A. M. and M. K. Goodman-a, Plasmid transfer between marine bacteria in the aqueous phase and biofilms in reactor microcosms, APPI. Environ. Microbiol, vol.59, issue.3, pp.843-850, 1993.

A. D. Bryers-j, 199'1, Effects of carbon and oxygen limitations and calcium concentrations on biofiLn removal processus, Biotechnol. Bioeng, pp.17-25

B. R. , T. M. , and R. J. Characklis-w, Activity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in biofihn : steady state, Biotech. Bioeng, vol.231, pp.418-419

B. M. Fry-j and . J. Day-m, Transfer and occurrence of large mercury resistance plasmids in river epilithorç, ApPl. Environ. Microbiol, vol.54, issue.4, pp.972-978, 1988.

B. P. and D. C. Block-i, Analysis of biofilm growth rate in a packed bed bioreactor, Biofouling, pp.305-316, 1993.

B. P. and L. C. Manemi, Plasmid content evaluation of activated sludge, Wat. Res, vol.29, issue.1, pp.371-374, 1995.

B. P. Grinsted-i, . L. Choi-c, and . H. Richmond-m, Characterization of Tn 501. a transposon determining resistance to mercuric ions, 1978.

B. P. , F. J. , and C. A. Dood-h, Evolution of R plasmids by replicon fusion, T. Antimicrob. Chemother, pp.103-111, 1986.

B. P. Richmond-m, Translocation of a discrete piece of deoxyribonucleic acid and amp gerte between replicons in Escherichia coli, 1976.

B. D. , B. , Z. , and I. Gen, Characteristics and function of thick and thin conjugative Pili determined by transfer-derepressed plasmids of incompatibility groups I, pp.489-1502, 1984.

B. D. and T. D. Cohen-d, Specification of surface mating systems among conjugative drug resistance plasmids in Escherichia coli K12, pp.466-1470, 1980.

B. I. Banks-m and . A. De-bont-i, Assessment of biofiLn ecodynamics, in Physiology of Lnmobilized Cells, pp.49-62, 1990.

B. J. Characklis-w, Biofilm laboratory methods : the use of flow reactors, in Biofibns-Science and Biotechnology, pp.615-629, 1992.

C. B. Rois-i, Introduction to biofilms in water and wastewater treatment, Biofilms-Science and Biotechnolog, pp.13-20, 1992.

C. M. Gauthier-m and . A. Breittmayer-v, Conjugative transfer of R plasmid between Escherichia coli strains on saline selective media and in water, pp.207-215, 1992.

C. L. Cervantes-l, C. A. Soberon-x, B. A. Vichido-i-',, . M. Kupersztoch-portnoy-y, and . Bolivar-f, CONStTUCtiON ANd characterization of new cloning vehicles. V. Mobilization and coding properties of pBR322 and several deletion derivatives includingpBR327 and pBR328, Gene, pp.25-35, 1981.

D. N. Hedges-r, Trimethoprim resistance conferred by W plasniid in Enterob acteriace ae, I, Gen. Microbiol, 1972.

D. R. Matthews-t and . N. Streips-u, Chemical basis for selectivity of metal ions by the Bacillus subtillis cell wall, pp.471-480, 1980.

D. , G. I. Oliriet-m, . C. Lett-m, and . C. Hubert-i, Recombinant DNA transfer to EscLrcichia coli from human faecal origin in vitro and in digestive tract of gnobiotic mice, FEMS Microbiol. Ecol, pp.79-88, 1994.

E. L. Alm, 199L, Study of flocculation mechanisms by observing effects of a complexing agent on activated sludge properties, Wat. Sci. Tech, vol.8, issue.247, pp.21-28

F. L. Bremer-h, Laboratory methods : Increased amplification of plasmid pBR322 by low concentrations of chloramphenicol, DNô 9, pp.539-544, 1986.

F. J. Day-m, Plasmid transfer in the epilithorç in Bacterial Genetics in Natural Environments, pp.55-77, 1990.

F. M. and I. M. Suzuki-h, Screening of plasmids from wastewater bacteria, Wat. Res, vol.27, issue.6, pp.949-953, 1993.

G. M. Chai-m and A. K. Boyer-i, Transfer of plasmid pBR322 and pBR325 in wastewater from laboratory strains of Esclaeichia coli to bacteria indigenous to waste disposal system, Appl. Environ. Microbiol, vol.49, issue.4, pp.836-841, 1985.

