N. J. Adler, Comportement organisationnel : une approche multiculturelle, 1994.

N. J. Adler, International dimensions of organizational behavior, The International Executive, vol.28, issue.1, 1997.
DOI : 10.1002/tie.5060280112

R. Amit and J. H. Schoemaker, Strategic assets and organizational rent, Strategic Management Journal, vol.16, issue.6, pp.33-46, 1993.
DOI : 10.5465/AMR.1991.4278990

E. Applebaum and R. Batt, The New American Workplace : Transforming Work Systems in the United States, 1994.

E. Applebaum and P. Berg, Work Reorganization and Flexibility in Job Desing The Human Resource Management Handbook, Part II, pp.45-62, 1997.

M. Arcand, L'effet des pratiques de gestion des ressources humaines sur l'efficacité des caisses populaires, 2000.

M. Arcand, G. Arcand, M. Bayad, and B. Fabi, Systemes De Gestion Des Ressources Humaines Et Performance Organisationnelle, Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics, vol.39, issue.4, pp.497-524, 2004.
DOI : 10.5465/AME.1999.1899547

J. B. Arthur, The Link between Business Strategy and Industrial Relations Systems in American Steel Minimills, ILR Review, vol.63, issue.2, pp.488-506, 1992.
DOI : 10.1080/01621459.1963.10500845

J. B. Arthur, EFFECTS OF HUMAN RESOURCE SYSTEMS ON MANUFACTURING PERFORMANCE AND TURNOVER., Academy of Management Journal, vol.37, issue.3, pp.670-687, 1994.
DOI : 10.2307/256705

J. B. Arthur, Testing de Strategic Human Resources Perspective : Contingency and Configurational Approaches. Paper presented at Congrès annuel de l, 1995.

O. Ashenfelter and R. Lalonde, The Economics of Training The Human Resource Management Handbook, pp.53-78, 1997.

L. S. Baird, R. W. Beatty, and C. E. Schneir, The Performance Appraisal Source Book, 1982.

L. S. Baird and I. Meshoulam, Managing Two Fits of Strategic Human Resource Management, Academy of Management Review, vol.13, issue.1, pp.116-128, 1988.

H. G. Barkema and L. R. Gomez-mejia, MANAGERIAL COMPENSATION AND FIRM PERFORMANCE: A GENERAL RESEARCH FRAMEWORK., Academy of Management Journal, vol.41, issue.2, pp.135-145, 1998.
DOI : 10.2307/257098

J. B. Barney, Firm Resources and Sustained Competitive Advantage, Journal of Management, vol.15, issue.1, pp.99-129, 1991.
DOI : 10.2307/2094862

J. B. Barney, Looking inside for competitive advantage., Academy of Management Perspectives, vol.9, issue.4, pp.49-61, 1995.
DOI : 10.5465/AME.1995.9512032192

V. Barnouw, Culture and Personality, 1963.

J. N. Baron and D. M. Kreps, Strategic Human Resources : Frameworks for General Managers, 1999.

J. N. Baron and D. M. Kreps, Consistent Human Resource Practices, California Management Review, vol.71, issue.3, pp.29-53, 1999.
DOI : 10.2307/203672

J. Barrete and M. Simeus, Pratiques de gestion des ressources humaines et performance organisationnelle dans les entreprises de haute technologie. Paper presented at ASAC in St-John's TN, 1997.

R. Batt and E. Applebaum, Worker Participation in Diverse Settings: Does the Form Affect the Outcome, and If So, Who Benefits?, British Journal of Industrial Relations, vol.29, issue.3, pp.331-378, 1995.
DOI : 10.1111/j.2044-8325.1983.tb00134.x

M. Bayad, G. Arcand, M. Arcand, A. , and N. , Gestion stratégique des ressources humaines : fondements et modèles. Revue internationale sur le travail et la société, pp.74-93, 2004.

R. W. Beatty, Competitive Human Resource Advanntage Through the Strategic Management of Performance, Human Resource Planning, vol.12, issue.3, pp.179-194, 1989.

B. E. Beck, M. , and L. F. , Linking the ost culture to organizational variables, Organizational culture, 1995.

G. S. Becker, The Economic Approach to Human Behavior, 1976.

G. S. Becker and B. Gerhart, THE IMPACT OF HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT ON ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE: PROGRESS AND PROSPECTS., Academy of Management Journal, vol.39, issue.4, pp.779-801, 1996.
DOI : 10.2307/256712

M. Beer, B. Spector, P. R. Lawrence, D. Q. Mills, W. et al., Managing Human Assets, 1984.

R. Benedict, Patterns of Culture., Journal of Educational Sociology, vol.9, issue.5, 1934.
DOI : 10.2307/2262185

P. Berg, The Effects of High Performance Work Practices on Job Satisfaction in the United States Steel Industry. Relations industrielles, pp.111-134, 1999.

P. Berg, E. Applebaum, T. Bailey, and A. L. Kalleberg, The Performance Effects of Modular Production in the Apparel Industry, Industrial Relations, vol.56, issue.1, pp.356-373, 1996.
DOI : 10.2307/256189

P. G. Bergeron, La gestion dynamique: Concepts, méthodes et applications, 2001.

G. Betcherman, Workplace Transformation in Canada : Policies and Practices, Managing Human Resources in the 1990s and Beyond : Is the Workplace Being Transformed, pp.102-131, 1995.

G. Betcherman, N. Leckie, and A. Verma, HRM Innovations in Canada : Evidence from Establishment Surveys, 1994.

A. Bird and S. Beechler, Links Between Business Strategy and Human Resource Management Strategy in U.S.-Based Japanese Subsidiaries: An Empirical Investigation, Journal of International Business Studies, vol.26, issue.1, pp.23-46, 1995.
DOI : 10.1057/palgrave.jibs.8490164

A. Blais, Le sondage Recherche sociale : de la problématique à la collecte des données, 361-398, 1993.

A. S. Blinder, Introduction, Paying for Productivity : A look at the Evidence, pp.1-13, 1990.

D. Bollinger and G. Hofstede, Les différences culturelles dans le management : comment chaque pays gère-t-il ses hommes? Paris: Les éditions d'organisation, 1987.

F. Bournois and C. Fourboul, Multinationales : communication interne et culture nationale Revue française de gestion. mars-avril-mai, pp.88-97, 2000.

P. Boxall and M. Steeneveld, Human Resource Strategy and Competitive Advantage: A Longitudinal Study of Engineering Consultancies, Journal of Management Studies, vol.36, issue.4, pp.443-463, 1999.
DOI : 10.1111/1467-6486.00144

R. Boyer, La flexibilité du travail en Europe, 1986.

F. Braudel, Grammaire des civilisations, 1987.

C. Brewster, Towards a ???European??? Model of Human Resource Management, Journal of International Business Studies, vol.26, issue.1, pp.1-21, 1994.
DOI : 10.1057/palgrave.jibs.8490163

C. Brewster and A. Hegewisch, Policy and practice in European human resource management, the evidence and analysis from the Price-Waterhouse Cranfield survey, 1994.

