Étude des microstructures de déformation induites par grenaillage ultrasonique en conditions cryogéniques d'aciers inoxydables austénitiques : effet sur les propriétés en fatigue

Abstract : The surface of mechanical components is a sensitive zone subjected to particular mechanical (friction, maximum stress) and chemical (ambient atmosphere, corrosion) interactions. Hence, the rupture is generally initiated on the surface. In order to increase the global integrity of the working parts, the industrial groups are still seeking technological solutions allowing the modifications of the surface properties. Nodaway, plenty of surface modification techniques have been developed like the mechanical surface treatments. Among them, the ultrasonic shot peening (or surface mechanical attrition treatment) focus on superficially deform the mechanical parts through numerous collisions of peening medias having random trajectories inside a confined chamber. The purpose of this study is based on the analysis and the comprehension of the deformed microstructures induced by the ultrasonic shot peening treatment, especially under cryogenic temperatures. To do so, several austenitic stainless steel grades having different stabilities regarding the martensitic transformation have been treated under cryogenic conditions and compared to the properties obtained under room temperature. The first observations have shown that, after a cryogenic peening, a decrease of the subsurface hardness takes place in the stable 310S alloy which was attributed to an increase of the mechanical properties under cryogenic temperature. This phenomenon is suppressed in the metastable 304L by triggering a martensitic phase transformation promoted under low temperature and happening deeper compared to room temperature, increasing substantially the subsurface hardness. Two metastable alloys (304L and 316L) were then selected to conduct an ultrasonic shot peening parametric study including the vibration amplitude (40 and 60 µm), the treatment duration (3 and 20 min) and temperature (room temperature, -80 and -130 °C). It has been shown that increasing the treatment energy by raising the vibration amplitude and/or the duration leads to an increase of the surface and subsurface hardnesses as well as the affected layer thickness. The use of cryogenic temperatures allows an additional increase of the hardness, especially in subsurface. By comparing the different hardness gradients with the martensite distributions along the hardened layers, a direct correlation with the hardening rate and the martensite fraction was observed. The initial stability of the treated material was also taken in account by carried out additional observations on the 316L having a higher stability. The results have indicated that the deformation temperature needs to be wisely chosen regarding the stability of the processed material in order to avoid a decrease of the subsurface hardness. Finally, the deformed microstructures generated under cryogenic ultrasonic shot peening were associated to the mechanical behaviors of cylindrical specimens using rotating bending fatigue tests. Compared to a room temperature treatment, a cryogenic peening allows a decrease of the surface roughness and the generation of higher surface compressive residual stresses by the formation of martensite. However, compared to a room temperature treatment, the fatigue behavior was not increased after a cryogenic peening because of a more pronounced surface residual stress relaxation and a reduction of the affected layer. However, the potential increase of the fatigue life after a cryogenic surface deformation was depicted by the study of the rupture surfaces. It was observed that, if the involvement of the surface defects introduced by the high surface roughness can be lowered, a single subsurface crack initiation can be produced increasing considerably the fatigue behavior of the processed material
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Marc Novelli. Étude des microstructures de déformation induites par grenaillage ultrasonique en conditions cryogéniques d'aciers inoxydables austénitiques : effet sur les propriétés en fatigue. Science des matériaux [cond-mat.mtrl-sci]. Université de Lorraine; École de technologie supérieure (Montréal, Canada), 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017LORR0239⟩. ⟨tel-01907899⟩

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