G. I. Sadowsky-m, In vivo transfer of pR68.45 from Pseudomonas aeruginosa into indigenous soil bacteria, Microb. Releases, vol.1, pp.237-241

G. P. Slater-i, Transfer and stability of drug resistance plasmids in Escherichia coliKl2, Microb. Ecol., !, vol.9, pp.1-13

G. D. Lanka, Conjugative transfer of Inc P plasmids, in Promiscuous Plasmids of Gram-negative Bacteria, Construction of stable, single-copy luciferase gene fusion rnEscheichia coli, p.5, 1989.

H. I. Spraglie-g, Transmission of plasmid DNA to yeast by conjugation with bacteria, Meth. Enzymol, vol.194, pp.187-195, 1991.

R. B. Henrchke and . R. Schmidt-f, Plasmid mobilization from genetically engineered bacteria to members of the indigenous soil microflora in situ, Curr. Microbiol.. !Q, pp.105-110, 1990.

H. K. Fry-j and . Weightman, Gene transfer in the aquatic environrnent : persistence and mobihzation of the catabolic recombinant pD10 in the epilithorç Microbiology, pp.1555-1563, 1994.

H. K. and W. A. Fry-j, Isolation and screening of plasmids from the epilithon which mobilize recombinant plasmid pD10, AppL Environ. Microbiol, vol.58, issue.4, pp.1292-1300, 1992.

I. K. and N. M. Yoshida-k, The yeast Saccharomyces kluyuei as a recipient eukaryriote in transkingdom conjugation: behavior of transmitted plasmids in transconjugants, T. Bacteriol, vol.17, issue.447, pp.6-6, 1994.

J. 8. , C. B. , and R. H. Faup-g, Design considerations for nitrification and denitrification process using two fixed bed reactors in series, Wat. Sci. Tech, pp.139-150, 1987.

J. D. Willets-n, Tn 230'1, a transposon construct car4ring the entire transfer region of the F plasmid, pp.1-43, 1980.

J. F. Gliicherd-p and U. V. Block-i, Hydrophobicity of activated sludge flocs and laboratory-grown bacteria Wat, Sci. Tech, vol.30, issue.11, pp.211-218, 1994.

K. H. , G. A. Pickup-i, . C. Viberti-g, J. W. Bilous-r, and . Marsden-r, Human insulin produced by recombinant DNA technology: safety and hypoglycaemic potency in healthy mery Lancet, pp.2-398401, 1980.

K. and .. I. Malamy-m, F factor msfilization of non-conjugative chimeric plasmids inEscheichia coli: general mechanisms and a role for site specific rec A-independent recombination atoi VI, T, Mol. Biol, pp.1-4373, 1980.

K. L. Parker-b, A simple, rapid method for enumerating total viable and metabolically active bacteria in groundwater1'630'1,631'. t52 KLEIN I. & ZIEHR H.,1rgg}, Lnmobilization of microbial cells by adsorptiorU T, Appl. Environ. Microbiol.. Biotechnol, vol.54, issue.66, p.1, 1988.

K. H. Sorum-h, Transfer of multiple drug resistance plasmids between bacteria of diverse origins in natural microenvironments, APPI. Environ. Microbiol, vol.60, issue.11, p.40154021, 1994.

. Lebaron-ph, . Batailler-n, and . Baleux-b, Mobilization of a recombinant non conjugative plasmid at the interface between wastewater and the marine coastal environment, FEMS Microbiol. Ecol, p.6170, 1994.

. Lebaron-ph, . C. Lett-m, and . Baleuxb, Effects of pili rigidity and energy availabiJity on conjugative plasmid transfer in aquatic environments, Microb. Releases, vol.2, pp.127-133, 1993.

L. I. Tatlim-8, Gene recombination in Escheichia colf, Nature, p.558, 1946.

L. M. Wackernagel-w, Natural genetic transformation of P seudomonas stutzei by sand-absorbed DNA, Arch. Microbiol, vol.154, pp.380-385, 1990.