J. Brockner, S. Grover, T. F. Reed, D. , and R. L. , LAYOFFS, JOB INSECURITY, AND SURVIVORS' WORK EFFORT: EVIDENCE OF AN INVERTED-U RELATIONSHIP., Academy of Management Journal, vol.35, issue.2, pp.413-425, 1992.
DOI : 10.2307/256380

M. A. Brown, Values -- A Necessary but Neglected Ingredient of Motivation on the Job., Academy of Management Review, vol.1, issue.4, pp.15-23, 1976.
DOI : 10.5465/AMR.1976.4396236

M. P. Brown, International performance appraisal : Transitional process with cross-cultural considerations, 1996.

R. L. Brummet, E. G. Flamholz, and W. C. Pyle, Human Resource Measurement : A Challenge for Accountants. The Accounting Review, pp.217-224, 1968.

K. S. Cameron, Measuring Organizational Effectiveness in Institutions of Higher Education, Administrative Science Quarterly, vol.23, issue.4, pp.604-632, 1978.
DOI : 10.2307/2392582

K. S. Cameron, The Relationship Between Faculty Unionism and Organizational Effectiveness., Academy of Management Journal, vol.25, issue.1, pp.6-24, 1982.
DOI : 10.2307/256021

K. S. Cameron and D. A. Whetten, Organizational Effectiveness: One Model or Several?, Organization Effectiveness : A Comparison of Multiple Models, pp.1-26, 1983.
DOI : 10.1016/B978-0-12-157180-1.50006-9

J. P. Campbell, On the Nature of Organizational Effectiveness, New Perspective of Organizational Effectiveness, pp.13-62, 1977.

S. Chan, People Management in the Context of Global Change, Employment Relations Today, vol.29, issue.2, pp.19-24, 2002.
DOI : 10.1002/ert.10036

C. W. Chow, M. D. Sheilds, C. , and Y. K. , The effects of management controls and national culture on manufacturing performance: An experimental investigation, Accounting, Organizations and Society, vol.16, issue.3, pp.209-226, 1991.
DOI : 10.1016/0361-3682(91)90001-U

J. A. Conger and R. N. Kanungo, The Empowerment Process : Integrating Theory and Practice, Academy of Management Review, vol.13, issue.3, pp.171-182, 1988.

K. R. Conner, A Historical Comparison of Resource-Based Theory and Five Schools of Thought Within Industrial Organization Economics: Do We Have a New Theory of the Firm?, Journal of Management, vol.73, issue.1, pp.121-154, 1991.
DOI : 10.1287/mnsc.32.10.1223

W. N. Cook, Employee Participation Programs, Group-Based Incentives, and Company Performance: A Union-Nonunion Comparison, ILR Review, vol.79, issue.2, pp.594-609, 1994.
DOI : 10.2307/1912934

J. L. Cotton, Employee Involvement : Methods for Improving Performance and Work Attitudes, 1993.

T. H. Cox, S. A. Lobel, and P. L. Mcleod, EFFECTS OF ETHNIC GROUP CULTURAL DIFFERENCES ON COOPERATIVE AND COMPETITIVE BEHAVIOR ON A GROUP TASK., Academy of Management Journal, vol.34, issue.4, pp.827-847, 1991.
DOI : 10.2307/256391

M. Crozier and E. Friedberg, L'acteur et le système, 1977.

A. Cummings, J. Zhou, and G. R. Oldham, Demographic differences and employee work outcomes: Effects on multiple comparison groups, 1993.

J. Cutcher-gershenfeld, The Impact on Economic Performance of a Transformation in Workplace Relations, ILR Review, vol.4, issue.1, pp.241-260, 1991.
DOI : 10.1086/261278

J. D. Daniels, R. , and L. H. , International Business: Environments and Operations, 2001.

D. V. Day and A. G. Bedeian, Predicting Job Performance Across Organizations: The Interaction of Work Orientation and Psychological Climate, Journal of Management, vol.5, issue.3, pp.589-600, 1991.
DOI : 10.1037/0021-9010.67.6.752

S. De-coussergues, Gestion de la banque : du diagnostic à la stratégie, 2002.

J. T. Delaney and M. A. Huselid, THE IMPACT OF HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES ON PERCEPTIONS OF ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE., Academy of Management Journal, vol.39, issue.4, pp.949-969, 1996.
DOI : 10.2307/256718

J. E. Delery, Issues of fit in strategic human resource management: Implications for research, Human Resource Management Review, vol.8, issue.3, pp.289-309, 1998.
DOI : 10.1016/S1053-4822(98)90006-7

DOI : 10.2307/256713

R. Deliège, Anthropologie sociale et culturelle, 1995.

R. Deliège, Les intouchables en Inde : des castes d'exclus, 1995.

D. R. Denison, Corporate Culture and Organizational Effectiveness, Organizational Dynamics, vol.33, issue.1, 1990.
DOI : 10.1016/j.orgdyn.2003.11.008

D. R. Denison and A. K. Mishra, Toward a Theory of Organizational Culture and Effectiveness, Organization Science, vol.6, issue.2, pp.204-223, 1995.
DOI : 10.1287/orsc.6.2.204

G. Dessler, N. D. Cole, S. , and V. L. , Human Resources Management in Canada, 1999.

M. A. Devanna, C. J. Fombrun, and N. M. Tichy, A Framework for Strategic Human Resource Management, Strategic Human Resource Management, 1984.

P. W. Dorfman and J. P. Howell, Dimensions of national culture and effective leadership patterns : Hofstede revisited Advances in international comparative management, 1988.

D. H. Doty and W. H. Glick, Typologies as a Unique Form of Theory Building : Toward Improved Understanding and Modeling, Academy of Management Review, vol.19, issue.2, pp.230-251, 1994.

D. H. Doty, W. H. Glick, and G. P. Huber, FIT, EQUIFINALITY, AND ORGANIZATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS: A TEST OF TWO CONFIGURATIONAL THEORIES., Academy of Management Journal, vol.36, issue.6, pp.1196-1250, 1993.
DOI : 10.2307/256810

B. Downie and M. L. Coates, Barriers, Challenges, and Future Directions Managing Human Resources in the 1990s and Beyond : Is the Workplace Being Transformed ?, pp.164-185, 1995.

Y. L. Doz and C. K. Prahalad, Controlled variety: A challenge for human resource management in the MNC, Human Resource Management, vol.15, issue.1, pp.55-71, 1986.
DOI : 10.1002/hrm.3930250105

L. M. Ducharme, Introduction : Main Theories and Concepts, Measuring Intangible Investment, 1998.

J. T. Dunlop and D. Weil, Diffusion and Performance Effects of Modular Production in the U.S. Apparel Industry, Industrial Relations, vol.35, issue.3, pp.334-355, 1996.

P. Dupriez and S. Simons, La résistance culturelle : fondements, applications et implications du management interculturel, 2002.

L. Dyer, Human Resources as a Source of Competitive Advantage. Queen's University at, 1993.

L. Dyer and G. W. Holder, A Strategic Perspective of Human Resource Management, Human Resource Management : Evolving Roles & Responsibilities The Bureau of National Affairs, pp.1-46, 1988.

L. Dyer and T. A. Kochan, Is There a New HRM ? Contemporary Evidence and Future Directions Managing Human Resources in the 1990s and Beyond : Is the Workplace Being Transformed ?, pp.132-163, 1995.

