Activités de systèmes antioxydants chez Unio tumidus, bivalve dulçaquicole en conditions physiologiques et de stress chimique

Abstract : The subject of this research concerned the use of biomarkers for the control of the health of exposed populations in the aquatic environment. We have been involved in the study of antioxidant systems as biomarkers for toxicity. Antioxidant systems can neutalize chemical reactive species produced by the endogenous metabolism, but also by xenobiotics. The different antioxidant parametres we have been studying are the activities of glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, catalase and reduced and oxidized glutathione levels. Those different antioxidant activities were measured in frehwater bivalves, Unio tumidus, in physiological conditions and during a stress induced by chemicals. There were no significant differences between the basal levels measured in the males and the femelles. The season (spring and automn) did not seem to have any influence on the antioxidant parameters, except for (i) the glutathione reductase activities in the digestive glands and (ii) the catalase activities in the gills ; both were weaker during the spring than during the automn. The antioxidant activities were generaly smaller in the gills compared to the digestive glands. When the bivalves were exposed to a stress, in the laboratory or in situ during field experimentations, we have noticed that glutathione peroxidase selenium-dependent and glutathione reductase activities as well as reduced glutathione levels were sensitives and may be candidates as biomarkers for toxicity. Those parameters were decreased in the digestives glands as in the gills when bivalves were exposed in the laboratory to chemicals as copper and thiram, but also during field experimentations when the organisms were transfered in areas polluted by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pahs) and polychlorobiphenyls (pcbs). The decreases of those parametres may traduce some toxic effects due to xenobiotics. But it is necessary to study the relationships between the antioxidant responses and the contamination levels in oder to know the meaning of the induction or the inhibition of those antioxidant activities
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Carole Cossu-Leguille. Activités de systèmes antioxydants chez Unio tumidus, bivalve dulçaquicole en conditions physiologiques et de stress chimique. Sciences agricoles. Université Paul Verlaine - Metz, 1996. Français. ⟨NNT : 1996METZ054S⟩. ⟨tel-01777174⟩

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