M. Clure, N. C. Fry-j, and . J. Weightman-a, Gene transfer in activated sludge, Bacterial Genetics in Natural Environments, p.129, 1990.

M. J. Donald, . F. Smets-b, and . E. Rittmann-b, The effects of energy availability on the conjugative-transfer kinetics of plasmids RP4, Wat. Res, vol.26, issue.4, pp.461-468, 1992.

M. P. Kay, . Pasek-m, K. T. Magazin-m, G. W. Stahl-s, B. S. Scheller-h et al., Production of immunologically active swface antigens of hepatitis B virus by Escheichia coli, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, pp.4510-451

M. Pherson and P. A. Gealt-m, Isolation of indigenous wastewater bacterial strains capable of mobilizing plasmid, APPI. Environ. Microbiol, vol.51, issue.5, 1986.

M. E. Duwat-p, E. D. Fiege-t, and . Gruss-a, NCW thCTMOSCNSitiVC plasmid for Gram positive bacteria, pp.5633-5638, 1992.

M. P. , F. S. , and N. D. Gealt-m, Mobilization of plasmid pHSV106 from E. coti HB101 in a laboratory-scale waste treatment facility, 1987.

M. J. Hallewell-r and B. I. Goodman-h, Human growth hormone : complementary DNA cloning and expression in bacteriA Science, pp.602-607, 1979.

M. M. , N. D. Schlegel-h, G. J. , and C. P. Van-gusegem-f, Alcaligenes eutrophus CH34 is a facultative chemolithotroph with plasmid-bound to heaw metals, pp.62328-62331, 1985.

N. R. , C. S. Cohen-s, . Ctirtss-[-i-r, . Datta-n, and . Falkow-s, Uniform nomenclature for bacterial plasmids: a proposal, Bacteriol. Rev, vol.401, issue.1, pp.68-189, 1976.

P. M. Minckley-e and . Jr, Purification and properties of the F factor Tra D protein an inner membrane conjugal transfer protein, Biol. Chem, vol.267, pp.12761-12766, 1992.

J. H. Paul and F. M. Thurmond-j, Gene transfer in marine water column and sediment microcosms by natural plasmid transformation, 1991.

P. K. Feig-y, The use of DAPI for identifying and counting aquatic microflora, Limnol. Oceanogra, vol.25, issue.5, pp.943-947, 1980.

R. Chimie and . Ecologie, Evaluation des risques liés à la dissémination dans l'environnement des micro-organismes. à ADN recombiné : Efude comparative du, p.289, 1993.

R. M. , H. I. , and R. B. Lett, Transposon Tn 5403, a pefilization helper element: complete nucleotide sequence and distribution in aquatic strains, FEMS Microbiol. Ecol, pp.89-96, 1994.

R. F. Payraudeau-m, Tertiary nitrification with fixed biomass reactors, 1988.

R. M. and G. D. Rosenberg, Adherence of bacteria to hydrocarbons: A simple method for measuring cell-surface hydrophobicity, FEMS Microbiology Letters, vol.108, issue.1, pp.29-33, 1980.
DOI : 10.1099/00221287-48-1-9

R. M. Rosenberg-e, 1.985, Bacterial adherence at the hydrocarbon-water interface, Oil Petrochem. Poll, pp.155-162
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/in2p3-00420482

R. B. Lebaron-p and H. J. Lett-m, Occurence of transposable elements in aquatic bacteria strains involvement in the mobilization of pBR-type plasmids, Microb. Releases, pp.223-228, 1993.

S. S. , T. S. Nurmiaho-lassila, and M. A. Rfien-m, ThC Escherichia coli G-fimbrial lectin protein participates both in fimbrial biogenesis and recognition of the receptor N-acétyl-D-glucosamine, pp.477-478, 1995.

S. A. Shoemaker-n and . L. Lhing-yew, MinireVicW: iN thc driVCrS seat : the Bacteroides conjugative transposons and the elements they mobilize, l, Bacteriol, issue.20, pp.77-727

S. C. Herson-d, 5., 199'1., Mobilization of the genetically engineered plasmid pHSV106 from Escheichia coli IIB101 (pHSV106) to Enterobacter cloacae in drinking water, Appl. Environ. Microbiol, vol.57, issue.1, pp.194-200

S. D. Ogunseitan-o, . S. Sayler-g, and . V. Miller-r, Potential for transduction of plasmids in a natural freshwater environment: effect of plasmid donor concentration and a natural microbial community on transduction inPseudomonas aeruginosa, Appl. Environ. Microbiol, pp.987-995, 1987.

