal, vol.22, pp.233-256, 1999.

X. Geng, H. R. Lv, Y. Q. Guo, and D. X. Chen, Pharmacognostic identification of Piper laetispicum, a Dai medicinal plant, Journal of Chinese Medicinal i|'4aterials 22, 1999.

T. Hashimoto, M. Suganuma, and H. Fujiki, Isolation and synthesis of TNF-alpha release inhibitors from Fijian kawa, 2003.

J. Hilaly, Z. H. Israili, and . Lyoussi, Acute and chronic toxicological studies of Ajugaiva in experimental animals, Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol.8, issue.9, pp.43-50, 2004.

A. Holmes, R. J. Yang, and J. N. Crawley, Evaluation of an Anxiety-Related Phenotype in Galanin Overexpressing Transgenic Mice, Journal of Molecular Neuroscience, vol.18, issue.1-2, pp.151-165, 2002.
DOI : 10.1385/JMN:18:1-2:151

S. Hu, P. Ao, and H. Tan, Pharmacognostical studies on the roots of P.nigro* L, 1996.

Y. Huawz, . Yj, and G. Ding, Piperbetol, methylpiperbetol, piperol A and piperol B: a new series of highly specific PAF receptor antagonists from P, 1997.

R. N. Hughes, The value of spontaneous alternation behavior (SAB) as a test of retention in pharmacological investigations of memory, Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, vol.28, issue.5, pp.497-505, 2004.
DOI : 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2004.06.006

8. C. Isnard, G. Deray, A. Baumelou, L. Quintree, M. Vanherweghem et al., Herbs and the kidney, American Journal of Kidney Diseases, vol.44, issue.1, pp.l-lI, 2004.
DOI : 10.1053/j.ajkd.2004.02.009

P. G. Janicak, J. M. Davis, and S. H. Preskoin, Principles and practice of psychopharmacology, Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins, 1991.

P. A. Janssen, C. J. Niemegeers, and J. G. Dony, The inhibitory effect of fentanyl and other morphine-like analgesics on the warm water induced tail withdrawal reflex in rats, Arzneimittel Forschung Drug Researchî, pp.502-507, 1963.

R. Jochen and R. B. Xiao, Constituents of Chinese Piper species and their inhibitory activity on prostaglandin and leukotriene biosynthesis in vitro, 2001.

G. Johannes, B. Anne, and W. Petra, Antithrombotic action of the kava pyrone (+)-kavain prepared from Piper methysticum on human platelets, 1997.

4. B. Joly, Botanica-Introducao a Taxonomia Vegetal, Companhia Editora Nacional, 1977.

R. C. Kessler, K. A. Mcgonagle, S. Zhao, C. 8. Nelson, M. Hughes et al., Lifetime and 12-Month Prevalence of DSM-III-R Psychiatric Disorders in the United States, Archives of General Psychiatry, vol.51, issue.1, pp.8-19, 1994.
DOI : 10.1001/archpsyc.1994.03950010008002

L. G. Kirby and . Lucki, Interaction Between the Forced Swimming Test and Fluoxetine Treatment Extracellular 5-Hydroxytryptamine and

, Hydroxyindoleacetic Acid in the Rat, Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental, vol.282, pp.967-976

S. Klein and R. S. Rister,

. Blumenthalm, . Bussewr, and A. Goldberg, Therapeutic guide to herbal medicines, 1998.

R. Koster, M. Anderson, and E. J. Beer, Acetic acid analgesic screening. Federation Proceedings 18, p.412417, 1959.

S. K. Kulkarni and D. S. Reddy, Animal behavioral models for testing antianxiety agents, Methods and Findings in Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology, vol.18, pp.219-230, 1996.

Y. Kuo, N. Yang, and C. Chou, Molecular Pharmacology, vol.58, issue.5, 2000.
DOI : 10.1124/mol.58.5.1057

S. 4. Lee, S. S. Hong, X. H. Han, J. S. Hwang, G. J. Oh et al., Piperine from the fruits of Piper longum with t42 inhibitory effect on monoamine oxidase and antidepressant-like activity. Chem, 2005.