L. Dyer and T. Reeves, Human resource strategies and firm performance: what do we know and where do we need to go?, The International Journal of Human Resource Management, vol.19, issue.3, pp.656-670, 1995.
DOI : 10.1080/09585199400000053

L. Dyer and R. A. Shafer, From Human Resource Strategy to Organizational Effectiveness : Lessons from Research on Organizational Agility, Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management: Strategic Human Resources Management in the Twenty-First Century, pp.145-154, 1999.

C. P. Earley, Self or Group? Cultural Effects of Training on Self-Efficacy and Performance, Administrative Science Quarterly, vol.39, issue.1, pp.89-117, 1994.
DOI : 10.2307/2393495

P. C. Earley, Social Loafing and Collectivism: A Comparison of the United States and the People's Republic of China, Administrative Science Quarterly, vol.34, issue.4, pp.565-581, 1989.
DOI : 10.2307/2393567

A. E. Eaton and P. B. Voos, Union and Contemporary Innovations in Work Organization, Compensation, and Employee Participation, Unions and Economic Competitiveness, pp.173-215, 1992.

A. E. Eaton, P. B. Voos, K. , D. Eaton, A. E. Voos et al., Voluntary and Involuntary Aspects of Employee Participation in Decision Making The Human Resource Management Handbook, Part I, pp.63-85, 1997.

J. E. Edwards, T. , and M. D. , The Organizational Survey Process, Improving Organizational Surveys : New Directions, Methods, and Application, pp.3-28, 1983.
DOI : 10.1177/014662168500900405

F. E. Emery and E. L. Trist, La trame causal de l'environnement des organisations, Sociologie du travail, vol.4, issue.4, pp.337-350, 1964.
DOI : 10.3406/sotra.1964.1205

C. W. Emory, C. , and D. R. , Business Research Methods, 1991.

G. W. England, The manager and his values, The International Executive, vol.18, issue.2, 1975.
DOI : 10.1002/tie.5060180202

P. A. Evans, Management development as glue technology, Human Resource Planning, vol.15, pp.85-105, 1992.

C. D. Fischer, Current and Recurrent Challenges in HRM, Journal of Management, vol.8, issue.4, pp.157-180, 1989.
DOI : 10.1177/088636878802000305

E. G. Flamholz, Toward a Theory of Human Resource Value in Formal Organizations. The Accounting Review, pp.666-678, 1971.

E. G. Flamholz, Should your Organization Attempt to Value its Human Resources ? California Management Review, pp.40-45, 1972.

E. G. Flamholz, Human Resource Accounting : Measuring Positional Replacement Cost. Human Resource Measurement, pp.8-16, 1973.

G. Florkowski and R. S. Schuler, Auditing Human Resource Management in the Global Environment, The International Journal of Human Resource Management, vol.30, issue.6, pp.827-851, 1994.
DOI : 10.1007/978-1-4757-9539-4_18

C. J. Fombrun, Strategic Management : Integrating the Human Resource Systems into Strategic Planning Advances in Strategic Management, 1983.

M. F. Fortin, Le processus de la recherche : de la conception à la réalisation, 1996.

J. A. Fossum and B. P. Mccall, Pay and Reward for Performance The Human Resource Management Handbook, Part III, pp.111-143, 1997.

P. Gagné and M. Lefebvre, Le futur présent : L'individu et l'organisation dans la nouvelle économie, 1995.

B. Gauthier, Recherche sociale : de la problématique à la collecte des données, 1997.

C. Geertz, The Interpretation of Cultures : Selected Essays, 1973.

B. Gerhart, Human Resource Management and Firm Performance : Measurement Issues and their Effect on Causal and Policy Inferences, Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management: Strategic Human Resources Management in the Twenty-First Century, pp.31-51, 1999.

L. R. Gomez-mejia, Structure and process of diversification, compensation strategy, and firm performance, Strategic Management Journal, vol.10, issue.5, pp.381-397, 1992.
DOI : 10.5465/AME.1987.4275817

L. R. Gomez-mejia, D. B. Balkin, C. , and R. L. , Managing Human Resources, 1995.

L. R. Gomez-mejia, D. B. Balkin, R. L. Cardy, and D. E. Dimick, Managing Human Resources, 2000.

P. S. Goodman, M. , and B. E. , Critical Issues of Cross-Cultural Management Research. human organization, p.39, 1972.

DOI : 10.2307/256341

M. Grant, Les relations de travail dans les caisses populaires : affrontement ou coopération. Coopératives et développement, pp.7-30, 1992.

J. H. Greenhaus, S. Parasuraman, and W. M. Wormley, EFFECTS OF RACE ON ORGANIZATIONAL EXPERIENCE, JOB PERFORMANCE EVALUATIONS, AND CAREER OUTCOMES., Academy of Management Journal, vol.33, issue.1, pp.64-86, 1990.
DOI : 10.2307/256352

C. R. Greer, Strategy and Human Resources : A General Managerial Perspective, 1995.

R. W. Griffin and M. W. Pustay, International Business: A Managerial, 2005.

G. Guérin, J. L. Louarn, and T. Wils, L'intégration des ressources humaines à la planification d'entreprise : une justification et un cadre conceptuel, Revue Gestion, vol.13, issue.4, pp.23-33, 1988.

G. Guérin and T. Wils, L'harmonisation des pratiques de gestion des ressources humaines au contexte stratégique : une synthèse, Vingt-cinq ans de pratiques en relations industrielles au Québec, pp.667-715, 1990.

G. Guérin and T. Wils, La gestion des ressources humaines : du modèle traditionnel au modèle renouvelé, 1992.

G. Guérin, T. Wils, and L. Lemire, L'efficacit?? des pratiques de gestion des ressources humaines : le cas de la gestion des professionnels syndiqu??s au Qu??bec, Relations industrielles, vol.52, issue.1, pp.61-90, 1997.
DOI : 10.7202/051152ar

W. D. Guth and R. Taguiri, Personal values and corporate strategies, Harvard Business Review, vol.43, pp.123-132, 1965.

R. A. Guzzo, R. D. Jette, and R. A. Katzell, THE EFFECTS OF PSYCHOLOGICALLY BASED INTERVENTION PROGRAMS ON WORKER PRODUCTIVITY: A META-ANALYSIS, Personnel Psychology, vol.6, issue.2, pp.275-291, 1985.
DOI : 10.2307/255591

J. R. Hackman and G. R. Oldham, Development of the Job Diagnostic Survey., Journal of Applied Psychology, vol.60, issue.2, pp.159-170, 1975.
DOI : 10.1037/h0076546

E. T. Hall, Beyond Culture, Garden City N.Y, 1977.

G. Hamel and C. K. Prahalad, Competing for the Future, 1994.

C. Hampden-turner and F. Trompenaars, Au-delà du choc des cultures : dépasser les oppositions pour mieux travailler ensemble, 2004.

G. S. Hansen and B. Wernerfelt, Determinants of firm performance: The relative importance of economic and organizational factors, Strategic Management Journal, vol.6, issue.5, pp.399-411, 1989.
DOI : 10.4159/harvard.9780674188037

M. Hashimoto, Employment and Wage Systems in Japan and Their Implications for Productivity, Paying for Productivity : A Look at the Evidence, pp.245-295, 1990.

