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, RÉSUMÉ Le rapport isotopique de l'hélium atmosphérique (R A =

, He en provenance de la Terre

, Les activités industrielles ont émis des gaz riches en 4 He radiogénique (exploitation des combustibles fossiles

, He (activités nucléaires)

, Au cours de ces analyses, plusieurs analyses individuelles d'un échantillon d'air sont effectuées en alternance avec un standard d'air. Nous n'avons détecté aucune évidence de variation temporelle du rapport 3 He/ 4 He dans l'air de France piégé dans des boules de pétanque, Du fait de ces flux d'hélium, il a été proposé que le rapport 3 He/ 4 He dans l'air a varié dans le temps et dans l'espace. De telles variations pourraient permettre l'utilisation de ce rapport comme nouveau traceur des émissions atmosphériques de polluants anthropiques et/ou naturelles, 1910.

?. and R. , CO 2 ) simultanément émis. Ces excès sont toutefois rapidement dilués dans les masses d'air régionales. L'isolation des gaz libérés par le sol du cratère de l'Erta Ale à l'aide d'un contenant inversé placé à sa surface a permis d, Ces excès pourraient être liés aux flux d'hélium locaux par : (i) les précipitations aurorales en Antarctique ; (ii) les volcans et/ou les déchets nucléaires (Fukushima Daï-Ichi) au Japon. Dans la région de l'Afar (Éthiopie), nous avons détecté des excès en 3 He de ~1 % au-dessus du lac de lave du volcan Erta Ale, pouvant être utilisés pour tracer des gaz réactifs

, He dans l'air isolé) et en CO 2 . Globalement, cette thèse conforte l'utilisation de R A comme standard inter-laboratoire, une investigation plus poussée dans le temps devrait être effectuée pour contraindre les sources d'hélium atmosphérique pouvant engendrer de faibles variations locales

, Mots-clés : hélium, isotopes, gaz nobles, atmosphère