Étude expérimentale et simulation numérique de l’usinage des matériaux en nids d’abeilles : application au fraisage des structures Nomex® et Aluminium

Abstract : The use of sandwich structures made with honeycomb core and skins has considerably increased these last years in several industrial sectors such as aeronautics, aerospace, naval and automotive. This growing interest for the alveolar materials is mainly related to their low density and better mass/stiffness/strength ratio compared to metal alloys or conventional composites. However, their constitution makes machining operations complicated and difficult to control because of the premature cutting tool wear and the significant damage induced in the workpiece. In fact, the important vibrations of the thin honeycomb walls are a source of several problems such as the poor surface quality, uncut fibers, delamination, defects, etc. This work deals with the understanding of the honeycomb composites behavior and metallic during machining. The material removal process by milling of these materials presents several scientific and technological challenges. Firstly, an experimental analysis has been used to identify the physical phenomena involved during the chip formation process and generated by the interactions between the cutting edge and the honeycomb cell walls. A particular interest was focused on the characterization of defects induced in the material by different parts of the cutter, the shredder and the saw blade. Two experimental protocols have been set up to qualify the quality and integrity of the machined surface. They consider the particularity of the honeycomb cores: composite or metallic, their geometry, and the thin wall thickness. A new quality criterion has been established and proposed as a damage indicator to monitoring the machining process and choice optimal cutting conditions. Based on Taguchi's statistical analysis, a hierarchy of the machining parameters and their influence on the behavior of these materials have then realized. In addition, the wear of cutting tools has been studied according to the selected tool-material couple and milling conditions. The optimization of machining parameters is often long and expensive only via experimental approach. Modelling and numerical simulation can provide complementary support with an interesting numerical tool to analyze the physics of cutting honeycombs. In this perspective and in the second part of the PhD thesis, a finite element numerical model has been especially developed for the 3D milling operation. For Nomex®, two coupled mechanical-damage behavior laws have been identified and implemented in Abaqus explicit subroutine VUMAT. To simulate the chip formation process and induced subsurface damage, two fracture criteria (Hashin and Tsai-Wu) with stiffness degradation concept have been operated. The comparison between the numerical simulation results and experimental data shows a good agreement in terms of the chip formation mechanisms, cutting forces and damage modes.
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Mohamed Jaafar. Étude expérimentale et simulation numérique de l’usinage des matériaux en nids d’abeilles : application au fraisage des structures Nomex® et Aluminium. Matériaux. Université de Lorraine, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018LORR0303⟩. ⟨tel-02110350⟩

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