C. Hendry, Human Resource Management, 1992.

C. Hendry and A. Pettigrew, Human resource management: an agenda for the 1990s, The International Journal of Human Resource Management, vol.7, issue.1, pp.17-43, 1990.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1467-6486.1987.tb00448.x

R. L. Heneman and C. V. Hippel, The Assessment of Job Performance : Focusing Attention on Context, Process, and Group Issues The Human Resource Management Handbook, Part III, pp.79-109, 1997.

R. H. Hermanson, A Method for recording all Assets and the Resulting Accounting and Economic Implications, 1963.

F. Herzberg, Work and the Nature of Man, 1966.

L. R. Hoffman and N. R. Maier, Quality and acceptance of problem solutions by members of homogeneous and heterogeneous groups., The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, vol.62, issue.2, pp.401-407, 1961.
DOI : 10.1037/h0044025

G. Hofstede, Motivation, leadership, and organization : Do American theories apply abroad? The applied psychology of work behavior, pp.126-154, 1980.

G. Hofstede, Culture's consequences : International differences in workrelated values, 1984.

G. Hofstede, Culture and Organizations, International Studies of Management & Organization, vol.29, issue.2, 1991.
DOI : 10.1126/science.174.4011.795

G. Hofstede, Cultural constraints in management theories., Academy of Management Perspectives, vol.7, issue.1, pp.81-93, 1993.
DOI : 10.5465/AME.1993.9409142061

G. Hofstede, Vivre dans un monde multiculturel : comprendre nos programmations mentales, 1994.

G. Hofstede, Cultute's Consequences, 2001.

G. Hofstede and M. H. Bond, The Confucius connection: From cultural roots to economic growth, Organizational Dynamics, vol.16, issue.4, pp.4-21, 1988.
DOI : 10.1016/0090-2616(88)90009-5

J. Horovitz, Top Management in Europe, 1980.

L. W. Hunter and F. K. Pil, How do you Survey Firm? Paper presented at IRRA 47th Annual Proceedings, 1995.

M. A. Huselid, Human Resource Management Practices and Firm Performance, 1993.

DOI : 10.2307/256741

M. A. Huselid and B. E. Becker, Methodological Issues in Cross-Sectional and Panel Estimates of the HR-firm Performance Link, Industrial Relations, vol.35, issue.3, pp.400-422, 1996.

DOI : 10.5465/AMBPP.1997.4981101

M. A. Huselid, S. E. Jackson, and R. S. Schuler, TECHNICAL AND STRATEGIC HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT EFFECTIVENESS AS DETERMINANTS OF FIRM PERFORMANCE., Academy of Management Journal, vol.40, issue.1, pp.171-188, 1997.
DOI : 10.2307/257025

C. Ichniowski, Human Resource Management Systems and the Performance of U.S. Manufacturing Business, NBER Working Paper, 1990.

C. Ichniowski, Human Resource Practices and Productive Labor-Management Relations, Research Frontiers in Industrial Relations and Human Resources: Industrial Relations Research Association Series, pp.239-271, 1992.

C. Ichniowski, T. A. Kochan, D. Levine, C. Olson, and G. Strauss, What Works at Work : Overview and Assessment, Industrial Relations, vol.35, issue.3, pp.299-333, 1996.
DOI : 10.1017/cbo9780511620027.002

URL : http://dspace.mit.edu/bitstream/1721.1/2610/1/SWP-3886-34616085.pdf

C. Ichniowski and K. Shaw, The Effects of Human Resource Management Systems on Economic Performance: An International Comparison of U.S. and Japanese Plants, Management Science, vol.45, issue.5, pp.704-721, 1999.
DOI : 10.1287/mnsc.45.5.704

C. Ichniowski, K. Shaw, and G. Pennushi, The effects of human resource management practices on productivity, 1993.
DOI : 10.3386/w5333

C. Ichniowski, K. Shaw, and G. Prennushi, The Effects of Human Resource Management Practices on Productivity : A Study of Steel Finishing Lines, The American Economic Review, vol.87, issue.3, pp.291-313, 1997.
DOI : 10.3386/w5333

A. Inkeles, What is sociology : an Introduction to the Discipline and Profession, 1964.

H. Itami, Mobilizing Invisible Assets, 1987.

S. E. Jackson, Consequences of group composition for the interpersonal dynamics of strategic issue processing, Advances in strategic management, pp.345-382, 1992.

S. E. Jackson, K. E. May, W. , and K. , Understanding the dynamics of diversity in decision making teams, Team effectiveness and decision making in organizations, pp.204-261, 1995.

S. E. Jackson and R. S. Schuler, Understanding Human Resource Management in the Context of Organizations and their Environments, Annual Review of Psychology, vol.46, issue.1, pp.237-264, 1995.
DOI : 10.1146/annurev.ps.46.020195.001321

S. E. Jackson, R. S. Schuler, and J. C. Rivero, ORGANIZATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS AS PREDICTORS OF PERSONNEL PRACTICES, Personnel Psychology, vol.1, issue.4, pp.727-786, 1989.
DOI : 10.2307/2094862

A. M. Jaeger, Organization Development and National Culture: Where's the Fit?, The Academy of Management Review, vol.11, issue.1, pp.178-190, 1986.
DOI : 10.2307/258339

P. Jalette, El impacto de las relaciones industriales sobre el rendimiento organizacional, Relations industrielles, vol.57, issue.3, 1997.
DOI : 10.7202/602026ar

D. C. Jones, T. Kato, and J. And-pliskin, Profit Sharing and Gain Sharing : A Review of Theory, Incidence, and Effects The Human Resource Management Handbook, pp.153-173, 1997.

A. L. Kalleberg, D. Knoke, P. V. Marsden, and J. L. Spaeth, The National Organizations Study, American Behavioral Scientist, vol.37, issue.7, pp.860-871, 1994.
DOI : 10.1126/science.240.4855.991

R. N. Kanungo and M. Mendonca, Compensation : Effective Reward Management, 1997.

M. D. Kaplowitz, T. D. Hadlock, and R. Levine, A Comparison of Web and Mail Survey Response Rates, Public Opinion Quarterly, vol.119, issue.1, pp.94-101, 2004.
DOI : 10.1177/089443930202000103

H. C. Katz and R. L. Kahn, The Social Psychology of Organizations, 1978.

H. C. Katz, T. A. Kochan, and K. R. Gobeille, Industrial Relations Performance, Economic Performance, and QWL Programs: An Interplant Analysis, ILR Review, vol.37, issue.1, pp.3-17, 1983.
DOI : 10.1177/001979398303700101

H. C. Katz, T. A. Kochan, K. , and J. H. , Industrial Relations and Productivity in the U.S. Automobile Industry, Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, vol.1987, issue.3, pp.685-715, 1987.
DOI : 10.2307/2534452

B. E. Kaufman, The Origins & Evolution of the Field of Industrial Relations in the United States, 1993.

M. R. Kelley, Participative Bureaucracy and Productivity in the Machined Products Sector, Industrial Relations, vol.32, issue.11, pp.374-399, 1996.
DOI : 10.2307/2095101

D. Ketchen, J. Combs, C. Russell, C. Shook, M. Dean et al., Organizational Configurations and Performance : A Meta- Analysis, pp.223-240, 1997.

M. Kleiner, R. N. Block, M. Roomkin, S. W. Salsburg, and . Eds, Human Resources and the Performance of the Firm, Industrial Relations Research Association Series, 1987.