W. Ae-shi, . Zihou-y, A. J. Wild-i, and . A. Cross-c, DnaK, DnaJ, and GrpE are required for flagellum synthesis inEscheichia coli, pp.6256-6263, 1992.

S. M. Characklis-w, Observations of bit ury population biofilms, Biotechnol. Bioeng, vol.92, pp.778-789, 1991.

S. E. Van-eisas-i, Determination of plasmid transfer frequency in soil consequences of bacterial mating on selective agar medi4, Curr. Microbiol.. ZL, pp.151-157, 1990.

S. E. Venne-d and . D. Van-eisas-1, Mobilization of a recombinant Inc Q plasmid between bacteria on agar and soil via cotransfer or retrotransfer, APPI. Environ. Microbiol, vol.9, pp.2257-2263

S. X. and C. L. Bolivar-f, Construction and characterization of new cloning vehicles. IV. Deletion derivatives of pBR322 artd pBR325, pp.287-305, 1980.

S. L. Bock-e, D. I. Bouwer-e, G. D. Heckmann-k, H. P. Kolbel-boelke, M. K. Prosser-i et al., Cellular and physiology and interactions of biofilms organisms, Structure and Function of Biofilm, pp.269-286, 1989.

S. , .. L. Mac, and K. L. , Conjugal transfer of genetic material in lactococci: a review, I. Dair,v Sci, pp.3388-3397, 1989.

S. G. Babich-h, Survival of, and genetic transfer by, genetically bacteria in natural environments, Adv. Appl. Microbiol, pp.3-93, 1986.

T. E. Mergeay-m and S. D. Verstraete-w, Gene escape model: transfer of heavy metal resistance genes from Escheichia coli to Alcaligenes eutrophus on agar plates and in soil samples, Appl. Environ. Microbiol, issue.8, pp.56-2471, 1990.

T. E. Vandrulleghem-p and M. M. Verstraete-w, DCtCTMiNAtiON Of the mechanistic mathematical modeling, pp.5953-5960, 1992.

T. J. Lgsz, Identification of plasmid containing bacteria in an activated sludge reactor, Toxicity Assessment : An International Quaterly 2-283-291

T. T. Barkay-t and . W. Bourquin-a, Gene transfer among bacteria in soil and aquatic environments : a review, Can. T. Microbiol, 0198.

T. I. Van-eisas-i, . E. Starodlib-m, and . S. Van-overbeek-l, Pseudomonas fluorescens survival and plasmid RP4 transfer in agricultural water, Wat. Res, vol.24, issue.6, pp.75-755, 1990.

U. V. Block-i, V. C. Kado-c, E. J. , T. J. Starodub-m, and . S. Van-overbeek-l, Bioflocculation in activated sludge, an analytic approach Molecular genetics of Inc W plasmids, in Promiscuous Plasmids of Gram-negative Bacteria Transfer of plasmid RP4 between pseudomonads after introduction into soils : influence of spatial and temporal aspects of inoculatiorU FEMS Microbiol, Academic Press Limited, pp.829-838, 1989.

W. I. Moss, Nucleotide sequence of the vaccinia virus thymidine kinase gene and the nature of spontaneous frameshift mutatiorç T, Virol, vol.8, issue.462, pp.530-537, 1989.

E. Coli-kl2 and L. E. , coli Kl2UB28l Ten strains isolated from activaaed sludge R388 (33 kb) originated ftom E. coli _ pCE325 (6.5 kb) plasmid derived from pBR325 pCE328 (5.5 kb) plasmid derived from pBR328 pUB2380 (8.6 kb) E. coli plasmid from the liquid manure of a pig farm his-, try

. Amp-' and . Cm, tk-rccc, par [9-l U Km', mob *

P. Trieu-cuot, C. Carlier, P. Martin, and P. Courvalin, to Gram-positive bacteria, FEMS Microbiology Letters, vol.48, issue.1-2, pp.289-294, 1987.
DOI : 10.1128/jb.165.3.831-836.1986

E. Smit, D. Venne, and J. D. Van-elsas, Mobilization of a recombinant Inc Q plasmid between bacteria on agar and in soil via cotransfer or retrotransfer, Appl. Environ. Micrq biol, vol.59, pp.2257-2263, 1993.

