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Modalités de régulation d’ERα36 et leurs conséquences sur la physiopathologie de la glande mammaire

Abstract : The estrogen nuclear receptors, represented by the canonical forms ERα66 and ERβ1, are the main mediators of the estrogenic effects in mammals. These hormones, which regulate the physiological development of the mammary gland, participate in the initiation and progression of breast cancer. In fact, ERα66 expression is a key molecular classifier of breast tumors used in order to guide the therapeutic strategies toward hormonotherapy. However, in 30% of cases, therapeutic failures are observed, which highlights the importance of identifying new biomarkers. The estrogen receptor variant, ERα36, has been cloned in 2005 and mainly described in the literature to be involved in the progression of mammary tumors and in the acquired resistance to anti-estrogen drugs, such as Tamoxifen. Even if a high expression of ERα36 in breast cancer cells appears to be associated with a poor prognosis, few data are available concerning its role in the normal development of the mammary gland. Therefore, the aim of this work was to determine the role of ERα36 in the physiological development of the mammary gland. Thanks to a multidisciplinary approach, that combines in vivo studies on MMTV-ERα36 transgenic mice, and in vitro and in silico studies on immortalized normal epithelial mammary cells (MCF-10A), we showed that ERα36 expression is sufficient to disturb the mammary epithelial cells phenotype, leading to the emergence of structural alterations of mammary ducts at adulthood. Moreover, we showed that exposure to the estrogen mimicking compounds alkylphenols stimulates the endogenous expression of this variant in MCF-10A cells, and increases their migratory ability. Then, in order to get a better understanding of ERα36 contribution to tumor initiation and/or progression, we studied classical and epigenetic regulation of this variant expression in breast cancer cells. Our results show that ERα36 expression is positively correlated with the methylation status of its promoter region, and that the ERα36 mRNA is the target of the microRNA, has-miR-136-5p. Finally, the last aim of this work was to develop a bioinformatic approach in order to study the ERα36 partners. To summarize, all of this work falls within a need of the current breast tumor molecular classification refinement by adding a component related with ERα36 expression.
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Submitted on : Friday, November 29, 2019 - 3:38:10 PM
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Charlène Thiebaut. Modalités de régulation d’ERα36 et leurs conséquences sur la physiopathologie de la glande mammaire. Cancer. Université de Lorraine, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019LORR0090⟩. ⟨tel-02387078⟩

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