M. Kleiner and M. Bouillon, Providing Business Information to Production Workers: Correlates of Compensation and Profitability, ILR Review, vol.19, issue.4, pp.605-617, 1988.
DOI : 10.2307/1924932

M. Kleiner and M. Bouillon, Information Sharing of Sensitive Business Data with Employees, Industrial Relations, vol.19, issue.3, pp.480-491, 1991.
DOI : 10.1086/258464

M. Kleiner and T. S. Han, Employee Communications : An Overview The Human Resource Management Handbook, pp.87-110, 1997.

F. R. Kluckhohn and F. L. Strodtbeck, Variations in value orientations, 1961.

T. A. Kochan, H. C. Katz, and R. B. Mckersie, The Transformation of American Industrial Relations, 1986.

T. A. Kochan, R. B. Mckersie, C. , and P. , Strategic Choice and Industrial Relations Theory, Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economy and Society, vol.XXI, issue.1, pp.16-39, 1984.
DOI : 10.1007/978-1-349-00372-3

T. A. Kochan and P. Osterman, The Mutual Gains Enterprise, 1994.

J. P. Kotter and J. L. Heskett, Corporate culture and performance, 1992.

A. L. Kroeber and C. Kluckhohn, Culture : a critical review of concepts and definition. Papers of the peabody museum of archeology and ethnology, pp.1-223, 1952.

U. S. Labor, High Performance Work Practices and Firm Performance, 1993.

G. Labrecque, Monnaie, banque et crédit au Canada. Québec: Les presses de l, 1983.

A. A. Lado and M. C. Wilson, Human Resource Systems and Sustained Competitive Advantage : A Competency-Based Perspective, Academy of Management Review, vol.19, issue.4, pp.699-729, 1994.

É. Lamarque, Gestion bancaire, 2003.

V. Larouche, Inventaire de satisfaction au travail : validation. Relations Industrielles, pp.343-373, 1975.
DOI : 10.7202/028629ar

URL : http://www.erudit.org/fr/revues/ri/1975-v30-n3-ri2831/028629ar.pdf

G. P. Latham and K. N. Wexley, Increasing Productivity Through Performance Appraisal, 1982.

A. Laurent, The cultural diversity of western conceptions of management. International Studies of Management and Organizations, pp.75-96, 1983.

A. Laurent, The cross-cultural puzzle of international human resource management, Human Resource Management, vol.22, issue.1, pp.91-102, 1986.
DOI : 10.1080/00208825.1983.11656359

E. E. Lawler, Strategic Pay, 1990.

E. E. Lawler, The Ultimate Advantage : Creating the High Involvement Organization, 1992.

E. E. Lawler, Strategic Human Resource Management : An Idea Whose Time Has Come Managing Human Resources in the 1990s and Beyond : Is the Workplace Being Transformed ?, pp.46-70, 1995.

E. E. Lawler, S. A. Mohrman, and G. E. Ledford, Employee Involvement and Total Quality Management : Practices and Results in Fortune 1000 Companies, 1992.

E. E. Lawler, S. A. Mohrman, and G. E. Ledford, Creating high performance organizations, Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources, vol.43, issue.1, 1995.
DOI : 10.1177/1038411105050304

P. R. Lawrence and J. W. Lorsch, Organization and Environment, 1967.

G. E. Ledford, Paying for the Skills, Knowledge, and Competencies of Knowledge Workers, Compensation & Benefits Review, vol.27, issue.4, pp.52-62, 1995.
DOI : 10.1177/088636879502700409

J. Lefkowitz, RACE AS A FACTOR IN JOB PLACEMENT: SERENDIPITOUS FINDINGS OF "ETHNIC DRIFT", Personnel Psychology, vol.42, issue.3, pp.497-513, 1994.
DOI : 10.1037/0021-9010.76.6.897

K. Legge, Human Resource Management : A Critical Analysis, New Perspectives on Human Resource Management, pp.19-40, 1989.

K. Legge, The Morality of HRM, Experiencing Human Resource Management, pp.14-30, 1998.
DOI : 10.4135/9781446280263.n2

C. A. Lengnick-hall and M. L. Hall, Strategic Human Resource Management : A Review of the Literature and a Proposed Typology, Academy of Management Review, vol.13, pp.454-470, 1988.

B. Lévesque, Coopération et syndicalisme : le cas des relations de travail dans les caisses populaires Desjardins. Relations industrielles, pp.13-43, 1991.

D. I. Levine, Reinventing the Workplace : How Business and Employees can Both Win. 183-243, 1995.

D. I. Levine, Team Production, 1997.

. Zaidi, The Human Resource Management Handbook, pp.35-61

D. I. Levine, T. , and L. A. , Participation, Productivity, and the Firm's Environment, Paying for Productivity : A Look at the Evidence, 1990.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1467-8543.1987.tb00702.x

C. Lévi-strauss, Les structures élémentaires de la parenté, 1967.
DOI : 10.1515/9783110226089

C. Lévi-strauss, Anthropologie structurale, 1974.

R. Likert, The Human Organization, 1967.

R. Linton, The Cultural Background of Personality, 1945.

F. Luthans, D. B. Welsh, R. , and S. A. , What Do Russian Managers Really Do? An Observational Study with Comparisons to U.S. Managers, Journal of International Business Studies, vol.24, issue.4, pp.741-761, 1993.
DOI : 10.1057/palgrave.jibs.8490253

C. Mabey, T. Clark, and D. Skinner, Getting the Story Straight, Experiencing Human Resource Management, pp.237-244, 1998.
DOI : 10.4135/9781446280263.n14

C. Mabey, G. Salaman, and J. Storey, Human Resource Management : A Strategic Introduction, 1998.

C. Mabey, D. Skinner, C. , and T. , Experiencing Human Resource Management, 1998.
DOI : 10.4135/9781446280263

J. P. Macduffie, Human Resource Bundles and Manufacturing Performance: Organizational Logic and Flexible Production Systems in the World Auto Industry, ILR Review, vol.4, issue.1, pp.197-221, 1995.
DOI : 10.1287/orsc.1.1.99

J. P. Macduffie and J. F. Krafcik, Integrating Technology and Human Resources for High-Performance Manufacturing : Evidence from the International Auto Industry, Transforming Organizations, pp.209-226, 1992.

B. Malinowski, Une théorie scientifique de la culture et autres essais, 1968.
DOI : 10.1522/cla.mab.the

P. Martin, Inside the Bank of Canada's Weekly Financial Statistic: A technical Guide, 1985.

A. H. Maslow, The psychology of science: a reconnaissance, 1966.

M. Mauss, Sociologie et anthropologie, 2001.
DOI : 10.3917/puf.maus.2013.01

E. Mayo, The human problems of an industrial civilzation, 1960.

M. L. Maznevski, Understanding Our Differences: Performance in Decision-Making Groups with Diverse Members, Human Relations, vol.47, issue.5, pp.531-552, 1994.
DOI : 10.1016/0147-1767(89)90017-5

R. Mcbain, Human resources management : International human resource management. Manager Update, pp.21-34, 2002.

M. W. Mccall, High Flyers : Developing the Next Generation of Leaders, 1997.

D. Mcgregor, The Human Side of Enterprises, 1960.

P. L. Mcleod and S. A. Lobel, The effects of ethnic diversity on idea generation in small groups, 1992.

G. C. Mcmahan, M. Virick, W. , and P. M. , Alternative Theoretical Perspectives for Strategic Human Resource Management Revisited : Progress, Problems, and Prospects, Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management : Strategic Human Resources Management in the Twenty-First Century, pp.99-122, 1999.