J. A. Heinemann and R. G. Ankenbauer, Retrotransfer in Escherichia coli conjugation: bidirectional exchange or de novo mating?, Journal of Bacteriology, vol.175, issue.3, pp.583-588, 1993.
DOI : 10.1128/jb.175.3.583-588.1993

N. Kleckner, Transposable Elements in Prokaryotes, Annual Review of Genetics, vol.15, issue.1, 1981.
DOI : 10.1146/annurev.ge.15.120181.002013

B. M. Wilkins, Factors influencing the dissemination of DNA by bacterial conjugation, Bacterial Genetics in Natural Environment, pp.22-30, 1990.
DOI : 10.1007/978-94-009-1834-4_2

N. Willets and R. Skunay, Structure and function of the F factor and mechanism of conjugation. ln: Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium, pp.0-1133, 1987.

F. Bolivar, Construction and characterization of new cloning vehicles III. Derivatives of plasmid pBR322 carrying unique Eco RI sites for selection of Eco RI generated recombinant DNA molecules, Gene, vol.4, issue.2, pp.121-136, 1978.
DOI : 10.1016/0378-1119(78)90025-2

B. Roux, P. Lebaron, J. C. Hubert, and M. C. Len, Occurence of transposable elements in aquatic bacteria strains: involvement in the mobilization of pBR-type plasmids, Microb. Releases l, pp.223-228, 1993.

X. Soberon, L. Covarubias, and F. Bolivar, Construction and characterization of new cloning vehicles IV. Deletion derivatives of pBR322 and pBR325, Gene, vol.9, issue.3-4, pp.28-35, 1980.
DOI : 10.1016/0378-1119(90)90328-O

L. Covarubias, L. Cervantes, A. Covarubias, X. Soberon, I. Vichido et al., Construction and characterization of new cloning vehicles V. Mobilization and coding properties of pBR322 and several deletion derivatives including pBR327 and pBR328, Gene, vol.13, issue.1, pp.25-35, 1981.
DOI : 10.1016/0378-1119(81)90040-8

P. M. It2-]-bennen, J. Grinsted, C. L. Choi, and M. H. Richmond, Characterization of Tn501 a transposon determining resistance to mercuric ions, Mol. G. Genet, vol.159, pp.101-106, 1978.

P. M. Bennen and M. H. Richmond, Translocation of a discrete piece of deoxyribonucleic acid and amp Eene between replicons in Escherichia coli, J. Bacteriol, vol.1266, 1976.

I. Oatta, N. Hedges, and R. W. , Trimethoprim resistance conferred by W plasmids in Enterobacteriaceae, J-Gen. Microbiol, vol.7, issue.2, pp.349-355, 1972.

P. M. Bennett, J. Heritage, A. Comanducci, and H. M. Dodd, Evolution of R plasmids by replicon fusion, Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, vol.18, issue.Supplement_C, pp.103-114, 1986.
DOI : 10.1093/jac/18.Supplement_C.103

J. P. Weir and B. Moss, Nucleotide sequence of the Vaccinia virus thymidine kinase gene and the nature of spontaneous frameshift mutation, J. Virol, vol.46, 1983.

I. Zunta, M. Bolivar, F. Soberon, and X. , Construction and characterization of new cloning vehicles. VII. Construction of plasmid pBR327 par, a completely sequenced, stable derivatives of pBR327 containing the par locus of pSCl0l, Gene, vol.28, pp.9-122, 1984.

J. Sambrook, E. F. Fritsch, and T. Maniatis, ln: Molecular Cloning: a Laboratory Manual, 1989.

L. K. King and B. C. Parker, A simple' rapid method for enumerating total viable and metabolically active bacteria in groundwater, Appl. Environ. Microbiol, vol.54, pp.1630-1631, 1988.