, Pharm. Bull. (Tokyo), vol.53, pp.832-835

D. Lei, C. Chan, and Y. Wang, Antioxidative and antiplatelet effects of aqueous inflorescence Piper betle extract, 2003.

S. Li, C. Wang, M. Li, W. Matsumoto, K. Tang et al., Antidepressant like effects of piperine in chronic mild stress treated mice and its possible mechanisms, Life Sciences, vol.80, issue.15, pp.1373-1381, 2007.
DOI : 10.1016/j.lfs.2006.12.027

R. Lister, Ethologically-based animal models of anxiety disorders, Pharmacology & Therapeutics, vol.46, issue.3, pp.321-361, 1990.
DOI : 10.1016/0163-7258(90)90021-S

L. Lohezic, A. Bakhtiar, and C. Bezivin, Antiviral and cytotoxic activities of some Indonesian plants2002

A. Lopez, D. Ming, and G. Towers, Antifungal activity of benzoic acid derivatives from Piper lanceaefolium, 2002.

B. Macfarlane, A. Wright, J. O-'callaghan, and A. Benson, Chronic Neuropathic Pain and Its Control by Drugs, Pharmacology & Therapeutics, vol.75, issue.1, pp.1-19, 1997.
DOI : 10.1016/S0163-7258(97)00019-3

4. P. Martins, L. Salguero, R. Vila, F. Tomi, S. Canigueral et al., Essential oils from four Piper species, Proenc? a da Cunha, 1998.
DOI : 10.1016/S0031-9422(98)00391-4

N. Mattison, A. G. Trimble, and L. Lasagna, New drug development in the United States, 1963 through 1984, Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol.43, issue.3, pp.290-320, 1963.
DOI : 10.1038/clpt.1988.35

M. Mcferren, D. Cordova, and E. Rodriguez, ln vitro neuropharmacological evaluation of piperovatine,an isobutylamide from Piper piscatorum @iperaceae, 2002.

F. D. Mcglynn, Simple phobia Handbook of prescriptive treatments for adults, pp.179-96, 1994.

M. Millan, The induction of pain: an integrative review, Progress in Neurobiology, vol.57, issue.1, pp.1-164, 1999.
DOI : 10.1016/S0301-0082(98)00048-3

L. C. Miller and M. L. Tainter, Estimation of the ED50 and Its Error by Means of Logarithmic-Probit Graph Paper., Experimental Biology and Medicine, vol.57, issue.2, p.261264, 1944.
DOI : 10.3181/00379727-57-14776

K. Min, K. Kim, and J. Ro, Piperlonguminine from Piper longum with inhibitory effects on alphamelanocyte-stimulating hormone-induced melanogenesis in melanoma, 2004.

R. Misslin, C. Belzung, and E. Vogel, Behavioural validation of a lighVdark choice procedure for testing anti-anxiety agents, Behav Processes, vol.18, pp.9-32, 1989.

D. L. Moreira, E. F. Guimara-es, and M. A. Kaplan, Sprengel (Piperaceae), Journal of Essential Oil Research, vol.20, issue.3, pp.565-568, 1997.
DOI : 10.1016/S0040-4020(01)98986-0

A. Murakami, A. Li, and K. Mat-salleh, Screening for the in vitro anti-tumor-promoting activities of edible plants from Malaysia, 2000.

N. Nakatani, R. Inatani, and H. Ohta, Chemical constituents of peppers (Piper spp.) and application to food preservation: naturally occurring antioxidative compounds, Environmental Health Perspectives, vol.67, p.986
DOI : 10.1289/ehp.8667135

E. J. Nestler, M. Barrot, R. J. Dileone, A. J. Eisch, S. J. Gold et al., Neurobiology of Depression, Neuron, vol.34, issue.1, pp.13-25, 2002.
DOI : 10.1016/S0896-6273(02)00653-0

K. Okuse, Pain signaling pathways: From cytokines to ion channels. The t44, Intemational Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology, vol.39, pp.49-96, 2007.

J. Orjala, C. Erdelmeier, and A. Wright, Five new prenylated p-hydroxybenzoic acid derivatives with antimicrobial and molluscicidal activity from Piper aduncum leaves, p.993

S. L. Pan, J. Xie, F. G. Qian, . J. Wang, and Y. C. Shao, Antidepressant amides from Piper laetispicum C. DC. Acta Pharmaceutic Sinica, pp.355-357, 2005.

S. L. Pan, J. Xie, F. G. Qian, . J. Wang, and Y. C. Shao, Antidepressant amides from Piper laetispicam C. DC. Acta Pharmaceutic Sinica, pp.355-357, 2005.

