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Personalised medicine approaches for investigation and application of new biomarkers

Abstract : The fight against common chronic diseases requires the implementation of new risk prediction and prevention strategies. Personalised medicine offers sophisticated approaches for management of the morbidities of the ageing population. In this thesis, inspired by the principles of personalised medicine, we describe an integrative approach combining “-omics” methodologies. We use a model of a “common denominator” for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and other chronic diseases to identify biomarkers linked with common diseases risk factors and molecular pathways. With the investigation of genetic variants, located in the region of the TREM2 gene, we identified the association of SNP rs6918289 with increased levels of TNF-α and intima-media thickness of the femoral artery. With the use of epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS), we identified novel epigenetic biomarkers related to common diseases risk factors: central obesity and lipid levels. One methylation site (CpG) was associated with increased waist circumference (cg16170243), which could explain the epigenetic regulation of central obesity. Moreover, an EWAS of the triglyceride levels identified two significant CpG sites, one of which was replicated in the adipose tissue (cg04580029), giving insights into epigenetic regulation of lipid levels. An EWAS was also used to study the epigenetics of VEGF-A levels; 20 CpG sites were identified and their relations with VEGF-A regulation were analysed through detailed bioinformatics analysis. VEGF-A was further investigated for its relation with 11 cytokines. VEGF-A protein levels were associated with IL-4, MCP1 and EGF. Specific VEGF-A mRNA isoforms were also investigated for their association with cytokines; VEGF165 showed associations with MCP1 and IL-1α and VEGF189 with IL-4 and IL-6. Together with another important biomarker, TL, we studied the role of VEGF-A in atherosclerosis and identified one VEGF-A related genetic variant associated with telomere attrition, which could present a common denominator of chronic diseases. The employment of diverse methodologies for the investigation of common chronic diseases risk factors and pathways provided new diagnostic markers and generated results, which could help to improve the diseases risk prediction based on the individual genetic “make-up”. New insights into associations between different biomarkers might help in understanding the pathophysiological pathways common between CVDs and other chronic diseases.
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https://hal.univ-lorraine.fr/tel-02397858
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  • HAL Id : tel-02397858, version 1

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Vesna Gorenjak. Personalised medicine approaches for investigation and application of new biomarkers. Biochemistry, Molecular Biology. Université de Lorraine, 2019. English. ⟨NNT : 2019LORR0106⟩. ⟨tel-02397858⟩

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