R. E. Miles and C. C. Snow, Organizational Strategy, Structure and Processes, 1978.

R. E. Miles and C. C. Snow, Designing strategic human resources systems, Organizational Dynamics, vol.13, issue.1, pp.36-52, 1984.
DOI : 10.1016/0090-2616(84)90030-5

P. Milgrom and J. Roberts, Complementarities and fit strategy, structure, and organizational change in manufacturing, Journal of Accounting and Economics, vol.19, issue.2-3, pp.179-208, 1995.
DOI : 10.1016/0165-4101(94)00382-F

K. I. Miller and P. R. Monge, PARTICIPATION, SATISFACTION, AND PRODUCTIVITY: A META-ANALYTIC REVIEW., Academy of Management Journal, vol.29, issue.4, pp.727-753, 1986.
DOI : 10.2307/255942

F. J. Milliken and L. L. Martins, Searching for common threads: Understanding the multiple effects of diversity in organizational groups, The Academy of Management Review, vol.21, pp.402-433, 1996.

H. T. Mintzberg, The Structuring of Organizations, 1979.
DOI : 10.1007/978-1-349-20317-8_23

D. Mitchell, D. Lewin, and E. Lawler, Alternative Pay Systems, Firm Performance, and Productivity, Paying for Productivity : A Look at the Evidence, pp.15-94, 1990.

R. W. Mondy, R. M. Noe, and S. R. Premeaux, Human Resource Management, 1999.

E. M. Morin, A. Savoie, and G. Beaudin, L'efficacité de l'organisation : Théories, représentations et mesures, 1994.

M. Morishima, Information Sharing and Firm Performance in Japan, Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economy and Society, vol.XIX, issue.1, pp.37-61, 1991.
DOI : 10.1007/978-1-349-19220-5

M. H. Morris, D. L. Davis, A. , and J. W. , Fostering Corporate Entrepreneurship: Cross-Cultural Comparisons of the Importance of Individualism Versus Collectivism, Journal of International Business Studies, vol.25, issue.1, pp.65-90, 1994.
DOI : 10.1057/palgrave.jibs.8490849

T. Morris and C. M. Pavett, Management Style and Productivity in Two Cultures, Journal of International Business Studies, vol.23, issue.1, pp.169-179, 1992.
DOI : 10.1057/palgrave.jibs.8490264

T. Morris and A. Pinnington, Evaluating strategic fit in professional service firms, Human Resource Management Journal, vol.32, issue.3, pp.76-87, 1998.
DOI : 10.2307/258177

K. L. Newman and S. D. Nollen, Culture and Congruence: The Fit Between Management Practices and National Culture, Journal of International Business Studies, vol.27, issue.4, pp.753-778, 1996.
DOI : 10.1057/palgrave.jibs.8490152

E. Nyahoho and P. P. Proulx, Le commerce international; Théories, politiques et perspectives industrielles, 1997.

O. Reilly and B. , The Rent-a-Car Jocks Who Made Enterprise # 1, Fortune, vol.28, pp.128-134, 1996.

O. Reilly, C. A. Caldwell, D. F. Barnett, and W. P. , Work group demography, social integration, and turnover, Administrative Science Quarterly, vol.34, pp.21-37, 1989.

P. Osterman, Employment Futures : Reorganization, Dislocation, and Public Policy, 1988.

P. Osterman, How Common is Workplace Transformation and Who Adopts it ? Industrial and Labour Relations Review, pp.173-188, 1994.

P. Osterman, The Transformation of Work in the United States : What the Evidence Shows Managing Human Resources in the 1990s and Beyond : Is the Workplace Being Transformed ?, pp.71-101, 1995.

C. Ostroff, T. J. And-rothausen, C. Ostroff, T. J. Et-rothausen, D. J. Lewin et al., Selection and Job Matching The Human Resource Management Handbook, Part III, The Human Resource Management Handbook, pp.3-51, 1997.

T. Parsons, The evolution of societies, 1977.

T. J. Peters and R. H. Waterman, In Search of Excellence, Nursing Administration Quarterly, vol.8, issue.3, 1982.
DOI : 10.1097/00006216-198400830-00014

A. Petit, L. Bélanger, C. Benabou, R. Foucher, and J. Bergeron, Gestion stratégique et opérationnelle des ressources humaines, 1993.

A. Pettigrew and R. Whipp, Managing Change for Competitive Success, 1991.

J. Pfeffer, Competitive Advantage Through People, California Management Review, vol.110, issue.2, 1994.
DOI : 10.1016/0090-2616(92)90085-2

J. Pfeffer, Managing Human Resources for Competitive Advantage : Barriers to Change Managing Human Resources in the 1990s and Beyond : Is the Workplace Being Transformed ?, pp.13-45, 1995.

J. Pfeffer, When it comes to ???best practices??? ??? Why do smart organizations occasionally do dumb things?, Organizational Dynamics, vol.25, issue.1, pp.33-44, 1996.
DOI : 10.1016/S0090-2616(96)90039-X

J. Pfeffer, Seven Practices of Successful Organizations, California Management Review, vol.25, issue.2, pp.96-124, 1998.
DOI : 10.1016/S0090-2616(97)90044-9

J. Pfeffer, The Human Equation : Building Profits by Putting People First, 1998.

J. Pfeffer and G. R. Salancik, The External Control of Organizations : A Resource Dependence Perspective, 1978.

J. Pfeffer and J. F. Veiga, Putting People First for Organizational Success. The Academy of Management Executive, pp.37-48, 1999.

R. Pieper, Human resource management : An international comparison, 1991.
DOI : 10.1515/9783110869101

M. J. Piore and C. F. Sabel, Les chemins de la prospérité : de la production de masse à la spécialisation souple, 1989.

M. E. Porter, COMPETITIVE STRATEGY, Measuring Business Excellence, vol.1, issue.2, 1980.
DOI : 10.1108/eb025476

M. E. Porter, Competitive Advantage : Creating and Sustaining Superior Performance, 1985.

C. K. Prahalad and G. Hamel, The Core Competence of the Corporation, Harvard Business Review, vol.68, issue.3, pp.79-89, 1990.

J. E. Prescott, ENVIRONMENTS AS MODERATORS OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN STRATEGY AND PERFORMANCE., Academy of Management Journal, vol.29, issue.2, pp.329-346, 1986.
DOI : 10.2307/256191

J. Purcell, Best practice and best fit: chimera or cul-de-sac?, Human Resource Management Journal, vol.21, issue.6, pp.26-41, 1999.
DOI : 10.2307/256714

S. G. Redding and D. S. Pugh, The Formal and the Informal : Japanese and Chinese Organization Structures The Enterprise and Management in East Asia, pp.153-168, 1986.

R. B. Reich, The Work of Nations, 1992.

S. Rhinesmith, Cultural organizational analysis : The interralationship of values orientations and managerial behavior, 1970.

E. W. Rogers, W. , and P. M. , Measuring organizational performance in strategic human resource management: Problems, prospects and performance information markets, Human Resource Management Review, vol.8, issue.3, pp.311-331, 1998.
DOI : 10.1016/S1053-4822(98)90007-9

N. Rogovsky, IHRM practices in multinational corporations : Developing IHRM integrative framework: University of Pennsylvania, 1996.