. Parmar, Phytochemistry of the genus Piper, Phytochemistry, vol.46, issue.4, pp.97-673, 1997.
DOI : 10.1016/S0031-9422(97)00328-2

V. S. Parmar, S. C. Jain, K. S. Bisht, R. Jain, P. Taneja et al., Phytochemistry of the genus Piper, Phytochemistry, vol.46, issue.4, pp.597-67, 1997.
DOI : 10.1016/S0031-9422(97)00328-2

G. Pessini, F. Dias, and C. Nakamura, Antibacterial activity of extracts and neolignans from Piper regnellii (Miq.) C.DC.var.pallescens (C, 2003.

L. Pini, M. Sandrini, and G. Vitale, The antinociceptive action of paracetamol is associated with changes in the serotonergic system in the rat brain, European Journal of Pharmacology, vol.308, issue.1, pp.3-4, 1996.
DOI : 10.1016/0014-2999(96)00261-0

R. D. Porsolt, G. Anton, M. Deniel, and M. Jalfre, Behavioral despair in rats: a new animal model sensitive to antidepressant treatments. European Joumal of Pharmacolo gy 47, pp.9-391, 1978.

R. D. Porsolt, A. Bertin, N. Blavet, M. Deniel, and M. Jalfre, Immobility induced t45 by forced swimming in rats: effects of agents,which modiff central catecholamine and serotonin activity, European Joumal of Pharmacology, vol.9, issue.57, pp.201-210

R. D. Porsolt, A. Bertiû, and M. Jalfre, Behavioral despair in mice: a primary screening test for antidepressants, pp.327-336, 1977.

K. J. Pradhan, P. Variyar, and J. Bandekar, Antimicrobial activity of novel phenolic compounds from green pepper Piper nigrum, 1999.

V. Rachel, L. David, and P. Stephen, Anti-inflammatory activity of Chinese medicinal vine plants, 2003.

H. P. Rang, M. M. Dale, and J. M. Ritter, Pharmacology, pp.6-16, 1998.

S. M. Rates, Plants as source of drugs, Toxicon, vol.39, issue.5, pp.603-613, 2001.
DOI : 10.1016/S0041-0101(00)00154-9

M. Raza, O. Al-shabanah, T. M. Hadiyah, and A. A. Al-majed, Effect of prolonged vigabatrin treatment on hematological and biochemical parameters in plasma, liver and kidney of Swiss albino mice, Scientia Pharmaceutica, vol.70, issue.4, pp.135-145, 2002.

V. Renata, S. Hosana, M. Debonsi, and N. , Antifungal amides from Piper arboreum and Piper tuberculatum, 2002.

S. Risch and C. Nemeroff, Neurochemical alterations of serotonergic neuronal systems in depression, Journal Clinical Psychiatry, vol.53, pp.3-7, 1992.

R. Rodgers and A. Dalvi, Anxiety, defence and the elevated plus-maze, Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, vol.21, issue.6, pp.801-811, 1997.
DOI : 10.1016/S0149-7634(96)00058-9

J. F. Rosenbaum and A. J. Gelenberg, Anxiety. ln: Gelenberg AJ Bassuk EL

S. Schoonover, The practitioner's guide to psychoactive drugs, pp.179-218

C. Rujjanawate, D. Kanjanapothi, and A. Panthong, Pharmacological effect and toxicity of alkaloids from Gelsemium elegans Benth., Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol.89, issue.1, pp.91-95, 2003.
DOI : 10.1016/S0378-8741(03)00267-8

8. Saad, H. Azaizeh, G. Abu-hijleh, and S. Said, Safety of traditional Arab herbal medicine. Evidence-based Complementary and Altemative Medicine 3, p.433439, 2006.

A. R. Santos, V. C. Filho, R. Niero, A. M. Viana, F. N. Moreno et al., Analgesic Effects of Callus Culture Extracts from Selected Species of Phyllanthus in Mice, Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, vol.84, issue.9, pp.755-759, 1994.
DOI : 10.1073/pnas.84.1.274

. Santos, Essential oil analysis of 10 Piperaceae species from the Brazilian Atlantic forest, Phytochemistry, vol.58, issue.4, pp.547-551, 2001.
DOI : 10.1016/S0031-9422(01)00290-4

M. Schmidt, A. Nahrstedt, and N. P. Lu-"-pke, Piper methysticum (Kava) in der Diskussion: Betrachtungen zu Qualita' t, Wirksamkeit und Unbedenklichkeit, 2002.

. Med and . Wochenschr, , pp.382-388

M. Silva and M. De-aquino-neto,

D. Sousa, Central nervous system activity of acute administration of isopulegol in mice, Pharmacol Biochem Behav, vol.88, pp.4-7, 2007.

