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, Ces modèles microscopiques de CPG sont utilisés pour modéliser des réseaux neuronaux ressemblant à des CPG naturels [41, 63, 64] et pour étudier la neurophysiologie des CPG biologiques, vol.65

, Une caractéristique distinctive des modèles mésoscopiques est un réseau interconnecté de deux ou plusieurs RG qui produisent des oscillations. Parmi les principaux modèles mésoscopiques, Les modèles mésoscopiques simulent le comportement fonctionnel des réseaux de CPG. Ils sont composés d'un ou plusieurs neurones d'architecture unique appelés générateurs de rythme (RG) et de certains périphériques ou interneurones autour de RG

, Les modèles macroscopiques de CPG orent une seule unité entière produisant les motifs rythmiques souhaités. L'oscillateur de Hopf, tres répandu, a été utilisé par Righetti & Ijspeert [75] comme CPG pour contrôler un robot bipède. Un modèle de CPG construit comme une machine à état

, Malgré l'origine du CPG élément de la structure de diérents groupes de neurones dans les segments de la moelle épinière, les modèles de CPG articiel sont également largement utilisés dans le contrôle bio-inspiré des robots. Bien que l'objectif soit biologique, pour contrôler les muscles, Tous les modèles de CPG mentionnés ont été appliqués dans divers domaines

, être structurellement biologique, mais uniquement bio-inspiré. Dans ce travail de thèse, une version modiée du modèle de CPG de Rowat-Selverston a été utilisée pour générer les excitations musculaires du modèle musculo-squelettique humain. Le modèle de CPG utilisé est soutenu par deux études neurophysiologiques

L. De-rybak, 41] pour un CPG à deux niveaux qui sépare le timing et l'activation du cycle de locomotion. La gure C.1 présente le schéma général du CPG à deux couches, plus les motoneurones et les retours sensoriels aérents avec une architecture de type demi-centre. Les oscillations sont générées au niveau de la couche supérieure dite Rhythm generation (RG) puis transmises à la couche pattern formation (PF)

, De plus, le modèle inclut explicitement le contrôleur supérieur et les neurones sensoriels de rétroaction (SN) qui façonnent l'activité des neurones CPG. Ces neurones sont de deux types: les propriocepteurs de la boucle de rétroaction musculaire (type Ia, Ib et II ) et les extérocepteurs de l'environnement

, Les modes et l'activité du modèle sont contrôlés par un contrôleur de niveau supérieur situé dans le cerveau (par exemple MLR) qui fait varier la fréquence des motifs générés, qui réinitialise la phase et qui peut bloquer le signal de contrôle

, Le modèle de neurone oscillant de Rowat-Selverston peut être réécrit comme un oscillateur de Van der

, Pol généralisé an d'y insérer une règle d'apprentissage hebbien, vol.72

, Deux neurones couplés inhibiteurs forment alors une unité oscillante (couche RG) du CPG

, La fonction d'activation des neurones est sigmoïdale, tels que proposé auparavant par Nassour et al

, Les neurones sensoriels (SN), à la fois proprioceptifs et extéroceptifs, fournissent une rétroaction au contrôleur. Les neurones proprioceptifs renvoient les informations de l'intérieur du corps, tels que les valeurs articulaires ou musculaires