K. W. Rondeau and T. H. Wagar, Workforce Reduction, Human Resource Management Practices, and Perception of Organizational Performance : Evidence from Canadian Hospitals. Paper presented at ASAC in St, 1997.

S. Ronen and O. Shenkar, Clustering Contries on Attitudinal Dimensions. A Review and Synthesis, Academy of Management Review, vol.10, pp.435-454, 1985.

P. Roussel and F. Wacheux, Management des ressources humaines : méthodes de recherche en sciences humaines et sociales, 2005.
DOI : 10.3917/dbu.rouss.2005.01

S. L. Rynes and B. Gerhart, INTERVIEWER ASSESSMENTS OF APPLICANT "FIT": AN EXPLORATORY INVESTIGATION, Personnel Psychology, vol.2, issue.1, pp.13-35, 1990.
DOI : 10.1037/h0035409

P. R. Sackett and C. L. Dubois, Rater-ratee race effects on performance evaluation: Challenging meta-analytic conclusions., Journal of Applied Psychology, vol.76, issue.6, pp.873-877, 1991.
DOI : 10.1037/0021-9010.76.6.873

P. R. Sackett, C. L. Dubois, N. , and A. W. , Tokenism in performance evaluation: The effects of work group representation on male-female and White-Black differences in performance ratings., Journal of Applied Psychology, vol.76, issue.2, pp.63-67, 1991.
DOI : 10.1037/0021-9010.76.2.263

N. W. Schmitt and R. J. Klimoski, Research Methods in Human Resource Management, 1991.

B. Schneider, Organizational Behavior, Annual Review of Psychology, vol.36, issue.1, pp.573-611, 1985.
DOI : 10.1146/annurev.ps.36.020185.003041

B. Schneider, THE PEOPLE MAKE THE PLACE, Personnel Psychology, vol.25, issue.3, pp.437-453, 1987.
DOI : 10.1016/0030-5073(66)90013-4

S. C. Schneider and A. Demeyer, Interpreting and responding to strategic issues: The impact of national culture, Strategic Management Journal, vol.15, issue.4, pp.307-320, 1991.
DOI : 10.2307/41165080

R. S. Schuler, A Role and Expectancy Perception Model of Participation in Decision Making., Academy of Management Journal, vol.23, issue.2, pp.331-340, 1980.
DOI : 10.2307/255435

R. S. Schuler, Personnel and Human Resource Management Choices and Organisational Strategy, Canadian Readings in Personnel and Human Resource Management, pp.3-26, 1987.
DOI : 10.1177/103841118802600108

R. S. Schuler, Strategic human resources management: Linking the people with the strategic needs of the business, Organizational Dynamics, vol.21, issue.1, pp.18-32, 1992.
DOI : 10.1016/0090-2616(92)90083-Y

R. S. Schuler, P. J. Dowling, and H. Decieri, An integrative framework of strategic international human resource management, The International Journal of Human Resource Management, vol.2, issue.4, pp.717-764, 1994.
DOI : 10.1016/1053-4822(91)90015-5

R. S. Schuler and G. W. Florkowski, International human resource management, Hanbook for international management research, pp.351-390, 1996.

R. S. Schuler, S. P. Galante, J. , and S. E. , Matching Effective HR Practices with Competitive Strategy, Personnel, vol.64, issue.9, pp.18-27, 1987.

R. S. Schuler, J. , and S. E. , Linking Competitive Strategies with Human Resource Management Practices., Academy of Management Executive, vol.1, issue.3, pp.207-219, 1987.
DOI : 10.5465/AME.1987.4275740

R. S. Schuler, S. E. Jackson, J. W. Slocum, and E. Jackofsky, Managing Human Resources in Mexico, Business Horizons, pp.55-61, 1996.

R. S. Schuler, R. , and N. , Understanding Compensation Practice Variations Across Firms: The Impact of National Culture, Journal of International Business Studies, vol.29, issue.1, pp.159-177, 1998.
DOI : 10.1057/palgrave.jibs.8490030

T. W. Schultz, Investment in Human Capital, American Economic Review, vol.51, pp.1-17, 1960.

S. H. Schwartz, Universals in the content and structure of values : Theoritical advances and empirical tests in 20 countries Advances in experimental social psychology, 1992.

S. H. Schwartz and L. Sagiv, Identifying Culture-Specifics in the Content and Structure of Values, Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, vol.51, issue.1, pp.92-116, 1995.
DOI : 10.1177/073428298900700301

V. J. Shackleton, A. , and A. H. , Work-Related Values of Managers, Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, vol.10, issue.1, pp.109-118, 1990.
DOI : 10.17730/humo.41.1.j673560x45803521

H. Shaiken, S. Lopez, and I. Mankita, Two Routes to Team Production: Saturn and Chrysler Compared, Industrial Relations, vol.36, issue.1, pp.17-45, 1997.
DOI : 10.1111/0019-8676.21997002

R. Simons, M. Shadur, and R. Kienzle, Explanations for the Relationship Between Human Resource Practices and Organizational Strategy in the Australian Mining Industry, International Journal of Employment Studies, vol.7, issue.1, pp.17-32, 1999.

K. Sisson, Personnel management in Britain, 1990.

J. W. Slocum and D. Lei, Designing global strategic alliances : Integrating cultural and economic factors, Organizational change and redesign, 1993.

S. Snell and J. Dean, INTEGRATED MANUFACTURING AND HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT: A HUMAN CAPITAL PERSPECTIVE., Academy of Management Journal, vol.35, issue.3, pp.467-504, 1992.
DOI : 10.2307/256484

S. Snell, M. Youndt, W. , and P. , Establishing a Framework for Research in Strategic Human Resource Management : Merging Resource Theory and Organizational Learning, Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management, pp.61-90, 1996.

M. Sondergaard, Hofstede's consequences : A study of reviews, citations and replications. Organization Studies, pp.447-456, 1994.

P. Sparrow, Competition and change in China : Transitions in Chinese Human resource management, 1995.

P. Sparrow and J. M. Hiltrop, European human resource management in transition, 1995.

P. Sparrow, R. S. Schuler, J. , and S. E. , Convergence or divergence: human resource practices and policies for competitive advantage worldwide, The International Journal of Human Resource Management, vol.29, issue.2, pp.267-299, 1994.
DOI : 10.2307/41162133

M. Stephen and A. Verma, Industrial Relations and Financial Performance : Evidence from Unionized Canadian Firms. Paper presented at Forum on Canadian Workplace Practices, 1995.

S. St-onge, Rémunération des compétences : où en sommes-nous? Gestion, pp.24-33, 1999.

S. St-onge, M. Audet, V. Haines, and A. Petit, Relever les défis de la gestion des ressources humaines, 1998.

S. St-onge, M. Audet, V. Haines, and A. Petit, Relever les défis de la gestion des ressources humaines, 2004.

A. Toffler and H. Toffler, Guerre et contre-guerre : survivre à l'aube du XXIè siècle, 1994.

. Towers-perrin, Priorities for Competitive Advantage, 1992.