Y. N. Singh and . M. Blumenthal, Kava: an overview, Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol.37, issue.1, pp.33-57, 1997.
DOI : 10.1016/0378-8741(92)90003-A

L. Steru, R. Chermat, B. Thierry, and P. Simon, The tail suspension test: A new method for screening antidepressants in mice, Psychopharmacology, vol.41, issue.3, pp.367-370, 1985.
DOI : 10.1007/BF00428203

J. Stohr, P. Xiao, and R. Bauer, Isobutylamides and a new methylbutylamide from Piper sarmentosum, 1999.

J. R. Stôhr, P. G. Xiao, and R. Bauer, Constituents of Chinese Piper species and their inhibitory activity on prostaglandin and leukotriene biosynthesis in vitro, Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol.75, issue.2-3, pp.133-139, 2001.
DOI : 10.1016/S0378-8741(00)00397-4

J. R. Stôhr, P. G. Xiao, and R. Bauer, Constituents of Chinese Piper species and their inhibitory activity on prostaglandin and leukotriene biosynthesis in vitro, Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol.75, issue.2-3, pp.133-139, 2001.
DOI : 10.1016/S0378-8741(00)00397-4

H. Takeda, M. Tsuji, and T. Matsumiya, Changes in head-dipping behavior in the hole-board test reflect the anxiogenic and/or anxiolytic state in mice, European Journal of Pharmacology, vol.350, issue.1, pp.50-52, 1998.
DOI : 10.1016/S0014-2999(98)00223-4

S. Teo, D. Stirling, S. Thomas, and A. Hoberman, A 90-day oral gavage toxicity study of D-methylphenidate and D L-methylphenidate in, 2002.

. Sprague-dawley-rats, Toxicology, vol.7, issue.9, pp.183-196

A. Tjolsen, O. G. Berge, S. Hunskaar, J. H. Rosland, and K. Hole, The formalin test: an evaluation of the method, Pain, vol.51, issue.1, pp.5-17, 1992.
DOI : 10.1016/0304-3959(92)90003-T

J. Tsai, C. J. Chou, and C. Chen, Antioxidant Activity of Piperlactam S: Prevention of Copper-Induced LDL Peroxidation and Amelioration of Free Radical-Induced Oxidative Stress of Endothelial Cells, Planta Medica, vol.69, issue.01, 2003.
DOI : 10.1055/s-2003-37040

V. Lebot, M. Merlin, and L. Lindstrom, Kava: the Pacific D-9, 1992.
DOI : 10.2307/j.ctt211qwxb

P. Van-der-bijl and J. A. Roelofse, Disinhibitory reactions to benzodiazepines: A review, Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, vol.49, issue.5
DOI : 10.1016/0278-2391(91)90180-T

, J Oral Maxillofac Surg, vol.49, pp.519-542, 1991.

P. R. Verma, A. A. Joharapurkar, V. A. Chatpalliwar, and A. J. Asnani, , 2005.

, Antinociceptive activity of alcoholic extract of Hemidesmus indicus R.Br. in mice, Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol.102, pp.298-301

W. A. Verri, . Jr, T. M. Cunha, C. A. Parada, S. Poole et al., Hypernociceptive role of cytokines and chemokines: Targets for analgesic drug development? Pharmacolo gy & Therapeutic s ll2, 2006.

A. Vickers and C. Zollman, ABC of complementary medicine: Herbal medicine, BMJ, vol.319, issue.7216, 1999.
DOI : 10.1136/bmj.319.7216.1050

, British Medical Journal, vol.319, pp.1050-1053

J. Wattanathorn, P. Chonpathompikunlert, S. Muchimapura, and A. Priprem,

O. Tankamnerdthai, Piperine, the potential functional food for mood and cognitive disorders. Food and chemical toxicology, 2008.

X. Wei, J. Yang, J. Wang, and C. Wu, Anxiolytic effect of saponins from Panax quinquefolium in mice, Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol.111, issue.3, pp.6-9, 2007.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jep.2007.01.009

C. Wiart, N. Hannah, and M. Yassim, Antimicrobial activity of tiger's betel, 2004.

J. W. Williams, C. D. Mulrow, E. Chiquette, P. H. Noëi, C. Aguilar et al., A systematic review of newer pharmacotherapies for depression in adults: evidence report sunrmary, pp.743-756, 2000.

P. Willner, The validity of animal models of depression, Psychopharmacology, vol.8, issue.Suppl, 1984.
DOI : 10.1176/ajp.129.3.263