K. G. Porter, Y. S. Feig, and *. Fran, The use of DAPI for 148 N 139-l4B identifying and counting aquatic microflora, FEMS Mitobiology Ecotogy Limnol. Oceanogr, vol.2, issue.25, pp.943-947, 1980.

P. Bauda, M. A. Dollard, and J. C. Block, Analysis of biofilm growth rate in a packed bed bioreactor, Biofouling, vol.20, issue.4, pp.305-316, 1993.
DOI : 10.1002/bit.260370906

P. Bouillot, A. Canaees, A. Pareilleux, A. Huyarq, and G. Goma, Membrane bioreactors for the evaluation of maintenance phenomena in wastewater treatment, Journal of Fermentation and Bioengineering, vol.69, issue.3, pp.178-183, 1990.
DOI : 10.1016/0922-338X(90)90043-V

J. W. L23l-7ale and U. Hangi, lgEt) Characterization of Rplasmid-associated trimethoprim-lgsi5tant dihydrofolate reductase and deaermination of the nucleotide sequence of the reductase gene, Nucleic Acids Res, vol.9, pp.697-710

J. Sambrook, E. F. Fritscb, and T. Maniatis, In: Molecular Cloning: a l-aboratory Manual, 1989.

I. Hill, A. Weighrman, and J. C. Fry, Isolarion and screening of plasmids from the epilithon qlfiiçh alelitizs recombinant plasmid pDl0, Appl. Environ. Microbiol, vol.58, pp.1292-1305, 1992.

K. Hill, J. C. Fry, and A. Weightrnan, Gene transfer in the aquatic environment: persistence and mobilization of the catabolic recombinant plasmid pD10 in the epilithon, Microbiology, vol.140, issue.7, pp.1555-1563, 1994.
DOI : 10.1099/13500872-140-7-1555

P. Macpherson and M. A. Gealt, Isolarion of indigenous wastewater bacterial strains capable of mobilizing plasmid, Appl. Environ. Microbiol, vol.51, pp.9-9, 1986.

J. G. Glew, J. S. Angle, and M. Sadowsky, In vivo ransfer of pR68.45 ftom Pseudomonas aentginosa into indigenous soil bacteria Microb, pp.237-241, 1993.

R. Henschke and F. R. Schmidt, Plasmid mobilization from genetically engineered bacteria to members of the indigenous soil microflora in situ, Current Microbiology, vol.53, issue.2, pp.5-6, 1990.
DOI : 10.1007/978-3-642-73419-9_11

T. D. Leser, Validation of microbial community structure and ecological functional parameters in an aquatic microcosm designed for testing genetically engineered microorganisms, Microbial Ecology, vol.53, issue.2, pp.183-201, 1995.
DOI : 10.1007/978-1-4612-3382-4_5

Y. Duval-iflah, I. Gainctu, M. F. Ouriet, M. C. Leu, and J. C. Hubert, Recombinant DNA transfer to Escherichia coli of human faecal origin in vitro and in digestive tract of gnotobiotic mice, FEMS Microbiology Ecology, vol.133, issue.1-2, pp.79-88, 1994.
DOI : 10.1099/00221287-72-2-349

J. C. Fry and M. J. Day, plasmid rransfer in rhe epilithon, Bacterial Genetics in Natural Fnvironment, pp.55-55, 1990.

M. Rinket, J. C. Hub?g, B. Roux, and M. C. Len, Transposon Tn5403, a mobilization-helper element: Complete nucleotide sequence and distribution in aquatic strains, FEMS Microbiology Ecology, vol.6, issue.1-2, pp.89-96
DOI : 10.1128/jb.169.2.624-631.1987

P. Lebaron, V. Roux, M. C. Len, and B. Baleux, Effects of pili rigidity and energy availabiliry on conjugative plasrnid Eansfer in aquatic environments, Microb. Releases, vol.2, pp.127-133, 1993.

.. Transferts-génétiques-au-sein-de-réacteurs-batch-séquencés, 3.6.1.-Le réacteur batch-séquencé avec recyclage de biomasse

4. Des-biofilns-monospecies-À-l-'équilibre and .. , 4.1.1.1-Cinétique de mise à l'équilibre