H. C. Triandis, Review of culture's consequences. human organization, pp.86-90, 1982.

H. C. Triandis, The self and social behavior in differing cultural contexts., Psychological Review, vol.96, issue.3, pp.506-520, 1989.
DOI : 10.1037/0033-295X.96.3.506

H. C. Triandis, Culture and social behavior, 1994.

F. Trompenaars, Riding the waves of culture, 1993.

C. Truss and L. Gratton, Strategic human resource management: a conceptual approach, The International Journal of Human Resource Management, vol.23, issue.3, pp.663-686, 1994.
DOI : 10.1177/014920639201800205

A. S. Tsui, Defining the Activities and Effectiveness of the Human Resource Department: A Multiple Constituency Approach, Human Resource Management, vol.35, issue.1, pp.35-69, 1987.
DOI : 10.1002/hrm.3930260104

A. S. Tsui, T. D. Egan, O. Reilly, and C. A. , Being Different: Relational Demography and Organizational Attachment, Administrative Science Quarterly, vol.37, issue.4, pp.549-579, 1992.
DOI : 10.2307/2393472

A. S. Tsui and L. R. Gomez-mejia, Evaluating Human Resource Effectiveness, Human Resource Management : Evolving Roles & Responsibilities, pp.187-227, 1988.

A. S. Tsui, O. Reilly, and C. A. , BEYOND SIMPLE DEMOGRAPHIC EFFECTS: THE IMPORTANCE OF RELATIONAL DEMOGRAPHY IN SUPERIOR-SUBORDINATE DYADS., Academy of Management Journal, vol.32, issue.2, pp.402-423, 1989.
DOI : 10.2307/256368

E. B. Tylor, Primitive Culture, 1924.

D. Ulrich, Strategic Human Resource Planning: Why and How?, Canadian Readings in Personnel and Human Resource Management, pp.41-62, 1987.
DOI : 10.1007/978-3-322-83820-9_8

D. Ulrich, Using Human Resources for Competitive Advantage, Making Organizations Competitive, pp.129-155, 1991.

D. Ulrich, Human Resource Champions : The Next Agenda for Adding Value and Delivering Results, 1997.

D. Ulrich, Integrating Practice and Theory : Towards a More Unified View of HR, Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management: Strategic Human Resources Management in the Twenty-First Century, pp.123-144, 1999.

J. Usunier, Commerce entre cultures : Une approche culturelle du marketing international, 1992.

A. A. Vicere, New economy, new HR, Employment Relations Today, vol.27, issue.3, pp.1-11, 2000.
DOI : 10.1002/ert.3910270302

T. H. Wagar, Human Resource Management Practices and Organizational Performance : Evidence from Atlantic Canada. Queen's, 1994.

DOI : 10.2307/256012

J. W. Walker, Human Resource Strategy, 1992.

M. Warner, Book ReviewsEvans,P., Pucik,V. and Barsoux,J-L, The Global Challenge: Frameworks for International Human Resource Management, McGrawHill, 2002, ??29.99, paperback, pp. 331.Forbes,N. and Wield,D., From Leaders to Followers: Managing Technology and Innovation, London: Routledge, 2002, ??16.99, paperback, pp. 214.Hickson,D.J., and Pugh,D.S., Management Worldwide: Distinctive Styles Amid Globalization, London: Penguin Group, 2000, ??11.99, paperback, pp. 320., Journal of General Management, vol.27, issue.4, pp.79-89, 2002.
DOI : 10.1177/030630700202700406

W. E. Watson, K. Kumar, and L. K. Michaelsen, CULTURAL DIVERSITY'S IMPACT ON INTERACTION PROCESS AND PERFORMANCE: COMPARING HOMOGENEOUS AND DIVERSE TASK GROUPS., Academy of Management Journal, vol.36, issue.3, pp.590-602, 1993.
DOI : 10.2307/256593

C. L. Weber, The Effects of Human Resource Management Practices on Firm Performance : A Review of the Literature, 1994.

M. L. Weitzman and D. L. Kruse, Profit Sharing and Productivity, Paying for Productivity : A Look at the Evidence, pp.95-141, 1990.

T. M. Welbourne and A. O. Andrews, Predicting Performance of Initial Public Offering Firms : Should HRM be in the Equation ?, pp.891-919, 1996.

K. Whitfield and M. Poole, Organizing Employment for High Performance : Theories, Evidence and Policy. Organization Studies, pp.745-764, 1997.

A. L. Wilkins and W. G. Ouchi, Efficient Cultures: Exploring the Relationship Between Culture and Organizational Performance, Administrative Science Quarterly, vol.28, issue.3, pp.468-481, 1983.
DOI : 10.2307/2392253

T. Wils, C. Labelle, G. Guérin, and J. L. And-louarn, La gestion strat??gique des ressources humaines: Un reniement du r??le social de l'entreprise?, Relations industrielles, vol.44, issue.2, pp.354-375, 1989.
DOI : 10.7202/050496ar

T. Wils, J. L. Louarn, and G. Guérin, Planification stratégique des ressources humaines, 1991.

J. C. Wright and W. Mischel, A conditional approach to dispositional constructs: The local predictability of social behavior., Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol.53, issue.6, pp.1159-1177, 1987.
DOI : 10.1037/0022-3514.53.6.1159

P. M. Wright, L. Dyer, J. W. Boudreau, and G. Milkovich, Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management: Strategic Human Resources Management in the Twenty-First Century, 1999.

P. M. Wright, L. Dyer, J. W. Boudreau, and G. Milkovich, Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management: Strategic Human Resources Management in the Twenty-First Century, 1999.

P. M. Wright and G. C. Mcmahan, Theoretical Perspectives for Strategic Human Resource Management, Journal of Management, vol.14, issue.2, pp.295-320, 1992.
DOI : 10.1146/annurev.ps.35.020184.002333

P. M. Wright, G. C. Mcmahan, and A. Mcwilliams, Human resources and sustained competitive advantage: a resource-based perspective, The International Journal of Human Resource Management, vol.4, issue.2, pp.301-326, 1994.
DOI : 10.1016/1053-4822(91)90015-5

P. M. Wright and W. S. Sherman, Failing to Find Fit in Strategic Human Resource Management : Theoretical and Empirical Problems, Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management : Strategic Human Resources Management in the Twenty-First Century, pp.53-74, 1999.

P. M. Wright and S. A. Snell, Toward an integrative view of strategic human resource management, Human Resource Management Review, vol.1, issue.3, pp.203-225, 1991.
DOI : 10.1016/1053-4822(91)90015-5

P. M. Wright and S. A. Snell, Toward a Unifying Framework for Exploring Fit and Flexibility in Strategic Human Resource Management, Academy of Management Review, vol.23, issue.4, pp.756-772, 1998.

M. A. Youndt, S. A. Snell, J. W. Dean, and D. P. Lepak, HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT, MANUFACTURING STRATEGY, AND FIRM PERFORMANCE., Academy of Management Journal, vol.39, issue.4, pp.836-866, 1996.
DOI : 10.2307/256714

C. J. Zhu and P. J. Dowling, The impact of the economic system upon human resource management practices in China, Human Resource Planning, vol.17, issue.4, pp.1-21, 1994.

S. Emploi, Dans votre institution financière, 8.1 s'engager à protéger les emplois de ses travailleurs, en dépit de tous les changements prévisibles, est une activité : Fortement implantée Pas du tout implantée 1.6. Skilled-Based Pay System is an activity